Júlio de Castilhos, Brazil
Júlio de Castilhos, Brazil

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Santos B.M.D.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Balbuena T.S.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2017

Photosynthetic organisms may be drastically affected by the future climate projections of a considerable increase in CO2 concentrations. Growth under a high concentration of CO2 could stimulate carbon assimilation—especially in C3-type plants. We used a proteomics approach to test the hypothesis of an increase in the abundance of the enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla plants grown under conditions of high atmospheric CO2. Our strategy allowed the profiling of all Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and associated protein species. Among the 816 isolated proteins, those involved in carbon fixation were found to be the most abundant ones. An increase in the abundance of six key enzymes out of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation was detected in plants grown at a high CO2 concentration. Proteome changes were corroborated by the detection of a decrease in the stomatal aperture and in the vascular bundle area in Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets grown in an environment of high atmospheric CO2. Our proteomics approach indicates a positive metabolic response regarding carbon fixation in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. The slight but significant increase in the abundance of the Calvin enzymes suggests that stomatal closure did not prevent an increase in the carbon assimilation rates. Biological significance The sample enrichment strategy and data analysis used here enabled the identification of all enzymes and most protein isoforms involved in the Calvin-Benson-Bessham cycle in Eucalyptus urophylla. Upon growth in CO2-enriched chambers, Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets responded by reducing the vascular bundle area and stomatal aperture size and by increasing the abundance of six of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation. Our proteome approach provides an estimate on how a commercially important C3-type plant would respond to an increase in CO2 concentrations. Additionally, confirmation at the protein level of the predicted genes involved in carbon assimilation may be used in plant transformation strategies aiming to increase plant adaptability to climate changes or to increase plant productivity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Embrapa Suinos e Aves, Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho, Embrapa Rondonia and Federal University of São Carlos
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ticks and tick-borne diseases | Year: 2016

The levels of infection by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina were estimated by absolute quantification through the quantitative PCR technique (qPCR). Fifty-one contemporaneous Angus cattle were evaluated on two occasions. The number of standard female Rhipicephalus microplus ticks present on the left side of the body was counted and blood samples were drawn from the tail vein into tubes containing the anticoagulant EDTA. The blood samples were submitted to DNA extraction and used to quantify the number of copies (NC) of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina by qPCR. The data on tick count and number of DNA copies were transformed for normalization and analyzed by a mixed model method. A multivariate model with repeated measures of the same animal, including the effects of collection, parasite species and their interaction, was used. The repeatability values were obtained from the matrix of (co)variances and were expressed for each species. The correlations between the counts of different species on the same animal, in the same collection or different collections, were also estimated. The results showed the qPCR could distinguish the two between infection by the two Babesia species. Infection levels by B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 100% and 98% of the animals, respectively. Significant differences were found (P<0.05) between the NC of the two Babesia species, B. bovis 1.490.07 vs. B. bigemina 0.820.06. Low repeatabilities were found for the counts of R. microplus and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.02, respectively. The correlations between R. microplus count and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina were both very near zero. However, an association was observed between the NC of the two species, with a correlation coefficient of 0.30 for measures from the same collection. The absence of associations between the quantity of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina and the tick counts suggests that the variation of parasitemia by the hemoparasites did not depend on the tick infestation levels at the moment of each collection. The repeatability values estimated indicate that under the study conditions, the variations in the tick infestation levels and of parasitemia by B. bovis and B. bigemina depend more on factors related to each collection than on intrinsic factors of the animal.

