Hadj Mokhtar H.,University of Oran 1 |
Boukoussa B.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella |
Boukoussa B.,Center University Ain Temouchent |
Hamacha R.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella |
And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015
This paper focuses on the use of natural sources for the preparation of efficient and low cost catalysts. CaCO3 is obtained from cuttlefish bone and was modified by the cation exchange of Ca2+ by Cu2+ in CaCO3 using solutions of copper (Cu(NO3)2) at different concentrations. The modification of the solids was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The results show that the copper exchanged materials contain a CuCO3-CuO nanoparticle composite. The obtained solids were used as catalysts for the cycloaddition reaction of different azides with activated alkenes at room temperature under liquid phase conditions. The different parameters which affect the reaction were investigated such as reaction time, temperature of the reaction, effect of the copper content, catalyst mass, effect of the solvent and nature of the azide. High yields were obtained when the catalyst contained more copper. The best catalysts were calcined at different temperatures (200, 300, 400, 500 °C) in order to determine whether the active phase was CuCO3 or CuO in the catalytic reaction. The XRD analysis of the calcined composites shows that an increase in calcination temperature leads to the formation of the CuO phase. On the other hand, the use of these calcined materials as catalysts shows that the active phase is copper carbonate. Finally, a new method for preparing triazoles with short reaction times was developed by the use of a cheap environmentally friendly catalyst. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Bendeddouche C.K.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella |
Adjdir M.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella |
Adjdir M.,Institute of Functional Interfaces |
Benhaoua H.,University dOran1 Ahmed Ben Bella
Letters in Organic Chemistry | Year: 2016
Background: The cyclopropanation reaction was inspected by addition of carbene generated from ethyl diazoacetate in the presence of a greener Cu-exchanged bentonite catalyst to olefin under solvent free condition. The cyclopropanes were obtained with good yields. Our own contribution in this area was to introduce a modified Algerian bentonite as a catalyst and microwave activation as a mode of heating. Methods: A catalytic material developed from natural type montmorillonite clays, from deposits of Maghnia (Western Algeria), by cation exchange (Cu2+) was characterized by different spectral methods. The catalytic properties of the new material were explored in cyclopropanation reaction of olefins under microwave irradiation. A comparative study with Cu-exchanged bentonite as catalyst between microwave activation and classical heating was conducted. Results: Cu2+ exchanged clay is an efficient catalyst in the generation of carbenes from diazocompounds, under microwave irradiation. The formation of carboxylate cyclopropane was performed in solvent free condition with moderate diastereoselectivity. The yields were good, and the catalyst can be reused at least three times without noticeable loss of catalytic activity. Conclusion: This work shows that the coupling "modified clay/microwave activation" is a clean and simple access to functionalized cyclopropanes. This reusable Cu exchanged clay material is shown to be as a good substitute for many sophisticated and hardly accessible catalysts. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.