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União da Vitória, Brazil

Krupek R.A.,University Estadual do Parana | Branco C.C.Z.,Sao Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Botanica

We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two drainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State, Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05 m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments. Source

Vogel H.F.,University Estadual do Parana
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia

There are many gaps in the knowledge about Neotropical bird migration patterns. Among these gaps is the presence of some non-migrating individuals at their breeding sites, outside their wintering grounds. There is evidence that Turdus subalaris can occur in southern Brazil during the non-reproductive period. The objective of this work was: (1) to verify possible occurrences of T. subalaris in southern Brazil during its non-breeding season and; (2) to relate these occurrences to years of harsh winters (caused in southern Brazil mainly by the influence of the climatic phenomenon La Niña). After synthesizing specific literature data and ornithological collection records, the occurrence data were compared with the climatic events of the preceding years. Thirteen T. subalaris individuals were recorded in southern Brazil during the breeding season between 1973 and 2013. Eight of these records (61.53%) occurred in years preceded by harsh winters. These new data indicate that migration dynamics in T. subalaris is more complex than previously thought, indicating that forest formations in southern Brazil may act as habitats for this species during the post-reproductive resting period. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia. All rights reserved. Source

Godinho V.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Furbino L.E.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Santiago I.F.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Pellizzari F.M.,University Estadual do Parana | And 3 more authors.
ISME Journal

We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal-fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds. © 2013 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved. Source

Pellizzari F.,University Estadual do Parana | Reis R.P.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro
Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy

Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates) in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent) is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade. Source

Krupek R.A.,University Estadual do Parana | Branco C.C.Z.,Sao Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Botanica

Habitat heterogeneity influences the composition and structure of macroalgal communities in lotic environments. However, depending on the spatial scale, different environmental characteristics may exert more or less influence. This study aimed to evaluate, at different spatial scales of observation, the influences of local and regional environmental variables on ecological distribution of macroalgae in stream ecosystems. The field work was conducted during the months of June and July 2007 in streams of two river basins located in southern Brazil. The spatial scales used were drainage basin, shading, mesohabitat, and microhabitat. According to the results, there are few differences regarding abiotic variables between spatial scales, however, suggesting that sunlight and, consequently, the shading scale have a strong impact on the distribution pattern of stream macroalgae. The mesohabitat scale at the current velocity proved to be an important factor in structuring communities of macroalgae. Finally, microenvironmental factors (e.g., substrate, current velocity, and light availability) appear to exert their direct influence on the spatial distribution of stream macroalgae, generating particular features in each spatial scale of observation, although regional abiotic parameters (e.g., temperature, pH, and conductivity) should also be considered for the structural characterization of these organisms. © 2016, Botanical Society of Sao Paulo. Source

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