Prado A.V.R.,State University of Maringá |
Goulart E.,State University of Maringá |
Pagotto J.P.A.,University Estadual do Parana
Neotropical Ichthyology | Year: 2016
Based on the form-function interaction and its consequence to niche exploitation by fish species, the study aimed to identify ecomorphological patterns and to investigate the possibility of explaining the trophic niche breadth using the pattern of intraspecific ecomorphological diversity. We tested the following hypotheses: i) the morphology explains variations in diet among fish species; ii) the intraspecific ecomorphological diversity is related to the breadth of the trophic niche explored by the species, so that species that feed on a wider range of resources have greater variation in body shape compared to those specialized in resource consumption. Fish were collected in stands of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea and Eichhornia crassipes in lentic environments of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Two major trends were observed in the morphological space: fish with body shapes adapted to explore the substrate and others with a design that facilitates the capture of food items in more structured habitats. The relationship of diet with body shape was confirmed by significant relationships between matrices of trophic and morphological distances, providing evidence that morphology is related to interspecific variations in the use of trophic resources. However, the ranges of morphological and intraspecific trophic variations were not significantly related, rejecting the second hypothesis about the relationship between intraspecific ecomorphological diversity and trophic niche breadth. The morphological characteristics often have multiple ecological roles, which could result in trade-off among these functions. Thus, fish with highly specialized morphology may show specialist feeding or even generalist habit, because in this case some resources may be difficult to exploit, even by a specialist. Species with low and high morphological diversity demonstrated narrow trophic niche and the availability of resources may have been essential for consumption. Therefore, species morphology is related to the use of food resources and ecomorphology can be considered an important tool for the prediction of the exploited niche space by species in assemblages. However it is not possible to predict if species with greater intraspecific morphological diversification indeed have wider niche, since the abundance or scarcity of the available food resources may interfere with trophic niche breadth. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia. All rights reserved.
Noleto R.B.,University Estadual do Parana |
Vicari M.R.,State University of Ponta Grossa |
Cestari M.M.,Federal University of Paraná |
Artoni R.F.,State University of Ponta Grossa
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2012
Cytogenetic analysis in two sympatric species of pufferfish from Paraná Coast, Brazil, Sphoeroides spengleri (Tetraodontidae) and Chilomycterus spinosus (Diodontidae) revealed the presence of 2n = 46 and 2n = 50 chromosomes, respectively. In S. spengleri, the double FISH technique with 5S and 18S rDNA probes showed no syntenical organization, with both multigene families occupying a terminal position on the chromosomes. In S. spengleri the poor pattern of heterochromatin distribution is discussed about its relation with the compactness of their genome. On the other hand C. spinosus presented conspicuous blocks occupying the short arms of several chromosomes, possibly consequence of an accumulative process. Heterochromatic supernumerary chromosomes were detected in both species, however in S. spengleri they were presented as microchromosomes varying of 0-3 and being more frequent in females than in males, possibly as result of a preferential segregation. Conversely in C. spinosus an extra chromosome was restricted to the males, which to behave as univalent during meiosis. In view of these peculiarities we hypothesized a possible relationship between B chromosome and sex determination, although others aspects on accumulation, maintenance, and frequency of these extra elements were also considered, focusing on the parasitic model. In spite of the karyotypic diversity and others genetic peculiarities in Tetraodontiformes, this corresponds the third report of the occurrence of chromosomes B in the group. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Negrelle R.R.B.,University Estadual do Parana |
Anacleto A.,Federal University of Paraná
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012
Aiming to contribute to the better understanding of the wild harvesting participation in the context of the bromeliads trade, the results from a study focused on: a) identifying and to characterizing the bromeliads wild harvesters (formally and not formally registered) in the State of the Paraná; b) identifying and characterizing the harvesting methodologies, preparation and trade routes, and c) surveying the harvesters opinion on the facilities and difficulties of bromeliads wild harvesting are presented. The bromeliads wild harvesting was detected in 12 municipalities at Parana State, involving 31 harvester families, most of them concentrated at the coastal zone (n=10) and Ortigueira Mun. (7). Two basic harvester types were identified: resident and opportunist with outstanding differences between them especially related to volume and forms of extraction. A total of 21 bromeliads species were identified as submitted to wild harvesting, being the more frequently collected: Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. (cited by 90% of the interviewed harvesters), Nidularium innocentii Lem. (77%), Vriesea platynema Gaudich. (67%), Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl. (55%) and Vriesea carinata Wawra (55%).
