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University College Birmingham, is a university in Birmingham, England. It was awarded full University status in 2012 along with Newman University. The university is located in central Birmingham and offers both vocational and academic education at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. The university specialises in the areas of hospitality and the culinary arts, hairdressing and beauty, tourism, business enterprise, marketing, business management, accounting, finance, events management, sports management, sports medicine, sports therapy and Early Years education. Wikipedia.

Borzabadi-Farahani A.,University College Birmingham
World journal of orthodontics | Year: 2010

To determine the malocclusion complexity and orthodontic treatment need in urban Iranian schoolchildren using the Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON) and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to also assess the relationship between these indices. The study sample comprised 502 individuals (253 girls and 249 boys, 11 to 14 years of age), of whom one girl and five boys already had an orthodontic appliance at the time of the survey. In those individuals not wearing orthodontic appliances (n=496), the definitive treatment need (ICON>43) and compartments of the ICON were defined and compared between sexes. The Aesthetic Component and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the IOTN were also recorded. Scatter plots and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to explore the relationships between the ICON and DHC and the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the IOTN. According to ICON, DHC (IOTN), and Aesthetic Component (IOTN), 46.6%, 36.1%, and 17.9%, respectively, of the studied children needed orthodontic treatment; however, only 1.1% wore an appliance. In terms of complexity, 26.4% of the studied individuals were considered to have a difficult or very difficult malocclusion. With regard to treatment needs, significant correlations existed between the ICON scores and DHC (IOTN) (r=0.93) and between the ICON scores and the esthetic component (IOTN) (r=0.96). The threshold for treatment need was lower in the ICON than in the IOTN. Of the children who were classified in the borderline category of the IOTN (DHC=3), 52.0% were in need of treatment according to their ICON score (ICON>43). No sex difference was found for treatment need (ICON>43, P>.05) and treatment complexity (P>.05). According to the ICON, 46.6% of the Iranian schoolchildren need orthodontic treatment. ICON is a good substitute for the IOTN, yet it results in a lower treatment-need threshold. COPYRIGHT © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

Farndale R.,University College Birmingham
Primary health care research & development | Year: 2011

To explore how irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) impacts on patients' lives in order to explain the reported reduction in quality of life (QOL). IBS affects 10-20% of the population and over half of the people with the condition consult in primary care, with many consultations ending unsatisfactorily. IBS is known to have a detrimental effect on the QOL, though the mechanisms through which this is affected are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the patient experience of IBS would facilitate better healthcare provision. Eighteen semi-structured, in-depth interviews were undertaken in the West Midlands, United Kingdom from August 2006 to March 2008. Interviews were carried out until data saturation was achieved. All interviewees had previously taken part in one of the two recent primary care-based IBS studies and were long-term sufferers of IBS. Participants were purposively sampled to capture a range of experiences and included both genders, a range of ages, symptom severity scores and IBS sub-types. In contrast to the previously reported 'worried well' label, participants reported integration of the disease into their lives to the extent that it became a part of their identity. Even so, IBS did at times prevent their participation in everyday activities. Strategies used by participants to manage symptoms were an integral part of daily living and events which threatened routine coping strategies caused stress and exacerbated symptoms. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies were identified. These were in part patient created, but for many incorporated advice or medication provided by their doctor. The findings not only confirm the extensive impact of IBS on daily living but also expose the additional impacts of IBS on emotional well-being and self-identity. The reduced QOL reported in previous studies may be an underestimate of the impact of IBS on patients' lives as patients integrate coping mechanisms completely into daily living.

Efstathiou N.,University College Birmingham
Nursing in critical care | Year: 2011

The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges critical care nurses face when looking after patients needing End-of-Life (EoL) care in critical care environments. Critical care nurses frequently provide care to patients who fail to respond to treatments offered to support and prolong life. The dying phase for individuals in critical care settings, commonly after withholding/withdrawing treatment, is very short posing great demands on critical care nurses to provide physical and emotional support to both patients and their families. Despite the existence of recognized care planning frameworks that may help nurses in providing EoL care, these are not used by all units and many nurses rely on experience to inform practice. A number of aspects such as communication, patient/family-centred decision-making, continuity of care, emotional/spiritual support and support for health professionals have been indicated as contributing factors towards the provision of effective EoL care. These are considered from the perspective of critical care nursing. Skills development in key aspects of care provision may improve the provision of EoL care for critical care patients and their families. Critical care nurses have an essential role in the provision of effective EoL care; however, this dimension of their role needs further exploration. It is noted that educational opportunities need to be provided for critical care nurses to increase the knowledge on planning and delivering EoL care. To inform this evaluation of current EoL care provision in critical care is necessary to address a knowledge deficit of the needs of nurses who seek to support patients and their families at a critical time. © 2011 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2011 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

RAR-related orphan receptor-γt (ROR-γt) directs differentiation of proinflammatory T helper 17 (TH17) cells and is a potential therapeutic target in chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, ROR-γt–dependent group 3 innate lymphoid cells ILC3s provide essential immunity and tissue protection in the intestine, suggesting that targeting ROR-γt could also result in impaired host defense after infection or enhanced tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate that transient chemical inhibition of ROR-γt in mice selectively reduces cytokine production from TH17 but not ILCs in the context of intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium, resulting in preserved innate immunity. Temporal deletion of Rorc (encoding ROR-γt) in mature ILCs also did not impair cytokine response in the steady state or during infection. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of ROR-γt provided therapeutic benefit in mouse models of intestinal inflammation and reduced the frequency of TH17 cells but not ILCs isolated from primary intestinal samples of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Collectively, these results reveal differential requirements for ROR-γt in the maintenance of TH17 cell and ILC3 responses and suggest that transient inhibition of ROR-γt is a safe and effective therapeutic approach during intestinal inflammation. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

White K.,Addisons Disease Self Help Group | Arlt W.,University College Birmingham
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Context: Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening event that occurs regularly in Addison's patients receiving standard replacement therapy. Patient reports suggest that it is an underestimated and undermanaged event. Objective: To assess the frequency of adrenal crisis in diagnosed patients and to understand the factors contributing to the risks of adrenal crisis. Design: We conducted a postal survey of Addison's patients in four countries, UK (=Z485), Canada (=Z148), Australia (=Z123) and New Zealand (=Z85) in 2003, asking about patients' experiences of adrenal crisis and their demographic characteristics. In 2006, a shorter follow-up survey was conducted in the UK (=Z261). Method: The frequency and causes of adrenal crisis were compared across both surveys. Demographic data from the 2003 survey were analysed to establish the main variables associated with an elevated risk of crisis. Results: Around 8% of diagnosed cases can be expected to need hospital treatment for adrenal crisis annually. Exposure to gastric infection is the single most important factor predicting the likelihood of adrenal crisis. Concomitant diabetes and/or asthma increase the frequency of adrenal crises reported by patients. Conclusion: The endocrinologist has a responsibility to ensure that Addison's patients have adequate access to life-saving emergency injection materials and repeated, practical training sessions in how to use them,while the general practitioner plays a vital role as in arranging prompt emergency admissions. © 2010 European Society of Endocrinology.

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