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Lima J.F.,Embrapa Amapa | da Silva T.C.,University do Estado do Amapa | da Silva L.M.A.,São Paulo Institute for Technological Research | Garcia J.S.,University do Estado do Amapa
Acta Amazonica | Year: 2013

The present paper is a pioneering study on the Brachyura bycatch associated with the artisan prawn fisheries at the mouth of the Amazon River. The study was conducted at four collection sites distributed along the mouth of the Amazon River between the months of January/2009 and January/2010. The animals were caught using handcrafted traps called "matapi", which are used by prawn fisherman in the region. Twenty matapis were used at each collection site. A total of 145 specimens were captured and six species were identified, all belonging to the Trichodactylidae family-Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis, S. pictus, S. devillei, Valdivia serrata, Dilocarcinus septemdentatus and D. pagei. The most representative species, S. maldonadoensis, S. pictus and S. devillei were classified as regular. Regarding the composition of the capture, there were three specimens of D. pagei, only one male specimen of D. septemdentatus, forty-eight specimens of S. maldonadoensis, sixty-eight specimens of S. pictus, twenty-two specimens of S. devillei and three specimens of V. serrata. In all months, the brachyuran fauna showed a considerably lower biomass when compared to the prawns, representing only 5% of the catch, in a ratio of 1:0. 06. For most species, the number of males was always higher than the number of females in almost all collection months.


Velasco M.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia | Matos P.,Federal University of Pará | Sanches O.,University of West Paulista | Clemente S.C.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

The Amazon estuary is a unique environment, in which a wide variety of both marine and freshwater fish species can be found, providing an important source of income for local populations. Forty . G. broussonnetii specimens were collected from an area adjacent to the city of Salvaterra on Marajó Island, in the Brazilian state of Pará, in 2011. The necroscopic analysis of the hosts revealed the presence of milky rounded cysts throughout the palate. Microscopic analysis of the parasitized fragments revealed that the squamous epithelium covering the palate was intact, although . Myxobolus sp. cysts were observed in the cytoplasm of the striated skeletal muscles of the palate, as found in other myxosporids. Overall, the macro- and microscopic findings of the present study confirm the presence of necrotizing myositis in the palate of . G. broussonnetii associated with parasitism by . Myxobolus sp. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


de Lima J.F.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | da Cruz M.C.M.,University do Estado do Amapa | da Silva L.M.A.,São Paulo Institute for Technological Research
Acta Amazonica | Year: 2015

Macrobrachium surinamicum is an indigenous prawn distributed from the lower Amazon and Tocantins river basins to Venezuela in the Orinoco Delta region. It is common bycatch fauna of Macrobrachium amazonicum artisan fshing in the states of Pará and Amapá. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects on reproductive biology (reproductive period, size of sexual maturity population, fecundity, reproductive output and recruitment) of M. surinamicum from four important areas to artisanal prawn fshing located at the Amazon River mouth (Amapá and Pará). The specimens were captured using 20 handcrafted traps called “matapi”. A number of 675 prawns were captured, 258 males, 409 females and eight juveniles, resulting in 1:1.6 (Male: Female) sex ratio. The reproductive peak period occurred from March to July, coinciding with the higher rainfall period. The juvenile prawn occurred only in May and July. Total length of egg-bearing females ranged from 12.12 to 38.30 mm, with mean female length at frst maturity (L50) of 23.7 mm. Fecundity increased with prawn size and varied between 174 and 1780 eggs per female. Mean egg volume increased gradually from 0.031 (Stage I) to 0.060 mm³ (Stage III) during embryogenesis. Macrobrachium surinamicum depends on brackish water to complete the larval development. Irrespective of female size, reproductive output of M. surinamicum varied between 4.3% and 35.5% of their body weight for egg production. The knowledge of the reproductive biology reported in the present study is an important tool to define strategies to preserve M. surinamicum in Amazon River mouth. © 2015, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia. All Rights Reserved.


Lima J.F.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Garcia J.S.,University do Estado do Amapa | da Silva T.C.,West Parana State University
Acta Amazonica | Year: 2014

Macrobrachium carcinus is a Brazilian native prawn with recognized potential for use in aquaculture activities. However, there is little information about the natural diet and feeding habits of this species. The aim of this study was the identification of the diet items of M. carcinus based on the analysis of the stomach contents. Specimens were collected in the Amazon River estuary between January 2009 and January 2010. The stomach analysis was carried out by using the frequency of occurrence (FO), methods of points (MP) and feeding index (FI). It was observed that prawns fed on detritus, animals and plant fragments as the most important food items. Sediment accounted for the main stomach content, accounting for 43.2% by the MP, 44.9% by FI and 100% by the FO. Sexual differences in feeding preferences were not found in this study, and seasonal differences in the frequency of items ingested by M. carcinus were not observed. The results indicated that M. carcinus can be considered omnivorous species, but with an important carnivorous component, similar to that found in other Macrobrachium species.


