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Landquart, Switzerland

Kandel M.,University College Physiotherapy | Baeyens J.P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Clarys P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
European Journal of Sport Science

The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R2=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes. © 2013 © 2013 European College of Sport Science. Source

Schneebeli A.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Southern Switzerland | Del Grande F.,Servizio di Radiologia | Vincenzo G.,Servizio di Radiologia | Cescon C.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Southern Switzerland | And 5 more authors.
Skeletal Radiology

Objective: To establish the test–retest reliability of sonoelastography (SE) on healthy Achilles tendons in contracted and relaxed states using an external reference system. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Achilles tendons from 24 healthy volunteers were assessed using ultrasound and real-time SE with an external reference material. Tendons were analyzed under relaxed and contracted conditions. Strain ratios between the tendons and the reference material were calculated. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2.k) and Bland–Altman plot were used to assess test–retest reliability. Results: The reliability of SE measurements under relaxed conditions ranged from high to very high, with an ICC2.k of 0.84 (95 % CI: 0.64–0.92) for reference material, 0.91 (95 % CI: 0.83–0.95) for Achilles tendons and 0.95 (95 % CI: 0.91–0.97) for Kager fat pads (KFP). The ICC2.k value for skin was 0.30 (95 % CI: –0.26 to 0.61). Reliability for measurements in the contracted state ranged from high to very high, with an ICC2.k of 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.87–0.96) for reference material, 0.72 (95 % CI: 0.50–0.84) for skin, 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.87–0.96) for Achilles tendons, and 0.81 (95 % CI: 0.66–0.89) for KFP. Reliability of the strain ratio (tendon/reference) under relaxed conditions was high with an ICC2.k of 0.87 (95 % CI: 0.75–0.93), and in the contracted state, it was very high with an ICC2.k of 0.94 (95 % CI: 0.90–0.97). Conclusion: Sonoelastography using an external reference material is a reliable and simple technique for the assessment of the elasticity of healthy Achilles tendons. The use of an external material as a reference, along with strain ratios, could provide a quantitative measure of elasticity. © 2016, ISS. Source

Maffiuletti N.A.,Neuromuscular Research Laboratory | Barbero M.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Southern Switzerland | Cescon C.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Southern Switzerland | Clijsen R.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Southern Switzerland | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology

This study examined the validity of the twitch interpolation technique for evaluating side-to-side asymmetries in quadriceps neuromuscular function. Fifty-six subjects with a wide range of asymmetries (19 healthy, 24 with unilateral and 13 with bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) took part in the study. Supramaximal electrical paired stimuli were delivered to the quadriceps muscle during and immediately after a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors (twitch interpolation technique). MVC torque, voluntary activation and resting doublet-evoked torque were measured separately for the two sides, and percent side-to-side asymmetries were calculated for each parameter. MVC torque asymmetry was plotted against voluntary activation asymmetry and doublet-evoked torque asymmetry, and a multiple regression analysis was also conducted. Significant positive correlations were observed between MVC torque asymmetry and both voluntary activation asymmetry (r = 0.40; p = 0.002) and doublet-evoked torque asymmetry (r = 0.53; p < 0.001), and their relative contribution to MVC torque asymmetry was comparable (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). These results establish the validity of the twitch interpolation technique for the assessment of neuromuscular asymmetries. This methodology could provide useful insights into the contribution of some neural and muscular mechanisms that underlie quadriceps strength deficits. © 2016. Source

Spieser L.,University College Physiotherapy | Clijsen R.,University College Physiotherapy | Clijsen R.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Clijsen R.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Southern Switzerland | And 4 more authors.

Objective: To establish the anthropometrical characteristics and the hand grip strength of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team. The measured values were compared with data from the literature. Methods: 24 members, 19 males (23.01±4.91 years) and five females (19.95±2.02 years), were measured. The following anthropometric measurements were made: body size, body weight, six skinfolds (SFT), two breadths, two circumferences, body fat (tanita scale, Durnin and Womersley method), BMI and determination of somatotypes. In addition, the hand grip strength was measured. The anthropometric measurements were carried out in accordance with ISAK guidelines. The literature search was done electronically using PubMed. Results: The mean somatotype of male judoka was 2,2±0,8 for the endomorphy, 6,0±0,9 for the mesomorphy and 2,0±0,7 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was balanced mesomorph. The mean hand grip strength of male judoka was 47,4±6,7kg. The mean somatotype of female judoka was 3.7±1.2 for the endomorphy, 4,9±0,7 for the mesomorphy and 1,5±0,3 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was mesomorphic endomorph. The mean hand grip strength of the female judoka was 27,0±3,1kg. There were anthropometric differences between the Swiss juniors and elite judoka and between the Swiss athletes and the athletes of the reference studies. Conclusion: The anthropometric data and the results of the hand grip strength give information, which components Swiss judoka should improve. A judoka who does not match the ideal profile can still be successful with the help of other factors (technical, tactical, mental strength). Source

Baeyens J.-P.,University College Physiotherapy | Baeyens J.-P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Baeyens J.-P.,University of Antwerp | Gilomen H.,University College Physiotherapy | And 8 more authors.
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of miniaturized electromagnetic trackers (1 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm) fixed on teeth of the maxilla and mandible to analyse in vivo the 3D kinematics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A third sensor was fixed to the forehead, and a fourth sensor was used as a stylus pointer to detect several anatomical landmarks in order to embed a local frame on the cranium. Temporomandibular opening/closing, chewing, laterotrusion and protrusion were examined. Results: The prime objective within this study was to rigidly attach electromagnetic minisensors on teeth. The key for a successful affixation was the kevlar interface. The distances between the two mandibular affixed sensors and between the two maxillar affixed sensors were overall smaller than 0.033 cm for position and 0.2 for attitude throughout the temporomandibular motions. The relative motions between a forehead sensor and the maxilla affixed sensor are too big to suggest a forehead sensor as an alternative for a maxilla affixed sensor. Conclusion: The technique using miniaturized electromagnetic trackers furthers on the methods using electromagnetic trackers on external appliances. The method allows full range of motion of the TMJ and does not disturb normal TMJ function. © 2012 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering. Source

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