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Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal

Rinaldi A.P.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Rinaldi A.P.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Vandemeulebrouck J.,University of Savoy | Todesco M.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Viveiros F.,University Dos Aores
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2012

Diffuse degassing through the soil is commonly observed in volcanic areas and monitoring of carbon dioxide flux at the surface can provide a safe and effective way to infer the state of activity of the volcanic system. Continuous measurement stations are often installed on active volcanoes such as Furnas (Azores archipelago), which features low temperature fumaroles, hot and cold CO2 rich springs, and several diffuse degassing areas. As in other volcanoes, fluxes measured at Furnas are often correlated with environmental variables, such as air temperature or barometric pressure, with daily and seasonal cycles that become more evident when gas emission is low. In this work, we study how changes in air temperature and barometric pressure may affect the gas emission through the soil. The TOUGH2 geothermal simulator was used to simulate the gas propagation through the soil as a function of fluctuating atmospheric conditions. Then, a dual parameters study was performed to assess how the rock permeability and the gas source properties affect the resulting fluxes. Numerical results are in good agreement with the observed data at Furnas, and show that atmospheric variables may cause the observed daily cycles in CO2 fluxes. The observed changes depend on soil permeability and on the pressure driving the upward flux. © 2012 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-NIGHT | Award Amount: 106.98K | Year: 2013

This proposal aims to raise awareness of the prominent role researchers and how their work plays in our currently every day and for the future. Bearing in mind Horizon 2020 Societal Challenges, the ERN2013 will promote and disseminate what in terms of science and innovation is being done in Portugal. The extensive and nationwide range of activities already planned and being prepared have one major aim: to show that researchers are ordinary people with extraordinary jobs! This will be done through direct engagement of both the general public and researchers in science awareness, across 26 main cities and villages in several venues. Coordinated by Cincia Viva (Lisbon), there is a regional coordinator in each NUTS II region in Portugal. The role of each regional coordinator is to mobilize the research community, local companies and associations, as well as regional/local press, using the same coordination rational from 2012. This is an inclusive proposal welcoming all interest research-related entities. The key message agreed between partners and all associated/participating entities is that we should take up this opportunity to bring research close to the people and not only expect that people come to a specific venue. Outdoor activities will be organized in partnership with municipalities/regional authorities as an added value of their service and a way to show the richness existing in each territory. In parallel, a very diverse range of edutainment indoor activities is planned and more are on the making.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-NIGHT | Award Amount: 160.46K | Year: 2012

This proposal aims to raise awareness of the prominent role researchers and their work play in our everyday life. The extensive and nationwide range of activities already planned and being prepared have one major aim: to show that researchers are ordinary people with extraordinary jobs! This will be done through direct engagement of both the general public and researchers in science awareness activities, across the streets of 22 main cities and villages. Coordinated by Cincia Viva (Lisbon), there is a regional coordinator in each NUTS II region in Portugal. The role of each regional coordinator is to mobilize the research community, local companies and associations, as well as regional/local press. This is an inclusive proposal welcoming all interested research-related entities. The key message agreed between partners and all associated/participating entities is that we all should take up this opportunity to bring research close to the people and not only expect that people come to a specific venue. Outdoor activities will be organized in partnership with municipalities/regional authorities as an added value of their service and a way to show the richness existing in each territory. In parallel, a very diverse range of edutainment indoor activities is planned (see Annex I) and more are on the making.


The objective of BIOCOMES is to develop 11 new biological control agents (BCAs) for key markets in European agriculture and forestry. BCAs were identified through market analysis by six manufactures of biological control products. BCAs will primarily be for use in open field crops of vegetables (3), of which 2 are also for use in protected crops, arable crops (3), fruit crops (3), and three different types of forests (2). Primary targeted pests are: gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), pine weevil (Hylobius abietis), tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta), white flies, aphids of fruit tree crops and Mamestra brassicae. Primary targeted pathogens are: damping-off diseases in forest nurseries, soilborne pathogens of oilseed rape and cereals, brown rot (Monilinia spp.) of stone fruit, and powdery mildew of cereals (Blumeria graminis). The economic sustainability during the entire development process will be assessed by the responsible industrial partners. The environmental sustainability will be quantified for each BCA by means of the Sustainable Process Index method. The entire developmental process for each of the 11 BCA products is guided by a consultancy partner specialized and leading in (bio) pesticide registration including risk assessments for European (bio) pesticide industries. In vitro production of entomopathogenic viruses as new innovative technique like will be developed aimed at a breakthrough in economic production. Downstream-technology and shelf life for entomopathogenic nematodes will be improved. BIOCOMES will communicate project results with all stakeholders with special attention to European IPM networks throughout the whole project duration. BIOCOMES combines the expertise of 10 industrial SME partners, 3 larger industrial partners and 14 research partners with 38% of the requested EU contribution supporting SMEs. All 11 BCA solutions will be novel IPM tools and new alternatives to replace major pesticide applications in European agriculture and forestry.


Couto R.P.,University Dos Aores | Couto R.P.,University of Porto | Rodrigues A.S.,University Dos Aores | Neto A.I.,University Dos Aores | Neto A.I.,University of The Azores
Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management | Year: 2015

The impact of global warming has been a major issue in recent years and will continue increasing in the future. Knowledge about the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities is crucial to efficient management. Island environments are particularly sensitive to externally induced changes and highly dependent on their coastal areas. This study summarises the published information on shallow-water hydrothermal vents of the Azores. These environments were reported to exhibit high metal concentration and acidified seawater due to the diffusion of acidic volcanic gases (mainly CO2) and a considerable temperature range. In some vents a water input with lower salinity was reported. These conditions result in a depletion of some of the species but can also enhance a diversity gradient between the "unique" shallow marine hydrothermal ecosystems and the surrounding common coastal marine environment, potentiating the co-existence of a high variety of metabolisms and so biodiversity. Metal content on species from vent areas was reported to be associated with volcanic activity and signs of organism's chronic stress seemed to result in modifications on their morphometry and internal composition. Species able to survive at vent conditions are indicated as potential sentinels for studying the effects of increasing temperature and acidification on marine organisms and as bioindicators of metal accumulation studies at the Azores. Further information on CO2 flux, metals concentration in the sediments and seawater and on the geochemistry of fluids from active shallow-water hydrothermal systems is needed. Also, research on the productivity of shallowwater vent areas at the Azores and on food chains and interactions between trophic levels at these environments is recommended as it will contribute to a better knowledge of metal bioavailability, accumulation and biomagnification. This research should be complemented by investigations directed to the venting periodicity and episodicity and metal deposits resulting from hydrothermalism. This would increase the value of the Azorean vents as natural laboratories to the implementation of multidisciplinary research aimed at contributing to predict and/or to infer about ocean acidification effects on marine organisms and communities. Source

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