University College of Applied Sciences
Gaza, Palestine

University College of Applied science is a technical college in Gaza founded in 1998. It offers 40 majors in engineering, health, technology, administration, education and the humanities. The school has a student population of 6,000. The main campus is in Gaza City. Females make up 50% of the student body.The College offers undergraduate degrees in a number of unique specializations such as education technology, technological management and planning, and geographic information systems. Wikipedia.

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Wen J.,University College of Applied Sciences | Wen J.,University of Arkansas | Zhang Y.,University College of Applied Sciences | Xiao M.,University College of Applied Sciences | Xiao M.,University of Arkansas
Advances in Optics and Photonics | Year: 2013

The Talbot effect, also referred to as self-imaging or lensless imaging, is of the phenomena manifested by a periodic repetition of planar field distributions in certain types of wave fields. This phenomenon is finding applications not only in optics, but also in a variety of research fields, such as acoustics, electron microscopy, plasmonics, x ray, and Bose-Einstein condensates. In optics, self-imaging is being explored particularly in image processing, in the production of spatial-frequency filters, and in optical metrology. In this article, we give an overview of Recent advances on the effect from classical optics to nonlinear optics and quantum optics. Throughout this review article there is an effort to clearly present the physical aspects of the self-imaging phenomenon. Mathematical formulations are reduced to the indispensable ones. Readers who prefer strict mathematical treatments should resort to the extensive list of references. Despite the rapid progress on the subject, new ideas and applications of Talbot self-imaging are still expected in the future. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Mekuria G.,Health Science University | Edris M.,University College of Applied Sciences
International Breastfeeding Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is the most widely known and effective intervention for preventing early-childhood deaths. Optimum breastfeeding practices can prevent 1.4 million deaths worldwide among children under five every year. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have an infant less than six months old in Debre Markos, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2013. A simple random sampling technique was used from a list of all mothers who had an infant less than six months old obtained from the health extension workers (HEWs) registration book in all kebeles (neighbourhoods) of the city. A total of 423 mothers with infants less than six months old were included in this study. Data were collected using questionnaires administered at interview. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during the seven days before the survey was 60.8% (95% CI: 55.8%, 65.8%). Those mothers who were unemployed [AOR = 1.98 (1.21, 3.22)], received breastfeeding counseling during antenatal care (ANC) [AOR = 2.44 (1.53, 3.91)], received infant feeding counseling during postnatal care (PNC) [AOR = 5.03 (3.04, 8.31)], didn't give prelacteal feeding [AOR = 3.44 (1.88, 6.33)] and had adequate knowledge about breastfeeding [AOR = 2.57 (1.57, 4.19)] were more likely to practice EBF than their counterparts. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was lower in the study area than international recommendations, rates were higher than found in other studies. Recommendations for improving exclusive breastfeeding include better support for working mothers through extending maternal leave and establishing work-site day care centers for infants, expanding the urban health extension program so that more pregnant women and mothers can be taught about appropriate infant and young child feeding practices and how to express their milk, thereby increasing their breastfeeding knowledge. © 2015 Mekuria and Edris; licensee BioMed Central.

Vongehr S.,University College of Applied Sciences
Annals of Physics | Year: 2013

There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Li L.,University College of Applied Sciences | Li T.,University College of Applied Sciences | Wang S.M.,University College of Applied Sciences | Zhu S.N.,University College of Applied Sciences
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We worked out a new group of collimated plasmon beams by the means of in-plane diffraction with symmetric phase modulation. As the phase type changes from 1.8 to 1.0, the beam undergoes an interesting evolution from focusing to a straight line. Upon this, an intuitive diagram was proposed to elucidate the beam nature and answer the question of whether they are nondiffracting or linear focusing. Based on this diagram, we further achieved a highly designable scheme to modulate the beam intensity (e.g., "lossless" plasmon). Our finding holds remarkable generality and flexibility in beam engineering and would inspire more intriguing photonic designs. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Hawari N.S.A.,University College of Applied Sciences
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To compare the metabolic effects of breaking up sedentary time with prolonged periods of standing versus multiple shorter standing bouts with the same total duration to determine whether, in principle, altering the frequency of ‘standing breaks’ in sedentary time, influences metabolic responses over the course of the day. METHODS: Ten normoglycaemic overweight/obese men (age 33±13 years; BMI 28.3±3.0 kg.m; mean±SD) each participated in three experimental trials in random order, in which they arrived fasted, then consumed a test breakfast (8 body weight, with 37% energy from fat, 49% from carbohydrates, 14% from protein) and, 4 hours later, an identical test lunch. Expired air and blood samples were taken fasted and for eight hours postprandially. In one trial (SIT) participants sat continuously throughout the observation period; in the prolonged standing trial (PRO-Stand), participants stood still for 15 minutes every 30 minutes; and in the intermittent standing trial (INT-Stand), they stood for 1.5 minutes, 10 times every 30 minutes. RESULTS: Compared to SIT energy expenditure was 320±62 kJ (10.7±2.0%) higher in PRO-Stand and 617±76 kJ (20.4±2.3%) higher in INT-Stand: energy expenditure in INT-Stand was 296±78 kJ (9.0±2.3%) higher than PRO-Stand (mean±SEM; all p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between trials in postprandial glucose, insulin or triglyceride responses. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate an independent effect of frequency of sedentary breaks on energy expenditure which provides an explanation for the association between frequency of sedentary breaks and adiposity observed in epidemiological data. However, it may be necessary to break up sitting with activities of greater intensity than quiet standing to positively influence glucose, insulin and triglyceride metabolism in relatively young, normoglycaemic overweight/obese men. © 2016 American College of Sports Medicine

