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Carvalho F.S.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Wenceslau A.A.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Albuquerque G.R.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Munhoz A.D.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | And 6 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2015

Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease present in 98 countries. In Brazil, the northeast region accounts for approximately half of the cases in humans, and has experienced an increased number of positive cases in dogs. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, using serological and molecular techniques and evaluated the possible environmental risk factors and associated clinical signs. Blood samples were collected from 560 dogs in urban and peri-urban areas in Ilhéus, northeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA was extracted from the selected animals andsubjected to molecular analysis using Leishmania species-specific primers and diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi. A total of 54.72% of dogs were positive for Leishmania braziliensis, and animals positive for both Leishmania infantum and T. cruzi were not identified. Hematologic variables were not statistically associated with cases of L. braziliensis. However, the positive animal group showed lower red blood cell and platelet counts and higher levels of urea and serum creatinine. Few dogs presented clinical signs compatible with the presence of Leishmania. Age of more than 2 years and specific hair colors were associated with positive results for L. braziliensis. The geoclimatic characteristics of the region may improve parasite survival, reproduction, and vectors. This may explain the higher rate of dogs identified as positive in this study. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

Changes in the pH of the rhizosphere of N2-fixing plants seem to play a key role in the uptake of micronutrient whose availability depends on changes in soil acidity. Variations in the B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn uptake were studied during soybean development and growth cycle under the influence of biological N2 fixation and the initial pH of two soils samples (a clayey and a sandy Yellow atosol; Oxisols), in a greenhouse xperiment. These samples were incubated with rates of CaCO3 + MgCO3 (4:1) to raise the pH (H2O) to 5.2, 5.6, 6.2, and 6.6 in the clay soil and to 5.3, 5.6, 5.9, and 6.3, respectively, in the sandy soil. After 60 days of incubation, the soil samples were fertilized with 450 mg dm-3 P and 120 mg dm-3 K. Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merrill) seeds of the variety Paranaíba, inoculated with the strains SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were germinated. Four plants per pot (2.2 dm3) were grown and harvested 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 46, and 54 days after emergence. The following variables were measured: pH of the rhizosphere (pHr), the non-rhizospheric soil pH (between roots) (pHnr), the B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents in shoots and roots, N in the shoot, number of nodules, and the shoot, root and nodule dry matter. It was observed that changes in pHr and pHnr depended on the initial soil pH (pHs) and on biological N2 fixation. The accumulation of B and Fe in the shoots was not influenced by the pHr values modified depending on the pH, except for Fe in the clay soil. However, nodules appeared 24 days after emergence and nutrient accumulation was significantly increased from then on. For Cu, Mn and Zn uptake seemed to be affected mainly by pHr. The micronutrient content in the plants proved to be sensitive to changes in the rhizospheric pH, particularly after nodulation. Source

Aguiar M.D.S.M.A.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao Ciencia E Tecnologia Baiano | Siva F.F.,University do Sudoeste da Bahia | Donato S.L.R.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao Ciencia E Tecnologia Baiano | Rodrigues E.S.O.,University do Sudoeste da Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of forage in the diet on performance of crossbred heifers 3/4 Holstein-Zebu and economic viability. Twenty four heifers with initial body weight of 163.00 ± 18 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with four diets and six replications, were used. We used sorghum silage, concentrate and increasing levels of forage in the diet (0, 200, 400 and 600 g kg-1). Regarding the performance of heifers, there was no difference in height at withers, thoracic perimeter and feed conversion among diets. The average daily weight gain decreased with the concentration from 0.00 to 600.00 g kg-1 dietary palm. The final body weights ranged from a quadratic function of palm levels. Dry matter (%BW), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (%BW) and crude protein intake decreased with the palm levels. Neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients intakes were quadratically influenced by forage palm levels. Dry matter and crude protein did not differ among diets. Total digestible nutrients decreased with the inclusion of forage palm. The inclusion forage palm up to 400 g kg-1 provided better performance. For economic viability, the internal rate of return shows that diet with 400 g kg-1 forage palm resulted most satisfactory and its was more viable for a producer and investor, with return rate of 3 15% per month. Source

Rios D.L.S.,Bahia State University | Cerqueira C.C.S.,University do Sudoeste da Bahia | Bonfim-Silva R.,University do Sudoeste da Bahia | Araujo L.J.,State University of Feira de Santana | And 3 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2010

The inflammatory process has been considered an important mediator for the development of atherosclerosis. Interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) is a precursor of interleukin-6 (IL6) in the acute phase of inflammatory response and their levels are elevated in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the association of IL-1B and IL-6 gene polymorphisms and angiographically assessed coronary artery disease (CAD) in African- and Caucasian-Brazilians. This report analyzed the IL-1B-511C>T and IL-6-174G>C polymorphisms in 667 patients (253 African-Brazilians and 414 Caucasian-Brazilians) who underwent coronary angiography. Patients with a coronary obstructive lesion ≥50% presented a higher frequency of the IL-1B-511CC genotype (30.4%) compared to lesion-free individuals (16.5%, p=0.032) in African- but not in Caucasian-Brazilians. No significant genotype frequency difference was identified for the IL-6- 174G>C polymorphism in either ethnic groups. However, after correction for other CAD risk factors using multivariate logistic regression, both the IL-1B-511CC [Odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; p=0.019] and the IL-6-174GG (OR = 2.0; p= 0.028) genotypes were considered independent CAD risk predictors in African-Brazilians. This report shows that the IL-1B-511C>T and IL-6- 174G>C polymorphisms were associated with CAD risk in African-Brazilians and no association was detected among Caucasian-Brazilians. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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