Moroni, Comoros
Moroni, Comoros

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Hassane S.O.S.,Université Ibn Tofail | Hassane S.O.S.,University des Comores | Hassane S.O.S.,Laboratoire Of Controle Qualite | Satrani B.,Université Ibn Tofail | And 4 more authors.
Phytotherapie | Year: 2011

This work aims to study of antibacterial and antifungical activities and chemical composition of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims, harvested in the regions of Maweni-Dimani and Ivoini-Mitsamihouli on the island of Grande Comore. The yields of essential oil showed that Ocimum canum from Maweni-Dimani (2.06%) is higher than for Ivoini-Mitsamihouli (1.4%). The first one essential oil presents 1,8-cineole (48.88%), camphor (14.98%), α-pinene (5.71%), β-pinene (4.66%) and γ-elemene (3.91%) as predominate constituents. The second sample is mainly composed by 1,8-cineole (34.22%), camphor (13.69%), isopropyl propanoate (9.13%), γ-elemene (5.43%) and α-pinene (3.83%). The antimicrobial activity of two essential oils of two sources has been studied against eleven microorganisms. The essential oil of Ivoini-Mitsamihouli inhibits bacteria, fungus and mildews particularly at low concentrations compared to that of Maweni-Dimani. © 2011 Springer Verlag.


Marsden C.D.,University of California at Davis | Cornel A.,University of California at Davis | Lee Y.,University of California at Davis | Sanford M.R.,University of California at Davis | And 8 more authors.
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2013

Considerable technological advances have been made towards the generation of genetically modified mosquitoes for vector control. In contrast, less progress has been made towards field evaluations of transformed mosquitoes which are critical for evaluating the success of, and hazards associated with, genetic modification. Oceanic islands have been highlighted as potentially the best locations for such trials. However, population genetic studies are necessary to verify isolation. Here, we used a panel of genetic markers to assess for evidence of genetic isolation of two oceanic island populations of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. We found no evidence of isolation between the Bijagós archipelago and mainland Guinea-Bissau, despite separation by distances beyond the known dispersal capabilities of this taxon. Conversely, the Comoros Islands appear to be genetically isolated from the East African mainland, and thus represent a location worthy of further investigation for field trials. Based on assessments of gene flow within and between the Comoros islands, the island of Grande Comore was found to be genetically isolated from adjacent islands and also exhibited local population structure, indicating that it may be the most suitable site for trials with existing genetic modification technologies. © 2013 The Authors.


PubMed | University of California at Los Angeles, University des Comores and University of California at Davis
Type: | Journal: F1000Research | Year: 2015

Knockdown resistance ( kdr) and CYP9K1 genotypes were detected by a MOLDI-TOF based SNP genotyping assay (Sequenom iPLEX) in samples of Anopheles gambiae collected at 13 sites throughout the Union of the Comoros and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during February and March 2011. All A. gambiae specimens collected in the Comoros were homozygous for the susceptible kdr alleles (+/+) while 96% of A. gambiae from Dar es Salaam were homozygous for the East African kdr resistant genotype (E/E). In contrast, all specimens from Dar es Salaam and the Comoros were homozygous for the cyp3 allele (c3/c3) at the CYP9K1 locus; the locus has been implicated in metabolic resistance against pyrethroid insecticides in West Africa. All specimens had typical A. gambiae genotypes for SNPs within the divergence Islands on all three chromosomes. Although further spatial and temporal studies are needed, the distribution of kdr genotypes between the Comoros and Tanzania further supports isolation of the Comoros populations from A. gambiae populations on mainland Africa .


Rakotoarivelo F.,University of Reunion Island | Rakotoarivelo F.,University of Antananarivo | Andilyat M.,University of Antananarivo | Andilyat M.,University des Comores | And 2 more authors.
Plant Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011

Background and aims - Jumellea pailleri F.Rakotoar. (Orchidaceae), a new endemic species from the Comoro Archipelago is described and illustrated. Methods - Description and comparison of herbarium material from the herbarium of Comoro and Réunion Islands University (REU) have been done. Key results - Different from other Jumellea species from Comoro Island, J. pailleri resembles to J. bathiei Schltr. and J. ibityana Schltr., which are endemic to Madagascar. A key to identify Jumellea species from Comoro Islands is provided. The new species is illustrated, its distribution is given and its conservation status.


Randrianambinintsoa F.J.,University of Antananarivo | Randrianambinintsoa F.J.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | Randrianambinintsoa F.J.,IRD Montpellier | Depaquit J.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | And 6 more authors.
Parasite | Year: 2012

No Phlebotomine sandflies had ever been reported in the Comoros Archipelago, including the three islands of the Republic of the Union of Comoros (Grande Comore, Mohéli and Anjouan) and the French oversea department of Mayotte. During three field surveys carried out in 2003, 2007 and 2011, we provided the first record of Phlebotomine sandflies in this area. A total of 85 specimens belonging to three species were caught: a new species S. (Vattieromyia) pessoni n. sp. (two females from Grande Comore), a new subspecies of Sergentomyia (Rondanomyia) goodmani (80 specimens from Grande Comore and one from Anjouan) and Grassomyia sp. (two females from Mohéli). The individualisation of these taxa was inferred both from morphological criteria and sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b of the mitochondrial DNA. These taxa are closely related to Malagasy sandflies.


