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Ribi C.H.,National Institute of Public Health | Ribi C.H.,University of Ljubljana | Zakotnik J.M.,National Institute of Public Health | Vertnik L.,National Institute of Public Health | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective To investigate average sodium excretion in 24 h urine as a marker for salt intake in the Slovene population.Design Salt intake was determined by measuring sodium excretion in 24 h urine collected from a representative sample of geographically diverse Slovene adults.Setting Slovenia.Subjects A random sample of 600 adults aged 25-65 years was generated from census data. The effective sample yield was 143 people, 427 % men and 573 % women.Results Urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher in men (2209 (sd 860) mmol Na/d) than in women (1698 (sd 738) mmol Na/d); t test = 145, P < 0001. Average salt intake was 113 (sd 49) g/d, higher in men than in women (130 (sd 51) v. 99 (sd 43) g/d, respectively). Average intakes of salt among regions were not significantly different. Salt intake increases slightly with increasing age, but there was no significant correlation between age and salt intake. Salt intake was increased with BMI (r = 0384, P < 0001).Conclusions Salt intake in Slovene adults, especially in men, exceeds the WHO recommended population nutrient intake goal of 5 g by more than twofold. A national programme for reducing salt intake in Slovenia needs to be implemented through systematic efforts including public education and involving the health-care sector and the food industry. Copyright © 2010 The Authors. Source

Ebner N.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Springer J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Kalantar-Zadeh K.,University of California at Irvine | Lainscak M.,University Clinic of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Maturitas | Year: 2013

Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome defined by continuous loss of skeletal muscle mass - with or without loss of fat mass - which cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and which may lead to progressive functional impairment and increased death risk. Its pathophysiology is characterized by negative protein and energy balance driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. Muscle wasting is encountered in virtually all chronic disease states in particular during advanced stages of the respective illness. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies are ongoing to ameliorate this clinical problem. The mechanisms of muscle wasting and cachexia in chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease are described. We discuss therapeutic targets and such potential modulators as appetite stimulants, selective androgen receptor modulators, amino acids and naturally occurring peptide hormones. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Regvat J.,University of Maribor | Zmitek A.,Psychiatric Hospital Begunje | Vegnuti M.,University Clinic of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases | Kosnik M.,University of Maribor | And 2 more authors.
Journal of International Medical Research | Year: 2011

This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and rate of recognition of anxiety and depression in 50 patients hospitalized for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders questionnaire, 13 patients were identified as having depression, four had anxiety and eight had a combination of the two. Patients with anxiety and/or depression had a significantly higher partial pressure of oxygen and pH, and a lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide, in arterial blood on admission, more severe dyspnoea after a 6-min walk test and less improvement of dyspnoea from admission to discharge than COPD patients without anxiety and/or depression. Two patients were referred to a mental health specialist during their hospitalization, indicating a low rate of recognition. The results suggest that patients with mental disorders are referred and admitted to hospital earlier in the course of a COPD exacerbation due to earlier and more intense perception of dyspnoea. © 2011 Field House Publishing LLP. Source

Balantic M.,University Clinic of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases | Rijavec M.,University Clinic of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases | Skerbinjek Kavalar M.,University of Maribor | Suskovic S.,University Clinic of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2012

Background: Asthma is a common chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation and structural remodeling. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major regulator of angiogenesis, is elevated in asthma patients. VEGF contributes to airway responsiveness and remodeling. It has been shown that treatment of asthma patients decreases VEGF levels, and inhibition of VEGF diminishes asthma symptoms in mice. Therefore, polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene might be associated with asthma treatment response. Methods: This study enrolled 131 children with asthma treated with different therapies' specifically, the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) fluticasone propionate or the leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) montelukast. We performed an association analysis between improvement of lung function - assessed by measurement of the percentage of the predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%predicted FEV1), the ratio between the FEV1 and the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) after 6 and 12 months of treatment, and asthma control after 12 months of treatment - and two polymorphisms, rs2146323 and rs833058, in the VEGFA gene. Results: Polymorphism rs2146323 A>C in VEGFA was associated with response to ICS therapy. Asthma patients with theAAgenotype had a greater improvement in the%predicted FEV1 than those with theACor CC genotype (p = 0.018). Conversely, the AA genotype in rs2146323 was associated with uncontrolled asthma in patients regularly receiving LTRA therapy (p = 0.020) and a worse FEV 1/FVC ratio in patients who episodically used LTRA therapy (p = 0.044). Furthermore, polymorphism rs833058 C>T was associated with treatment response to episodically used LTRA therapy. A subgroup of patients with the TT genotype had an improvement in the % predicted FEV1, compared with no improvement in patients with the CT or CC genotype (p = 0.029). Conclusions: Our results showed that treatment response to commonly used asthma therapies (ICS or LTRA) is associated with polymorphisms rs2146323 and rs833058 inVEGFA. With additional replication of this preliminary study, our findings could contribute to the development of individualized asthma therapy. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved. Source

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