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Maria Ruiz-Rodriguez B.,University Complut Madrid Ucm | De Ancos B.,Institute Cienc Tecnol Aliment Nutr | Sanchez-Moreno C.,Institute Cienc Tecnol Aliment Nutr | Fernandez-Ruiz V.,University Complut Madrid Ucm | And 3 more authors.
Fruits | Year: 2014

Introduction. Many underutilized wild fruits have great nutritional and functional potential, providing chemical compounds with biological properties. Materials and methods. In the present work we quantified bioactive compounds such as vitamin C (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids), and total phenolic compounds composed mainly of phenolic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins, as well as evaluating the antioxidant capacity through different in vitro tests (Folin-Ciocalteu, ABTS·+, DPPH· and FRAP) in wild blackthorn (P. spinosa L.) and hawthorn (C. monogyna Jacq.) fruits of Spanish origin, including samples from different seasons and locations. Results and discussion. As expected, wide variability was found in the composition of fruits of the same species, which justifies the necessity of analyzing several batches of wild fruits, in order to have representative results taking into account the natural variability. Fruits of P. spinosa showed vitamin C content ranging between (5.14 and 15.35) mg·100 g-1 fw (mainly dehydroascorbic acid); total phenolic compounds ranged from (1851 to 3825) mg·100 g-1 fw, characterized by a high content of anthocyanins and phenolic acids. Fruits of C. monogyna presented (16 to 39) mg vitamin C·100 g-1 fw and (449 to 1438) mg total phenolic compounds·100 g-1 fw, characterized by a high content of phenolic acids and flavonols. Antioxidant capacity was higher for P. spinosa fruits than for C. monogyna fruits; DPPH· values showed a strong correlation with vitamin C, while phenolic compounds were a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these fruit extracts. Fruits of P. spinosa and C. monogyna should be reconsidered as new valuable sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants. © 2014 Cirad/EDP Sciences.


Ruiz-Rodriguez B.M.,University Complut Madrid Ucm | Sanchez-Moreno C.,Institute Cienc Tecnol Aliment Nutr | De Ancos B.,Institute Cienc Tecnol Aliment Nutr | Cortes Sanchez-Mata M.D.,University Complut Madrid Ucm | And 3 more authors.
Fruits | Year: 2014

Introduction. Several studies reveal the important role played by 'lesser-known' wild fruits since they contain nutritional and functional compounds which have biological properties. Materials and methods. Our work studied the presence of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), total phenolic content, phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS•+ and DPPH• in vitro tests) in wild fruits of Arbutus unedo L. and Rubus ulmifolius Schott of Spanish origin, including samples from different seasons and locations. Results and discussion. A wide variability was found in the composition of fruits of the same species, which substantiates the importance of analyzing several batches of wild fruits, to achieve representative results, taking into account the natural variability. Arbustus unedo fruits showed higher vitamin C, mainly in the ascorbic acid form, and phenolic content than R. ulmifolius [(172-419) mg ascorbic acid×100 g-1 fw vs. (5.99-26.83) mg ascorbic acid×100 g-1 fw, and (773-1621) mg total phenolic compounds×100 g-1 fw vs. (376-1326) mg total phenolic compounds×100 g-1 fw, respectively]; phenolic acids and anthocyanins are the major groups of phenolic compounds found in both species, with gallic acid and cyanidin 3-glucoside as the main compounds. Arbustus unedo fruits showed significantly higher Folin-Ciocalteu values than those of R. ulmifolius. These values are higher than those reported for the majority of berries. The significant correlations found among different antioxidant compounds (r > 0.6300, P < 0.001) may reveal a protective effect between ascorbic acid and phenolic acids or anthocyanins in the fruits. Therefore, Arbutus unedo and R. ulmifolius fruits should be considered as new important sources of safe antioxidants. © 2014 Cirad/EDP Sciences.

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