Seyller C.,Consultant |
Desbureaux S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Desbureaux S.,University Dauvergne Clermont Ferrand |
Ongolo S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
And 5 more authors.
International Forestry Review | Year: 2016
Certification standard bodies in climate governance are assumed to function as independent third parties agencies in transactions, providing trust and transparency to ensure that the calculation of carbon credits is reliable. This article investigates the validity of this assumption for the voluntary forest carbon market by analysing the environmental credibility of baseline scenarios of two certified REDD+ projects, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (the Maï Ndombe REDD+ Project) and in Madagascar (The CAZ REDD+ Project). Authors show that these two certified REDD+ projects resemble 'virtual emission reduction machines' designed to inflate the production of carbon credits and that they do not structurally change the local economy characteristics which drive deforestation. The design of both REDD+ and certification standards business models leads almost inevitably to the decision to use a baseline scenario with high deforestation rates and to limited interventions in the field. The need to deal with the carbon market's price volatility and to cover the fixed costs of certification exacerbates this trend towards inflated baselines, which also assists in the reduction of land use conflicts with local populations.
Lebreton A.,Center Hospitalier University |
Lebreton A.,University Dauvergne Clermont Ferrand |
Lavigne G.,University of Nimes
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires | Year: 2012
At this day, the development of inhibitory alloantibodies against FVIII or FIX is the main iatrogenic complication of haemophilia A or B. These antibodies compromise the efficacity of the substitutive therapy. Consequences for the physicians are medical, psychologic, social and economic. The development of autoantibodies against coagulation factors in a subject without coagulopathy is a life-threatening event called acquired haemophilia. The detection of anti-factors antibodies and tools available for their physiopathologic study are on constant evolution. The aim of this review is to summarize the mode of interaction, the risk factors and the detection tools for these antibodies. New tools for fine epitope mapping are also exposed. These new technologies are essential for a better understanding of the physiopathologic mechanisms of such antibodies. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Harris H.,Karolinska Institutet |
Harris H.,Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center |
Harris H.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center |
Wolk A.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics | Year: 2016
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signalling protein that has been established as a contributor to tumor angiogenesis, and expression of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGFR2 and sVEGFR3) have been demonstrated in breast cancer cells. However, no prospective studies have examined the association between prediagnostic sVEGFR levels and breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Swedish Mammography Cohort examining the association between sVEGFR2 and 3 levels and breast cancer risk. The analysis included 69 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 719 controls. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjustment for breast cancer risk factors, sVEGFR2 levels were associated with breast cancer risk (OR=1.28; 95% CI=1.06-1.56 per 1000 ng/L increase in concentration) while sVEGFR3 levels were not related to such risk (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.93-1.07). Our results suggest that sVEGFR2 levels may be positively associated with breast cancer risk, however future studies with larger case groups are necessary to confirm this association. © 2016, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.