Vogel H.F.,University Estadual do Parana
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia | Year: 2014
There are many gaps in the knowledge about Neotropical bird migration patterns. Among these gaps is the presence of some non-migrating individuals at their breeding sites, outside their wintering grounds. There is evidence that Turdus subalaris can occur in southern Brazil during the non-reproductive period. The objective of this work was: (1) to verify possible occurrences of T. subalaris in southern Brazil during its non-breeding season and; (2) to relate these occurrences to years of harsh winters (caused in southern Brazil mainly by the influence of the climatic phenomenon La Niña). After synthesizing specific literature data and ornithological collection records, the occurrence data were compared with the climatic events of the preceding years. Thirteen T. subalaris individuals were recorded in southern Brazil during the breeding season between 1973 and 2013. Eight of these records (61.53%) occurred in years preceded by harsh winters. These new data indicate that migration dynamics in T. subalaris is more complex than previously thought, indicating that forest formations in southern Brazil may act as habitats for this species during the post-reproductive resting period. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia. All rights reserved.
Krupek R.A.,University Estadual do Parana |
Branco C.C.Z.,São Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Botanica | Year: 2012
We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two drainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State, Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05 m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.
Pellizzari F.,University Estadual do Parana |
Reis R.P.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro
Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy | Year: 2011
Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates) in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent) is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.
Krupek R.A.,University Estadual do Parana |
Branco C.C.Z.,São Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Botanica | Year: 2016
Habitat heterogeneity influences the composition and structure of macroalgal communities in lotic environments. However, depending on the spatial scale, different environmental characteristics may exert more or less influence. This study aimed to evaluate, at different spatial scales of observation, the influences of local and regional environmental variables on ecological distribution of macroalgae in stream ecosystems. The field work was conducted during the months of June and July 2007 in streams of two river basins located in southern Brazil. The spatial scales used were drainage basin, shading, mesohabitat, and microhabitat. According to the results, there are few differences regarding abiotic variables between spatial scales, however, suggesting that sunlight and, consequently, the shading scale have a strong impact on the distribution pattern of stream macroalgae. The mesohabitat scale at the current velocity proved to be an important factor in structuring communities of macroalgae. Finally, microenvironmental factors (e.g., substrate, current velocity, and light availability) appear to exert their direct influence on the spatial distribution of stream macroalgae, generating particular features in each spatial scale of observation, although regional abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature, pH, and conductivity) should also be considered for the structural characterization of these organisms. © 2016, Botanical Society of Sao Paulo.
Metri R.,University Estadual do Parana |
De Oliveira A.R.,State University of the Central West
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2016
Geometric morphometric techniques were applied for a better comprehension of inter- and intra-specific morphological variability of freshwater aeglid crabs. Carapace morphological patterns were used to address hypothesis regarding 1) the simple existence of local adaptations or 2) actual stable evolutionary features within the lineages studied. Two clades were included in this analysis: the former encompassing the closely related species Aegla castro, A. parana, A. schmitti, and the latter including the closely-related species A. ligulata, A. longirostri and A. inconspicua. Overall, distinct carapace shapes were found not only between species but also among different populations of same species. In some cases, species belonging to distinct, distantly related clades were more similar in carapace morphology than to closely related species of the same clade. This meant that there was no stable carapace morphology pattern for each major lineage. Results suggest that carapace of these crabs is plastic within lineages, although has a stable, unchangeable component readily recognizable by the geometric morphometric analysis at the species level, plus a more plastic component that may change according to the environment in which they inhabit. © 2016, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar. All rights reserved.
Kobelinski M.,University Estadual do Parana
Historia, Ciencias, Saude - Manguinhos | Year: 2013
The article explores the botanical contributions of Pierre-François- Xavier de Charlevoix's book Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France vis-à-vis the contributions of previous researchers, his use of iconographic and discursive representations and its relevance to the project of French colonization. It investigates why he refused Linnaeus' taxonomic model and what he intended with his catalogue of botanical curiosities. The unfolding of his philosophical and religious trajectory allows to understand his stance regarding the classification of nature, the meanings of ethnological information, his forms of intellectual appropriation, and his use of discourse and botanical iconography as political and emotional propaganda to encourage colonial settlement.
Floristic and ecological characterization of arborization of municipality of the Guarapuava, PR [Caracterização florística e ecológica da arborização de praças públicas do município de Guarapuava, PR]
Kramer J.A.,Biologo Faculdade Guairaca |
Krupek R.A.,University Estadual do Parana
Revista Arvore | Year: 2012
The objective of present study were to carry a floristic survey and evaluate some ecological characteristics of principal squars public of municipality of the Guarapuava, mid-southern region of Paraná state. The sampling were carried out from January 2007 to March 2009. Were found 98 species distributed in 43 family. The abundance measured were 1.143 individues. The most widespread specie was Tipuana tipu, while the most abundance was Grevillea robusta and Platanus acerifolia. Regarding the origin,of the majoritary, both species and abundance are exotic. The richness, abundance, H' and equity values were relatively high while dominance and similarity values rere low. Despite the high value of richness and diversity, the high frequency of few species and low number of individuals for sampled area place the public squars in the area evaluated in intermediate ecological conditions. The high number of exotic species reflects, still, the lack of interet in the conservation of regional flora.