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Düsseldorf, Germany

Hecking M.,Medical University of Vienna | Kainz A.,Medical University of Vienna | Werzowa J.,Medical University of Vienna | Haidinger M.,Medical University of Vienna | And 11 more authors.
Diabetes Care

OBJECTIVE-We determined prevalence, risk factors, phenotype, and pathophysiological mechanism of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) to generate strategies for optimal pharmacological management of hyperglycemia in NODAT patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Retrospective cohort study comparing demographics, laboratory data, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived metabolic parameters from kidney transplant recipients versus subjects not receiving transplants. RESULTS-Among 1,064 stable kidney transplant recipients (≥6 months posttransplantation), 113 (11%) had a history of NODAT and 132 (12%) had pretransplant diabetes. In the remaining patients, randomly assigned OGTTs showed a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism (11% diabetes; 32% impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or both), predominantly in older patients who received tacrolimus as the primary immunosuppressant. Compared with 1,357 nontransplant subjects, stable kidney transplant recipients had lower basal glucose, higher glycated hemoglobin, lower insulin secretion, and greater insulin sensitivity in each of the three subgroups, defined by OGTT 2-h glucose (< 140, 140-199, ≥200 mg/dL). These findings were reinforced in linear spline interpolation models of insulin secretion and sensitivity (all P < 0.001) and in another regression model in which the estimated oral glucose insulin sensitivity index was substantially higher (by 79-112 mL/min m2) for transplant versus nontransplant subjects despite adjustments for age, sex, and BMI (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS-Glucose metabolism differs substantially between kidney transplant recipients and nontransplant controls. Because impaired insulin secretion appears to be the predominant pathophysiological feature after renal transplantation, early therapeutic interventions that preserve, maintain, or improve β-cell function are potentially beneficial in this population. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Stirban A.,Profil Institute fur Stoffwechselforschung GmbH | Gawlowski T.,University of Paderborn | Roden M.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Roden M.,University Clinics Dusseldorf
Molecular Metabolism

The enhanced generation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been linked to increased risk for macrovascular and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus. AGEs result from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, potentially altering their function by disrupting molecular conformation, promoting cross-linking, altering enzyme activity, reducing their clearance, and impairing receptor recognition. AGEs may also activate specific receptors, like the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), which is present on the surface of all cells relevant to atherosclerotic processes, triggering oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of AGEs is paramount to develop strategies against diabetic and cardiovascular complications. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Koliaki C.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Roden M.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Roden M.,University Clinics Dusseldorf
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Alterations of hepatic mitochondrial function have been observed in states of insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients with overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can exhibit reduction in hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and impaired repletion of their hepatic ATP stores upon ATP depletion by fructose. Obesity and NAFLD may also associate with impaired ATP recovery after ATP-depleting challenges and augmented oxidative stress in the liver. On the other hand, patients with obesity or NAFLD can present with upregulated hepatic anaplerotic and oxidative fluxes, including β-oxidation and tricarboxylic cycle activity. The present review focuses on the methods and data on hepatic energy metabolism in various states of human insulin resistance. We propose that the liver can adapt to increased lipid exposition by greater lipid storing and oxidative capacity, resulting in increased oxidative stress, which in turn could deteriorate hepatic mitochondrial function in chronic insulin resistance and NAFLD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Genz J.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Haastert B.,MediStatistica | Muller H.,WINEG TK Scientific Institute for Benefit and Efficiency in Health Care | Verheyen F.,WINEG TK Scientific Institute for Benefit and Efficiency in Health Care | And 11 more authors.
BMC Research Notes

Background: Having shown in a recent randomized controlled trial that evidence-based patient information (EBPI) significantly increased knowledge on primary prevention of diabetes compared to standard patient information, we now investigated interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and the effect of an EBPI. Findings. 1,120 visitors (aged 40-70 years, without known diabetes) to the "Techniker Krankenkasse" and the "German Diabetes Center" websites were randomized. The intervention group received a newly developed on-line EBPI, the control group standard on-line information. The primary outcome measure was knowledge, classified as "good/average/poor". We analyzed associations of knowledge with socioeconomic variables (education, vocational training, employment, subjective social status) combined with intervention effect including interactions, adjusted for possible confounding by knowledge before intervention, self-reported blood glucose measurements, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, age and gender. Logistic regression models were fitted to the subpopulation (n = 647) with complete values in these variables.Education (high vs. low) was significantly associated with knowledge (good vs. average/poor); however, there was no significant interaction between education and intervention. After adjustment, the other socioeconomic variables were not significantly associated with knowledge. Conclusions: Socioeconomic variables did not significantly change the effect of the intervention. There was a tendency towards a lower effect where lower educated individuals were concerned. Possibly the power was too low to detect interaction effects. Larger studies using SES-specific designs are needed to clarify the effect of SES. We suggest considering the socioeconomic status when evaluating a decision aid, e.g. an EBPI, to ensure its effectiveness not only in higher socioeconomic groups. Trial registration. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN22060616 (Date assigned: 12 September 2008). © 2014 Genz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Erber R.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Gluz O.,West German Study Group | Gluz O.,Ev. Bethesda Hospital | Brunner N.,Copenhagen University | And 21 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

Taxane–anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard of care in patients with node-positive breast cancer (BC) but is also associated with severe side effects and significant costs. It is yet unclear, which biomarkers would predict benefit from taxanes and/or general chemoresistance. In this study, we investigate a large cohort of patients with intermediate-risk BC treated within the WSG EC-DOC Trial for the predictive impact of topoisomerase-II-alpha, HER2/neu, and TIMP-1. Tumor tissue was available in a representative cohort of 772 cases of the WSG EC-DOC Trial collective which compared 4xEC-4xDoc versus 6xCEF/CMF. In addition to hormone receptor status and Ki-67, HER2/neu+ and topoisomerase-II-alpha status using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry, TIMP-1 using immunohistochemistry, and aneuploidy of chromosome 17 using FISH were evaluated and correlated with outcome and taxane benefit. There was significant superiority of EC-Doc over CEF regarding 5-year DFS (90 vs. 80 %, respectively, p = 0.006) particularly in patient subgroups defined by HR+, HER2/neu+, high proliferation (i.e., Ki-67 ≥ 20 %), patient age >50 years old and normal chromosome 17 status, high TIMP-1 and low topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression. Significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were EC-Doc therapy (HR = 0.61; 95 %CI 0.38–0.986), age <50 years old (HR = 1.682; 95 %CI 1.025–2.579), centrally assessed grade 3 (HR = 4.657; 95 %CI 1.809–11.989), and high Ki-67 (HR = 2.232; 95 %CI 1.209–4.121). Interestingly, we observed a significant interaction between treatment arm (EC-Doc vs. CEF) and high topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression (HR = 0.427; 95 %CI 0.203–0.900) in multivariate interaction analysis. Despite of univariate predictive effect of HER2/neu status among other factors only topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression was associated with significant benefit from EC-Doc compared to CEF by multivariate interaction analysis. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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