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Blondin Mass A.,University du Qubec Montral | Blondin Mass A.,University of Savoy | Brlek S.,University du Qubec Montral | Garon A.,University du Qubec Montral | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2011

In this paper we consider several types of equations on words, motivated by the attempt of characterizing the class of polyominoes that tile the plane by translation in two distinct ways. Words coding the boundary of these polyominoes satisfy an equation whose solutions are in bijection with a subset of the solutions of equations of the form ABÃB̃≡XYX̃Ỹ. It turns out that the solutions are strongly related to local periodicity involving palindromes and conjugate words. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pomerleau C.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Pomerleau C.,Institute des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski | Winkler G.,Institute des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski | Sastri A.R.,University du Qubec Montral | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2011

This study defined the status quo of biogeographic domains and examined spatial patterns of stable isotopes (SIs) of carbon and nitrogen in relation to biophysical groupings to gain greater insight into how mesozooplankton may respond to continuous environmental change in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. Mesozooplankton communities were sampled during the summer of 2007 along a transect from Belle-Isle Strait, NFL, to Kugluktuk, NU (Canada), and during the early autumn of 2009 along a transect extending from Pelly Bay to Hall Beach, NU. Five broad water mass types corresponded to geographical regions. In general, we found relationships between water mass and species composition; however, this relationship was not always straightforward. Mesozooplankton community composition varied along the transect, revealing eight species assemblages. Calanus finmarchicus was abundant in the warmer and saltier Atlantic waters of the Labrador Sea, whereas Calanus hyperboreus, Calanus glacialis and Metridia longa were most abundant in the cold Arctic waters of Central Baffin Bay and in the eastern portion of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Nitrogen and carbon SI analysis revealed that δ 15N (but not δ 13C) varied spatially for C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus, Paraeuchaeta spp. and Themisto libellula. δ 15N values were less enriched in Davis Strait and more enriched in the Gulf of Boothia. Seasonality, oceanic fronts and changes in the trophic structure at the base of each regional food web may explain some of the observed variability. This study represents the first broad-scale characterization of the composition and isotopic signatures for mesozooplankton communities ranging from the sub-Arctic Atlantic to the western Central Arctic Archipelago. Our study provides a baseline of the zooplankton community for monitoring species biogeographical range. © The Author 2011.

Van Heugten M.,University of Toronto | Shi R.,University du Qubec Montral
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2010

Natural languages contain numerous non-adjacent relationships between words or morphemes in a sentence, often straddling phonological phrase boundaries (e.g., [these sheep] [have ]). Since phonological phrases are considered the main processing unit for infants, this may cause the acquisition of cross-phrase dependencies to be challenging. This study, however, shows that by 17 months of age, French-learning infants have nonetheless gained sensitivity to remote determiner-auxiliary co-occurrences that are interceded by phonological phrase boundaries. Infants thus possess a robust mechanism for tracking non-adjacent dependencies. This ability is essential for early grammatical development. © 2010 Acoustical Society of America.

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