Boussougou G.B.,University of Reunion Island | Brou Y.T.,UMRESPACE DEV IRD | Mohamed I.,University des Comores
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2015

Agriculture production linked to population growth is one of the main motors of forest degradation in the World. In the Union of the Comoros, deforestation is particularly attributed to slash-and-burn farming as well as cultures in the forest and other uses of the forest such as charcoal production. In recent times, very few statistic and cartographic information is known concerning the spatiotemporal evolution of Comorian forests. The aim of this study is to highlight the changes in the forest cover by the use of high resolution spatial satellite images, on the period of 1995 to 2014, on the Isle of Anjouan: The most affected by the deforestation phenomena. The analysis of the results showed that from 1995 to 2014, the dense forests of Anjouan diminished by 7311 hectares at a rate of 8% per year. Linking the original anthropogenic factors and land-use maps show that the dynamics of the land-use are due to multiple factors like the rapid growth of the population. More and more pressure is applied on the lands due to the increased demands of agricultural products.


Nadhurou B.,University of Turin | Righini R.,University of Turin | Gamba M.,University of Turin | Laiolo P.,University of Turin | And 2 more authors.
ORYX | Year: 2015

The decline of the mongoose lemur Eulemur mongoz has resulted in a change of its conservation status from Vulnerable to Critically Endangered. Assessing the current threats to the species and the attitudes of the people coexisting with it is fundamental to understanding whether and how human impacts may affect populations. A questionnaire-based analysis was used to study the impact of agriculture and other subsistence activities, and local educational initiatives, on lemur abundance, group size and composition in the Comoros. On the islands of Mohéli and Anjouan we recorded 214 lemurs in 63 groups, the size and composition of which depended both on environmental parameters and the magnitude and type of anthropogenic pressure. There was no evidence of an impact of anthropogenic disturbance on abundance. In contrast, group size and composition were sensitive to human impacts. The most important threats were conflicts related to crop raiding, as well as illegal capture and hunting. The promotion of educational activities reduced the negative impact of hunting and illegal activities. These results highlight a need for urgent conservation measures to protect the species. Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2015


Hassani M.S.,University des Comores
Asian Biotechnology and Development Review | Year: 2011

The Comoros Archipelago markets ylang ylang essential oil, vanilla pods and cloves. During these last years, the prices of these commodities have slumped on the world market. While the Comoros Islands are known to have a rich and varied flora - second next to Madagascar in terms of endemic species, the potential for the exploitation of the flora has remained untapped. Thus, further exploration of the indigenous and endemic flora could unlock the potential of the aromatic plants currently being used in traditional medicine. It is also an undeniable fact that the preservation and diversification to the value-addition of aromatic plants can allow the Comoros Archipelago to make a very important impact on livelihoods especially to the women folks who are the primary agriculturalists. © 2011, RIS.


Toyb M.,Ministere de la Sante | Ouledi A.,University des Comores | Gauzere B.-A.,Service de reanimation polyvalente | Gauzere B.-A.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Aubry P.,University of Bordeaux 1
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2016

The four volcanic islands of the Comoros archipelago are an area of intense, stable and permanent malaria transmission, almost exclusively with Plasmodium falciparum. Our purpose is to describe the current situation on malaria in Mayotte and Comoros in 2015, after the implementation of various strategies of control during the past 15 years. In 2015, Mayotte is in the phase of elimination of malaria. In the three islands forming the Union of Comoros, the transmission is much lower in the islands of Anjouan (incidence of 0.02‰) and Moheli (incidence of 0.14‰), ranking the two islands in pre-elimination phase. Grande Comore (incidence of 3.68‰) remains in the control phase with not enough time to assess what the mass treatment campaign long-term effects might be. These strategies could be applied in other islands with endemic malaria and with limited population. © 2016, Springer-Verlag France.


PubMed | Ministere de la Sante, Service de reanimation polyvalente, University of Bordeaux 1 and University des Comores
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990) | Year: 2016

The four volcanic islands of the Comoros archipelago are an area of intense, stable and permanent malaria transmission, almost exclusively with Plasmodium falciparum. Our purpose is to describe the current situation on malaria in Mayotte and Comoros in 2015, after the implementation of various strategies of control during the past 15 years. In 2015, Mayotte is in the phase of elimination of malaria. In the three islands forming the Union of Comoros, the transmission is much lower in the islands of Anjouan (incidence of 0.02) and Moheli (incidence of 0.14), ranking the two islands in pre-elimination phase. Grande Comore (incidence of 3.68) remains in the control phase with not enough time to assess what the mass treatment campaign long-term effects might be. These strategies could be applied in other islands with endemic malaria and with limited population.

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