Zain M.E.,University College of Applied Sciences
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds that have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The worldwide contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Some molds are capable of producing more than one mycotoxin and some mycotoxins are produced by more than one fungal species. Often more than one mycotoxin is found on a contaminated substrate. Mycotoxins occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate, favourable for the growth of molds, they can also be found in temperate zones. Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. The diseases caused by exposure to mycotoxins are known as mycotoxicoses. However, mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. Factors influencing the presence of mycotoxins in foods or feeds include environmental conditions related to storage that can be controlled. Other extrinsic factors such as climate or intrinsic factors such as fungal strain specificity, strain variation, and instability of toxigenic properties are more difficult to control. Mycotoxins have various acute and chronic effects on humans and animals (especially monogastrics) depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a species. Ruminants have, however, generally been more resistant to the adverse effects of mycotoxins. This is because the rumen microbiota is capable of degrading mycotoxins. The economic impact of mycotoxins include loss of human and animal life, increased health care and veterinary care costs, reduced livestock production, disposal of contaminated foods and feeds, and investment in research and applications to reduce severity of the mycotoxin problem. Although efforts have continued internationally to set guidelines to control mycotoxins, practical measures have not been adequately implemented. © 2010.

Mallikarjun S.,University College of Applied Sciences
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2015

This paper applies the unoriented DEA network methodology to measure US airlines' performance relative to that of peer airlines and identifies the sources of its inefficiency. The analysis of the results suggests that major US airlines are more efficient than national US airlines in spending operating expenses and gaining operating revenue, but there is no significant difference in their service supply and demand efficiencies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Greene K.L.,University College of Applied Sciences | Tonjes D.J.,University College of Applied Sciences
Waste Management | Year: 2014

The primary objective of waste management technologies and policies in the United States is to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of waste, particularly those relating to energy consumption and climate change. Performance indicators are frequently used to evaluate the environmental quality of municipal waste systems, as well as to compare and rank programs relative to each other in terms of environmental performance. However, there currently is no consensus on the best indicator for performing these environmental evaluations. The purpose of this study is to examine the common performance indicators used to assess the environmental benefits of municipal waste systems to determine if there is agreement between them regarding which system performs best environmentally. Focus is placed on how indicator selection influences comparisons between municipal waste management programs and subsequent system rankings. The waste systems of ten municipalities in the state of New York, USA, were evaluated using each common performance indicator and Spearman correlations were calculated to see if there was a significant association between system rank orderings. Analyses showed that rank orders of waste systems differ substantially when different indicators are used. Therefore, comparative system assessments based on indicators should be considered carefully, especially those intended to gauge environmental quality. Insight was also gained into specific factors which may lead to one system achieving higher rankings than another. However, despite the insufficiencies of indicators for comparative quality assessments, they do provide important information for waste managers and they can assist in evaluating internal programmatic performance and progress. To enhance these types of assessments, a framework for scoring indicators based on criteria that evaluate their utility and value for system evaluations was developed. This framework was used to construct an improved model for waste system performance assessments. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu P.,University College of Applied Sciences
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Combination of the advantages of the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and template-based techniques, the SI-ATRP from colloidal templates approach could be applied to fabricate the controllable-structured polymeric nanocapsules. The different crosslinking techniques, such as chemical crosslinking, ultraviolet (UV)-induced photo-crosslinking, and one-pot surface-initiated atom transfer radical crosslinking copolymerization (SI-ATRCP), for the controllable-structured crosslinked polymeric nanocapsules based on the SI-ATRP from colloidal templates strategy were reviewed. The controlling and tailoring on the size, crosslinking degree, and the surface properties of the polymeric nanocapsules was emphasized. And the stimuli-responsive properties and application in controlled release were also mentioned. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Tan Y.,University College of Applied Sciences
Nature Photonics | Year: 2016

Plasmonics has generated tremendous excitement because of its unique capability to focus light into subwavelength volumes, beneficial for various applications such as light harvesting, photodetection, sensing, catalysis and so on. Here we demonstrate a plasmon-enhanced solar desalination device, fabricated by the self–assembly of aluminium nanoparticles into a three-dimensional porous membrane. The formed porous plasmonic absorber can float naturally on water surface, efficiently absorb a broad solar spectrum (>96%) and focus the absorbed energy at the surface of the water to enable efficient (∼90%) and effective desalination (a decrease of four orders of magnitude). The durability of the devices has also been examined, indicating a stable performance over 25 cycles under various illumination conditions. The combination of the significant desalination effect, the abundance and low cost of the materials, and the scalable production processes suggest that this type of plasmon-enhanced solar desalination device could provide a portable desalination solution. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group

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