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PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, University Complutense Of Madridmadrid, Autonomous University of Madrid, Camilo José Cela University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in neuroscience | Year: 2016

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimers disease (AD). The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM). Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well-understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus, the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control.

Avila-Brande D.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Arenas-Esteban D.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Otero-Diaz L.C.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Guerrero-Martinez A.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

A novel and straightforward preparation route of an activated nanoporous carbon, produced from abundant biomass, containing a fine dispersion of gold nanoparticles within the carbon microstructure and its application as a supercapacitor electrode material is presented. A remarkable increase of the volumetric capacitance value, with respect to the activated nanoporous electrode without gold nanoparticles, was observed. Interestingly, the electrochemical series resistances of the symmetric cell decreased up to one order of magnitude in comparison with the unmodified carbon material. The incorporation of gold nanoparticles overcomes the characteristic irreversible charge storage of activated carbon electrodes containing surface oxygenated groups. All these findings pave the way to a novel synthetic route of highly-dense carbon nanocomposites for the design of new electrode architectures with potential application in electrical double-layer capacitor development. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, University of Malaga, University Institute of Mental Health and University Complutense Of Madridmadrid
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience | Year: 2017

Maternal malnutrition causes long-lasting alterations in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in offspring. It is still unknown whether both, the endocannabinoid (eCB) machinery and the lipid metabolism are implicated in long-term adaptive responses to fetal reprogramming caused by maternal undernutrition. We investigated the long-term effects of maternal exposure to a 20% standard diet restriction during preconceptional and gestational periods on the metabolically-relevant tissues hypothalamus, liver, and perirenal fat (PAT) of male and female offspring at adulthood. The adult male offspring from calorie-restricted dams (RC males) exhibited a differential response to the CB1 antagonist AM251 in a chocolate preference test as well as increased body weight, perirenal adiposity, and plasma levels of triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, bilirubin, and leptin. The gene expression of the cannabinoid receptors

Elkouss D.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Elkouss D.,Technical University of Delft | Strelchuk S.,University of Cambridge
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

The quantum capacity of a quantum channel is always smaller than the capacity of the channel for private communication. Both quantities are given by the infinite regularization of the coherent and the private information, respectively, which makes their evaluation very difficult. Here, we construct a family of channels for which the private and coherent information can remain strictly superadditive for unbounded number of uses, thus demonstrating that the regularization is necessary. We prove this by showing that the coherent information is strictly larger than the private information of a smaller number of uses of the channel. This implies that even though the quantum capacity is upper bounded by the private capacity, the nonregularized quantities can be interleaved. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Molina M.C.,Rey Juan Carlos University | Divakar P.K.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Gonzalez N.,Rey Juan Carlos University
Mycoscience | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimum conditions for culturing Anaptychia ciliaris mycobionts in vitro and analyzing their ontogenetic development while in culture. After the testing of two germination and four development media, results of germination and growth were evaluated. We here recommend the use of basal medium without additional carbon source for germination process. Mycobiont growth was possible in all organic media tested. The maximum mycobiont growth was observed in Lilly and Barnet medium enriched with 3% glucose. © 2014 The Mycological Society of Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gomez-Herrero A.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Landa-Canovas A.R.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Otero-Diaz L.C.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid
Journal of Solid State Chemistry | Year: 2015

Abstract In the Sb-Nb-S system four new misfit layer phases have been found and carefully investigated via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Their structures are of composite modulated structure type with stoichiometries that can be formulated as (SbS)1+δ(NbS2)n; for n=1, δ~1.14 and 1.19; for n=2, δ~1.18 and for n=3, δ~1.19. Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) patterns show an almost commensurate fit between the pseudo-tetragonal (SbS) and the pseudo-orthohexagonal (NbS2)n subcells along the misfit direction a, with 3(SbS)≈5(NbS2), being b the same for both sub-lattices and c the stacking direction. For n=1, a commensurate phase with 4aSbS=7aNbS2 has also been observed. In addition to the characteristic misfit and associated modulation of the two sub-structures, a second modulation is also present which appears to be primarily associated with the (SbS) sub-structure of both the n=1 and n=2 phases. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images show ordered stacking sequences between the (SbS) and (NbS2)n lamellae for each of the four phases, however, disordered intergrowths were also occasionally found. Most of the crystals showed different kinds of twinning defects on quite a fine scale. Many crystals showed curled up edges. In some cases the lamellar crystals were entirely folded giving rise to similar diffraction patterns as found for cylindrical crystals. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Retuerto M.,Niels Bohr Institute | Munoz A.,Charles III University of Madrid | Martinez-Lope M.J.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Alonso J.A.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | And 3 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2015

R2NiMnO6 (R = Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) perovskites have been prepared by soft-chemistry techniques followed by high oxygen-pressure treatments; they have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and magnetic measurements. In all cases the crystal structure is defined in the monoclinic P21/n space group, with an almost complete order between Ni2+ and Mn4+ cations in the octahedral perovskite sublattice. The low temperature NPD data and the macroscopic magnetic measurements indicate that all the compounds are ferrimagnetic, with a net magnetic moment different from zero and a distinct alignment of Ni and Mn spins depending on the nature of the rare-earth cation. The magnetic structures are different from the one previously reported for La2NiMnO6, with a ferromagnetic structure involving Mn4+ and Ni2+ moments. This spin alignment can be rationalized taking into account the Goodenough-Kanamori rules. The magnetic ordering temperature (TCM) decreases abruptly as the size of the rare earth decreases, since TCM is mainly influenced by the superexchange interaction between Ni2+ and Mn4+ (Ni2+-O-Mn4+ angle) and this angle decreases with the rare-earth size. The rare-earth magnetic moments participate in the magnetic structures immediately below TCM. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Insuasty A.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Atienza C.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Lopez J.L.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Martin N.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Martin N.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

The supramolecular organization of new fullerene derivatives endowed with peptides as biomolecular templates affords ordered nanofibers of several micrometres length based on hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Haigh-Florez D.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Cano-Raya C.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Bedoya M.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid | Orellana G.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2015

Abstract An original CO2 analyser has been developed using just a phase-sensitive luminescent O2 sensor as transducer. The goal of this work is to provide a robust sensor for continuous monitoring of microalgae cultures in solar reactors for biomass production. At the pH of the culture medium (8-9), the microorganism carbon source is largely present as HCO3-. Acidification of the sample near the sensor head converts it into CO2. The automatic analyser is based on the physical competition between the two gases for the head space of the measuring chamber of a specially designed flow cell. A second chamber is used to determine the O2 background level. Measurements with the dual-head CO2 sensor were validated with a reference method and demonstrated to be statistically significant (t = 1.61 for 8 degrees of freedom and t = 2.02 for 8 degrees of freedom, for NaHCO3 and sample solutions, respectively). The optosensor displays a dynamic range of 20-200 mM HCO3-, suitable (and tuneable) for the application sought, with adequate response and recovery times (t90 and t-90 of 11 and 18 min, respectively, for a 0 to 60 mM HCO3- step change). The CO2 analyser has been tested with microalgae cultures both in the laboratory and in field pilot measurements. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Aleja D.,Charles III University of Madrid | Lopez-Gomez J.,University Complutense Of Madridmadrid
Advanced Nonlinear Studies | Year: 2015

In this paper we characterize the dynamics of a generalized version of the model of Belgacem and Cosner [5] within the range of values of the parameters where the trivial steady state is unstable and the problem cannot admit a positive steady state. In such regimes, the dynamics is governed by the metasolutions.

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