Saint-André-lez-Lille, France
Saint-André-lez-Lille, France

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Amad A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Amad A.,University Droit and Sante Lille | Cachia A.,University of Paris Descartes | Cachia A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Hallucinations constitute one of the most representative and disabling symptoms of schizophrenia. Several Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings support the hypothesis that distinct patterns of connectivity, particularly within networks involving the hippocampal complex (HC), could be associated with different hallucinatory modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate HC connectivity as a function of the hallucinatory modality, that is, auditory or visual. Two carefully selected subgroups of schizophrenia patients with only auditory hallucinations (AH) or with audio-visual hallucinations (A+VH) were compared using the following three complementary multimodal MRI methods: resting state functional MRI, diffusion MRI and structural MRI were used to analyze seed-based Functional Connectivity (sb-FC), Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and shape analysis, respectively. Sb-FC was significantly higher between the HC, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the caudate nuclei in A+VH patients compared with the AH group. Conversely, AH patients exhibited a higher sb-FC between the HC and the thalamus in comparison with the A+VH group. In the A+VH group, TBSS showed specific higher white matter connectivity in the pathways connecting the HC with visual areas, such as the forceps major and the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus than in the AH group. Finally, shape analysis showed localized hippocampal hypertrophy in the A+VH group. Functional results support the fronto-limbic dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia, while specific structural findings indicate that plastic changes are associated with hallucinations. Together, these results suggest that there are distinct connectivity patterns in patients with schizophrenia that depend on the sensory-modality, with specific involvement of the HC in visual hallucinations. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Amad A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Amad A.,University Droit and Sante Lille | Guardia D.,University of Lille Nord de France | Guardia D.,University Droit and Sante Lille | And 8 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2013

There is very strong evidence that the prevalence of psychosis is elevated in migrant populations and that this risk persists into the second generation. However, these results have not been replicated in France, and the prevalence of psychotic disorders in the third generation of migrants remains unknown. Based on the Mental Health in General Population survey (n=37063), we report for the first time the increased prevalence of psychotic disorders in migrants in France, which persists into the second generation for a single psychotic episode (SPE) (OR=1.43, 95% CI [1.02-2.03], p<0.03) and into the third generation for recurrent psychotic disorder (RPD) (OR=1.78, 95% CI [1.45-2.18], p<0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, level of education and cannabis use. Complementary statistical analyses of our sample showed a significantly higher risk of SPE in migrants from the French West Indies and Africa (χ2=17.70, p<0.01). These results are consistent with the socio-developmental model and the psychosis continuum hypothesis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Porez G.,University of Lille Nord de France | Porez G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Porez G.,University Droit and Sante Lille | Porez G.,Institute Pasteur Of Lille | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2012

Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. When dyslipidemia coincides with other metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, defined as the metabolic syndrome (MS), individuals present an elevated risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as CVD. Because the MS epidemic represents a growing public health problem worldwide, the development of therapies remains a major challenge. Alterations of bile acid pool regulation in T2D have revealed a link between bile acid and metabolic homeostasis. The bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5 both regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, rendering them potential pharmacological targets for MS therapy. This review discusses the mechanisms of metabolic regulation by FXR and TGR5 and the utility relevance of natural and synthetic modulators of FXR and TGR5 activity, including bile acid sequestrants, in the treatment of the MS. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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