Pinto M.C.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Bray D.P.,Keele University | Eiras A.E.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Carvalheira H.P.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Puertas C.P.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Laboratory studies of host-seeking olfactory behaviour in sandflies have largely been restricted to the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In comparison, almost nothing is known about the chemical ecology of related species, which transmit American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), due in part to difficulties in raising these insects in the laboratory. Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease. Methods. This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of the ACL vector Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (=Lutzomyia neivai) using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The primary aim was to determine whether field-collected female N. neivai would respond to host odours in the laboratory, thereby eliminating the need to maintain colonies of these insects for behavioural experiments. Responses to two key host odour components, 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid, and a commercially-available mosquito lure (BG-Lure) were assessed and compared relative to an air control. We also tested whether trials could be conducted outside of the normal evening activity period of N. neivai without impacting on fly behaviour, and whether the same flies could be used to assess baseline responses to air without affecting responses to octenol, thereby reducing the number of flies required for experiments. Results: Octenol was found to both activate host-seeking behaviour and attract female N. neivai in the wind tunnel, while lactic acid elicited weaker responses of activation and attractiveness under identical conditions. The BG-Lure did not activate or attract N. neivai under test conditions. Further experiments showed that sandfly behaviour in the wind tunnel was not affected by time of day, such that experiments need not be restricted to nocturnal hours. Moreover, using the same flies to measure both baseline responses to air and attraction to test compounds did not affect odour-seeking behaviour. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that N. neivai taken from the field are suitable for use in laboratory olfactometer experiments. It is hoped this work will facilitate further research into chemical ecology of this species, and other ACL vectors. © 2012 Pinto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Takahashi M.B.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Rocha J.C.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Nunez E.G.F.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2016

This work objective was to define a modeling approach based on genetic algorithm (GA) for optimizing parameters of an artificial neural network (ANN); the latter describes rabies virus production in BHK-21 cells based on empirical data derived from uniform designs (UDs) with different numbers of experimental runs. The parameters considered for viral infection were temperature (34 and 37 °C), multiplicity of infection (0.04, 0.07, and 0.1), infection, and harvest times (24, 48, and 72 h), with virus production as the monitored output variable. A multilevel factorial experimental design was performed and used to train, validate, and test the ANN. Its experimental fractions (18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 runs) defined by UDs were used to simulate the neural architectures. In GA, the neural computing parameters constituted the population individuals, and the steps involved were population creation, selection, and replacement by crossover and mutation. The ANN optimized by the combined algorithm showed a good calibration for all UDs under consideration, thus demonstrating to be suitable (R > 0.85) as a correlation method in UDs independent of the experimental runs developed. Therefore, this work could guide researchers in the efficient use of UDs in the simulation and optimization of virus production processes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Demoner L.D.C.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Rubini A.S.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | dos Santos Paduan K.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Metzger B.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | And 4 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2013

Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n= 30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n= 15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n= 165) and A. cajennense (n= 114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from RondÔnia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

Ribeiro A.R.,University of Campinas | Mendonca V.J.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Alves R.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Martinez I.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | And 3 more authors.
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

Objective: Collection of triatomines in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments in states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Northeastern and Southern Brazil respectively, and isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Methods: First, the captured triatomines were identified using insect identification keys, then their intestinal content was examined by abdominal compression, and the samples containing trypanosomatid forms wereinoculated in LIT medium and Swiss mice. Results: Six triatomine species were collected in cities in Bahia, namely Panstrongylus geniculatus (01), Triatoma melanocephala (11), T. lenti (94), T. pseudomaculata (02), T. sherlocki (26) and T. sordida (460), and two in cities in Rio Grande do Sul, namely T. circummaculata (11) and T. rubrovaria (115). Out of the specimens examined, T. cruzi was isolated from 28 triatomine divided into four different species: T. melanocephala (one), T. lenti (one), T. rubrovaria (16) and T. sordida (10). Their index of natural infection by T. cruzi was 6.4%. Conclusions: The isolation of T. cruzi strains from triatomines found in domestic and peridomestic areas shows the potential risk of transmission of Chagas disease in the studied cities. The maintenance of those T. cruzi strains in laboratory is intended to promote studies that facilitate the understanding of the parasite-vector-host relationship.

