Eriksen K.K.,University College Zealand
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education | Year: 2015
Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of knowing or not knowing about our genetic make-up. Thus, as techniques for genetic testing are increasingly employed, demands on health professionals are changing. Health professionals must be able to inform and guide patients, and therefore they need knowledge and competencies related to both the technical and the ethical dimensions of genetic testing. This paper explores the requirements of the general education of health professionals if this need for ethics is acknowledged. It is suggested that it is important to include both an individualised and a societal ethical perspective to the development of genomic healthcare and that a key concept in doing so is 'professional reflectivity'. Employing one concrete example of teaching, this concept of reflectivity is operationalised in the health educational setting at the bachelor's level with a special focus on biomedical laboratory science, and three key concepts are developed: Gap sensitive interaction, professional humility, and contextual awareness. Additionally, anchored ethical dialog is explored as an instructional design that may support the development of reflectivity among health professionals. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Ray-Kaeser S.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland |
Satink T.,HAN University of Applied Sciences |
Satink T.,University of Amsterdam |
Andresen M.,University College Zealand |
And 3 more authors.
Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics | Year: 2015
The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version does not. Aims. To produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the DCDQ'07 for use in areas of Europe where French is spoken and to test its cultural relevance in French-speaking Switzerland. Methods. Cross-cultural adaptation was done using established guidelines. Cultural relevance was analyzed with cognitive interviews of thirteen parents of children aged 5.0 to 14.6 years (mean age: 8.5 years, SD = 3.4), using think-aloud and probing techniques. Results. Cultural and linguistic differences were noted between the European-French, the Canadian-French, and the original versions of the DCDQ'07. Despite correct translation and expert committee review, cognitive interviews revealed that certain items of the European-French version were unclear or misinterpreted and further modifications were needed. Conclusions. After rewording items as a result of the outcomes of the cognitive interview, the European-French version of the DCDQ'07 is culturally appropriate for use in French-speaking Switzerland. Further studies are necessary to determine its psychometric properties. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Jensen B.W.,Entrance |
Jensen B.W.,University of Southern Denmark |
Von Kappelgaard L.M.,University of Southern Denmark |
Nielsen B.M.,Institute of Preventive Medicine |
And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015
Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (β = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (β = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI - 0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (β = - 1·7 E%, 95 % CI - 3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (β = - 0·9, 95 % CI - 2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (β = - 0·8, 95 % CI - 1·5, - 0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging. Copyright © The Authors 2015.
Bukhave E.B.,University of Southern Denmark |
Bukhave E.B.,University College Zealand |
La Cour K.,University of Southern Denmark |
Huniche L.,University of Southern Denmark
Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy | Year: 2014
Objective: The aim of this paper is, first, to advance the understanding of participation and its relationship to activity; second, to add to discussions or understandings of the ICF by contributing an empirically derived understanding of participation and its relationship to activity connected to the conduct of everyday life in people with hand osteoarthritis (hand OA). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 31 men and women living with hand OA because existing research on this group and the challenges they encounter in their everyday life is sparse. The analytical process was inspired by Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis and informed by critical psychology and social practice theory as interpretive frameworks. Results: Our empirical findings indicate that persons with hand OA experience participation restrictions in their everyday lives and activity limitations as aspects of participation. This indicates that activity and participation are experienced as interrelated across social contexts. Conclusions: Participation in everyday life seems complex: what to participate in, how to participate and with whom seem of importance for subjective meaning-making. Implications are discussed in relation to methodology, the empirical findings, and clinical practice. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.
Nordstrom K.,Jonkoping University College |
Coff C.,University College Zealand |
Jonsson H.,Lund University |
Nordenfelt L.,Linkoping University |
And 2 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2013
In personalized nutrition, food is a tool for good health, implying an instrumental relationship between food and health. Food receives a secondary value, while health would appear to be a descriptive biological concept. This article gives an introduction to cultural understandings of food and health. The wider definition of food and health is explored in relation to the commonly used scientific approach that tends to take a more reductionist approach to food and health. The different discourses on food and health are being discussed in relation to ethical aspects of personalized nutrition. The success of personalized nutrition is likely dependent upon the ability to integrate the scientific approach with everyday cultural, emotional, ethical, and sensual understandings of food. Health theories can be divided into two principal rival types - biostatistical and holistic. Biostatistical focuses on survival, while holistic focuses on ability as a precondition for health. Arguments in favor of a holistic and individualistic theory of health and illness are presented. This implies a focus on the ability of the individual to realize his or her "vital goals." A holistic and individualistic health concept may have a reinforcing effect on the individualized approach in personalized nutrition. It allows focus on individual health premises and related dietary means of health promotion, as well as an individualized perspective on the objectives of health promotion. An individualistic notion of health also indicates that people with high levels of vital goals benefit more easily. To reach beyond these groups is likely difficult. This potential injustice should be balanced with global preventive medical programs. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.