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Talbot A.,Brigham Young University | Devarajan D.,Brigham Young University | Gustafson S.J.,Brigham Young University | Fernandez I.,University ComplutenseMadrid | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Organic Chemistry

Abstract Heteroaromatic azadienes, especially 1,2,4,5-tetrazines, are extremely reactive partners with alkenes in inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions. Azadiene cycloaddition reactions are used to construct heterocycles in synthesis and are popular as bioorthogonal reactions. The origin of fast azadiene cycloaddition reactivity is classically attributed to the inverse frontier molecular orbital (FMO) interaction between the azadiene LUMO and alkene HOMO. Here, we use a combination of ab initio, density functional theory, and activation-strain model calculations to analyze physical interactions in heteroaromatic azadiene-alkene cycloaddition transition states. We find that FMO interactions do not control reactivity because, while the inverse FMO interaction becomes more stabilizing, there is a decrease in the forward FMO interaction that is offsetting. Rather, fast cycloadditions are due to a decrease in closed-shell Pauli repulsion between cycloaddition partners. The kinetic-thermodynamic relationship found for these inverse-electron-demand cycloadditions is also due to the trend in closed-shell repulsion in the cycloadducts. Cycloaddition regioselectivity, however, is the result of differences in occupied-unoccupied orbital interactions due to orbital overlap. These results provide a new predictive model and correct physical basis for heteroaromatic azadiene reactivity and regioselectivity with alkene dieneophiles. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Wulandari M.,University ComplutenseMadrid | Wulandari M.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Urraca J.L.,University ComplutenseMadrid | Urraca J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared by a noncovalent imprinting approach, for cleanup and preconcentration of curcumin (CUR) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) from medicinal herbal extracts and further analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Two molecular mimics, a mixture of reduced BDMCs and 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone (HPB), have been synthesized and applied as templates for MIP synthesis. The polymers were prepared using N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide (EAMA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker (in a 1:5 molar ratio), and a mixture of acetonitrile/dimethylsulfoxide (90 %, v/v) as porogen. MIPs prepared using a mixture of reduced BDMCs as template showed higher selectivity for CUR and BDMC than those obtained with HPB, with imprinting factors of 3.5 and 2.7 for CUR and BDMC, respectively, using H2O/acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) as mobile phase. The adsorption isotherms for CUR in the MIP and the nonimprinted polymer (NIP) were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model, and the calculated average binding affinities for CUR were (17 ± 2) and (8 ± 1) mM-1 for the MIP and the NIP, respectively. The polymers were packed into solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and the optimized molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE-HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) method allowed the extraction of both curcuminoids from aqueous samples (50 mM NH4Ac, pH 8.8) followed by a selective washing with acetonitrile/NH4Ac, 50 mM at pH 8.8 (30:70 %, v/v), and elution with 3 × 1 mL of MeOH. Good recoveries and precision ranging between 87 and 92 %, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of <5.3 % (n = 3), were obtained after the preconcentration of 10-mL solutions containing both CUR and BDMC at concentrations in the range of 0-500 μg L-1. The optimized method has been applied to the analysis of both curcuminoids in medicinal herbal extracts. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Valentin A.,Kings College | Valentin A.,University ComplutenseMadrid | Ughratdar I.,Kings College | Cheserem B.,Kings College | And 4 more authors.

Summary Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC), defined as a syndrome of continuous focal jerking, is a rare form of focal status epilepticus that usually affects a distal limb, and when prolonged, can produce long-lasting deficits in limb function. Substantial electrophysiologic evidence links the origin of EPC to the motor cortex; thus surgical resection carries the risk of significant handicap. We present two patients with focal, drug-resistant EPC, who were admitted for intracranial video-electroencephalography monitoring to elucidate the location of the epileptogenic focus and identification of eloquent motor cortex with functional mapping. In both cases, the focus resided at or near eloquent motor cortex and therefore precluded resective surgery. Chronic cortical stimulation delivered through subdural strips at the seizure focus (continuous stimulation at 60-130 Hz, 2-3 mA) resulted in >90% reduction in seizures and abolition of the EPC after a follow-up of 22 months in both patients. Following permanent implantation of cortical stimulators, no adverse effects were noted. EPC restarted when intensity was reduced or batteries depleted. Battery replacement restored previous improvement. This two-case report opens up avenues for the treatment of this debilitating condition. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Navas M.,Hospital Universitario Infanta LeonorMadrid | Quintero J.,University ComplutenseMadrid
Medicine (Spain)

Mental illness during the perinatal period is quite frequent and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for mothers and their children. It is recommended that professionals in contact with obstetric process have basic knowledge of psychopathology, and develop skills to assess the mental health of the mother with special attention to her previous psychiatric history. Women whose pregnancy or postpartum is complicated by a mental disease should have access to mental health care. It is importance the early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, to improve prognosis and to promote a safety link between the mother with her baby, which is absolutely necessary for their physical and psychological development. Source

Zamora-Carreras H.,Institute Quimica Fisica Rocasolano | Torres M.,University ComplutenseMadrid | Bustamante N.,Institute Quimica Fisica Rocasolano | Macedo A.L.,New University of Lisbon | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

Abstract Ole e 9 and Fra e 9 are two allergenic β-1,3-glucanases from olive and ash tree pollens, respectively. Both proteins present a modular structure with a catalytic N-terminal domain and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at the C-terminus. Despite their significant sequence resemblance, they differ in some functional properties, such as their catalytic activity and the carbohydrate-binding ability. Here, we have studied the different capability of the recombinant C-terminal domain of both allergens to bind laminarin by NMR titrations, binding assays and ultracentrifugation. We show that rCtD-Ole e 9 has a higher affinity for laminarin than rCtD-Fra e 9. The complexes have different exchange regimes on the NMR time scale in agreement with the different affinity for laminarin observed in the biochemical experiments. Utilising NMR chemical shift perturbation data, we show that only one side of the protein surface is affected by the interaction and that the binding site is located in the inter-helical region between α1 and α2, which is buttressed by aromatic side chains. The binding surface is larger in rCtD-Ole e 9 which may account for its higher affinity for laminarin relative to rCtD-Fra e 9. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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