Oliveira Lavinsky M.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Said R.A.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Strenzel G.M.R.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Langoni H.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in dogs living in the urban area of the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate 24 serovars. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect data about demography, husbandry and environmental factors. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in the population of 282 dogs was 7.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-10.7%). Serovar Copenhageni was the most prevalent, followed by serovars Bratislava, Canicola and Gryppotyphosa. No risk factor was detected with regard to demography (age, gender and breed), husbandry (Leptospira vaccinations, food and water exposure through their environment, hunting habits, contact with other animals and contact with rats) and environmental factors (sewage network, garbage collection, history of flooding, river proximity and wastelands). Despite the low prevalence found in this study, the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in healthy dogs in Ilhéus indicates the presence of this agent in the environment, which may be a source of human infection. Knowledge of the serovars present in this environment is important for understanding the epidemiology of leptospirosis and establishing public health policies aimed at its control. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Bucuvic E.M.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992) | Year: 2011

This study aims to evaluate the outcome of AKI patients caused by acute tubular necrosis admitted in clinical and surgical units of Botucatu Medical School University Hospital - UNESP. This is a retrospective cohort study with 477 adult patients were observed from January 2001 to December 2008. AKI was defined according to serum creatinine levels as proposed by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). The mean age was 65.5 ± 162 years. The majority of the patients were males (62%) older than 60 years (65.2%). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 61.9%, high blood pressure in 44.4% and chronic kidney disease 21.8% of the patients. Death occurred 66% of dialysis requirement, critical care unit admission, age > 60 years and lower attendance time by nephrologists were significant and independently associated with death risk. The renal recorery among survivors was of 96.9%. This work shows that the evolution of AKI patients from clinical and surgical wards is similar to literature. However, the high mortality of the group shows the necessity of identifying risk factors for the development of AKI in these patients and training staff assistant for the early diagnosis of this syndrome.

Forecast is the act of estimating a future event based on current data. Ten-day period (TDP) meteorological data were used for modeling: mean air temperature, precipitation and water balance components (water deficit (DEF) and surplus (EXC) and soil water storage (SWS)). Meteorological and yield data from 1990-2004 were used for calibration, and 2005-2010 were used for testing. First step was the selection of variables via correlation analysis to determine which TDP and climatic variables have more influence on the crop yield. The selected variables were used to construct models by multiple linear regression, using a stepwise backwards process. Among all analyzed models, the following was notable: Yield = - 4.964 × [SWS of 2° TDP of December of the previous year (OPY)] – 1.123 × [SWS of 2° TDP of November OPY] + 0.949 × [EXC of 1° TDP of February of the productive year (PY)] + 2.5 x [SWS of 2° TDP of February OPY] + 19.125 × [EXC of 1° TDP of May OPY] – 3.113 × [EXC of 3° TDP of January OPY] + 1.469 × [EXC of 3 TDP of January of PY] + 3920.526, with MAPE = 5.22%, R2 = 0.58 and RMSEs = 111.03 kg ha-1. © 2015, Eduem - Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringa. All rights reserved.

Rosa J.M.O.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Westerich J.N.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho | Wilcken S.R.S.,University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2015

Meloidogyne enterolobii is considered to be an aggressive root-knot species. The goal of this work was determine the M. enterolobii reproduction factor on 42 vegetable crops and on 18 plants used as green manure. The experiments were carried in a greenhouse. The substrate inoculation was made with 5,000 eggs and second stage juveniles of M. enterolobii/plot. The experimental delineations were entirely randomized, with six replications. Resistance was found in 'Brasília', 'Brasília Irecê' and 'Planeta' carrot, 'Grand Rapids' lettuce; 'Tokyo' and 'Nebuka' chive; 'Poró Gigante' leeks; 'Comum HT' and 'Graúda Portuguesa' parsley and all brassicas plants studied: 'Teresópolis Gigante' and 'Piracicaba Precoce' cauliflower; 'Chato de Quintal' and 'Coração de Boi' cabbage, 'Piracicaba', 'Brasília', 'Santana' and 'Cabeça' broccoli and 'Bruxelas' and 'Tronchuda Portuguesa' cole. Lollium multiflorum, Crotalaria breviflora, C. juncea, C. spectabilis, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca, Dolichos lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Mucuna deeringiana, M. cinereum, M. aterrima and Raphanus sativus green manures were resistant. These plants are viable options to crop rotation in M. enterolobii infested areas.

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