Silva B.M.S.,University do Estado do Amapa | Cesarino F.,São Paulo Institute for Technological Research
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed size and temperature on seed germination, as well as the scarification position of the tegument and sowing depth on the emergence of jutai seedlings. The seeds were separated into three groups: large, medium and small. The temperatures to which the seeds were subjected for germination were 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45°C under a photoperiod of 12 hours. The scarified seeds were placed to germinate at depths of 0, 2, 4, and 6 cm. Seed germination was affected by seed size (large and medium seeds). The optimum temperature range was found to be between 25 and 35°C. The scarification in the hilum or the tegument was enough to break the dormancy of the jutai seeds. Sowing depths equal to or deeper than 4 cm were found to be inadequate for the emergence of jutai seedlings. © 2016, Instituto de Biociencias. All rights reserved.


Deus E.G.,Embrapa Amapa | Souza M.S.M.,University do Estado do Amapa | Mineiro J.L.C.,Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Biologico | Adaime R.,Embrapa Amapa | Santos R.S.,Embrapa Acre
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th, 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X®), and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species). The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species.


Macedo Silva R.,University do Estado do Amapa | Tavares-Dias M.,Embrapa Amapa | Reis Dias M.W.,Embrapa Amapa | Reis Dias M.K.,Federal University of Amapá | das Gracas Barbosa Marinho R.,Federal University of Amapá
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus) from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora); Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida); Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea); Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala); Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda); Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae); and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda). A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish.


PubMed | University of West Paulista, Federal University of Fluminense, Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Federal University of Pará and University do Estado do Amapa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2014

The phylum Myxozoa Grass, 1970, consists of a heterogenous group of around 50 genera that are worldwide disseminated in a wide variety of aquatic media. In the present study, 43 specimens of Pimelodus ornatus were collected from an adjacent area to the Cachoeira do Arari municipality on Maraj Island, in the Brazilian state of Par, in 2013. Macroscopic analysis showed the presence of whitened plasmodia located in the cardiac muscle and also in the region between the bulbus arteriosus and atrium cordis. Microscopic analysis on the parasitized tissues revealed spores that were typically piriform, with the anterior portion slightly narrower than the posterior end. The spore valves were symmetrical. The present species is placed in the genus Myxobolus Butschli, 1882, because of the presence of a pair of equal polar capsules in each spore. The prevalence of parasitism observed was 13.9% (6/43). This research note reports the first occurrence of Myxobolus as a parasite of the heart in the teleostean fish P. ornatus in the Amazon region and confirms the occurrence of secondary myocarditis in this fish, caused by parasitism by Myxobolus sp. The rarity of this parasitic species of Myxobolus at this tissue site, associated with other spore morphology characteristics in the fish, suggests that it is an undescribed species.


PubMed | University of Amazon, Federal University of Pará and University do Estado do Amapa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2015

This study describes aspects of the infection caused by the myxosporean genus Henneguya, which forms cysts in the bony portion of the gill filaments of Hypophthalmusmarginatus. Specimens of this catfish were acquired dead from artisanal fishermen near the town of Camet, state of Par, northern Brazil, between July 2011 and May 2012. They were transported in refrigerated containers to the Carlos Azevedo Research Laboratory at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia, in Belm, where analyses were performed. After confirmation of parasitism by the genus Henneguya, observation were made using optical and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The histological technique of embedment in paraffin was used. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was applied to the histological sections. Necropsy analyses on specimens of H. marginatus showed that 80% of them (40/50) had cysts of whitish coloration inside the bony portion of the gill filaments, filled with Henneguya spores. The present study found inflammatory infiltrate in the vicinity of the cysts. Furthermore, the special Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique made it possible to mark the Henneguya sp. cysts in the bone tissue and in spore isolates in the gill tissue structure. The descriptions of these histopathological findings show that this parasite is very invasive and causes damage to its host tissues.


PubMed | University do Estado do Amapa and Laboratorio Of Sanidade Of Organismos Aquaticos
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2015

This study compared the parasite communities of Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from Amazon river system. Hoplias malabaricus were infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Tetrahymena sp., Urocleidoides eremitus, Braga patagonica, metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and larvae of Nomimoscolex matogrossensis. Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were also infected by these same species of protozoans, nematodes, digeneans and cestodes, except for Tetrahymena sp. and B. patagonica, which were replaced by Argulus pestifer, Urocleidoides sp., Whittingtonocotyle caetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. For both hosts, I. multifiliis and P. pillulare were the predominant parasites. Most of the parasites presented an overdispersion. Parasite species richness, Brillouin diversity, evenness and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for the two hosts. The length and weight of H. malabaricus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of U. eremitus and Contracaecum sp., while the weight of H. unitaeniatus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of I. multifiliis. The diversity of ectoparasites seemed to be influenced by the behavior of these two hosts. This was shown by the similar parasite communities and was characterized by low species diversity, low evenness and low richness, and by a high prevalence of ectoparasites.

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