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da Silva I.M.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | da Silva I.M.,University Estadual do Amazonas | Tavares A.M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2012

Introduction: Snake bite, a problem in public health, generally occurs where there is no electric power. Methods: A comparative clinical study was conducted with 102 victims of Bothrops snake bite, from the state of Amazonas, Brazil; 58 victims were treated with liofilizated trivalent antivenom serum (SATL) and 44 victims treated with liquid bivalent and monovalent antivenom serum (SAMBL). Results: 17% (10/58) of patients presented adverse effects with the SATL and 25% (11/44) with the SAMBL. Conclusions: There was no statistic difference in number of adverse effects between the two types of snake bite antivenom. Source

Chrusciak-Talhari A.,University Estadual do Amazonas | Dietze R.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Talhari C.C.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas | Da Silva R.M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

Miltefosine has been used in the treatment of several new world cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species with variable efficacy. Our study is the first evidence on its clinical efficacy in Leishmania ( Viannia ) guyanensis. In this phase II/III randomized clinical trial, 90 CL patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to oral miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day/28 days) ( N = 60) or parenteral antimony (15-20 mg/Sb/kg/day/20 days) ( N = 30) according to age groups: 2-12 y/o and 13-65 y/o. Patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) noninfected parasitological proven CL without previous treatment. Definitive cure was accessed at 6 months follow-up visit. No severe adverse events occurred. Vomiting was the most frequent adverse event (48.3%) followed by nausea (8.6%) and diarrhea (6.7%). Cure rates were 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.8-82.7) and 53.6% (95% CI = 33.9-72.5) ( P = 0.05) for miltefosine and antimonial, respectively. There were no differences in cure rates between age groups within the same treatment arms. Miltefosine was safe and relatively well tolerated and cure rate was higher than antimony. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Shimabukuro P.H.F.,Instituto Lenidas e Maria Deane | Da Silva T.R.R.,University Estadual do Amazonas | Ribeiro F.O.F.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Baton L.A.,50 Rowntree Way | Galati E.A.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2010

Background: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a re-emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is important to understand both the vector and disease distribution to help design control strategies. As an initial step in applying geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) tools to map disease-risk, the objectives of the present work were to: (i) produce a single database of species distributions of the sand fly vectors in the state of São Paulo, (ii) create combined distributional maps of both the incidence of ACL and its sand fly vectors, and (iii) thereby provide individual municipalities with a source of reference material for work carried out in their area. Results. A database containing 910 individual records of sand fly occurrence in the state of São Paulo, from 37 different sources, was compiled. These records date from between 1943 to 2009, and describe the presence of at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species in 183/645 (28.4%) municipalities. For the remaining 462 (71.6%) municipalities, we were unable to locate records of any of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species (Nyssomyia intermedia, N. neivai, N. whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri, P. pessoai and Migonemyia migonei). The distribution of each of the six incriminated or suspected vector species of ACL in the state of São Paulo were individually mapped and overlaid on the incidence of ACL for the period 1993 to 1995 and 1998 to 2007. Overall, the maps reveal that the six sand fly vector species analyzed have unique and heterogeneous, although often overlapping, distributions. Several sand fly species - Nyssomyia intermedia and N. neivai - are highly localized, while the other sand fly species - N. whitmani, M. migonei, P. fischeri and P. pessoai - are much more broadly distributed. ACL has been reported in 160/183 (87.4%) of the municipalities with records for at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species, while there are no records of any of these sand fly species in 318/478 (66.5%) municipalities with ACL. Conclusions. The maps produced in this work provide basic data on the distribution of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vectors of ACL in the state of São Paulo, and highlight the complex and geographically heterogeneous pattern of ACL transmission in the region. Further studies are required to clarify the role of each of the six suspected sand fly vector species in different regions of the state of São Paulo, especially in the majority of municipalities where ACL is present but sand fly vectors have not yet been identified. © 2010 Shimabukuro et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Da Silva L.A.,University of Orleans | Da Silva L.A.,National Institute for Space Research | Satyamurty P.,National Institute for Space Research | Satyamurty P.,University Estadual do Amazonas
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the South American sector of the Atlantic Ocean is identified using outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data in order to investigate the evolution of the Lorenz energy cycle in the region dominated by this large-scale feature. The NCEP reanalysis data are utilized to calculate the zonal and eddy components (denoted by Z and E, respectively) of kinetic energyKand available potential energyA(i.e.,KZ,KE,AZ, and AE) and their conversions, on a daily basis.Awavelet decomposition of the time series is performed to detect long-term cycles/trends in the Atlantic ITCZ region. This work also investigates trends in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) in the ITCZ region and connections between the ITCZ and the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). A strong annual cycle in all the energy components with high peaks in austral summer is observed. Approximately 91% of the zonal component of energy is contained on decadal or longer time scales. The annual and semiannual variabilities are significant and the synoptic-scale variability is also present. The zonal component of kinetic energy KZ presents a decreasing trend during the last 28 years, which means a weakening of trade winds in the region studied. The values of KZ and AE are significantly higher during the period 1982/83, indicating that the intense El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and/or the El Chichón eruption may have affected the circulation in the ITCZ region. The 28-yr mean energy conversion and generation terms are in general weaker than in the hemispheric calculations but the energy conversions proceed in the same sense as in the hemispheric situation. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

Barnett A.A.,Roehampton University | Schie V.,Federal University of Paraiba | Deveny A.,Yale University | Valsko J.,University Estadual do Amazonas | And 2 more authors.
Mammalia | Year: 2011

Predation of tropical arboreal mammals is rarely observed. Here, we report the first observation of predation of a member of the genus Cacajao, and add to the knowledge of eagle predation in the genus Cebus. We compare responses to predation by Cacajao ouakary and Cebus albifrons with previous studies of congenerics and with other close relatives, and compare the alarm vocalizations of C. ouakary with those of other pitheciines. Reactions to non-predating raptors are reported. Constraints on primate anti-predator responses in flooded and non-flooded habitats are considered. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. Source

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