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Schwarz P.E.,University Clinic Carl Gustav Carus
Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

At the 6th World Congress on Prevention of Diabetes and its Complications, diabetes prevention experts from science and practice worldwide met in Dresden, Germany. All areas of diabetes prevention were discussed, but most of the presentations, discussions and workshops were dedicated to the practical experiences in diabetes prevention. How to identify people with increased risk and how to establish motivation to change lifestyles were major topics at the meeting. A European practice guideline 'take action to prevent diabetes was presented at the meeting as a result of the large European IMAGE project. As a call for action, the people presented the global network of individuals active in diabetes prevention and called to establish a virtual global prevention center. The aim is to establish the prevention of diabetes in 'real world clinical practice. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Meisel C.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Meisel C.,University Clinic Carl Gustav Carus | Kuehn C.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Epileptic seizures are one of the most well-known dysfunctions of the nervous system. During a seizure, a highly synchronized behavior of neural activity is observed that can cause symptoms ranging from mild sensual malfunctions to the complete loss of body control. In this paper, we aim to contribute towards a better understanding of the dynamical systems phenomena that cause seizures. Based on data analysis and modelling, seizure dynamics can be identified to possess multiple spatial scales and on each spatial scale also multiple time scales. At each scale, we reach several novel insights. On the smallest spatial scale we consider single model neurons and investigate early-warning signs of spiking. This introduces the theory of critical transitions to excitable systems. For clusters of neurons (or neuronal regions) we use patient data and find oscillatory behavior and new scaling laws near the seizure onset. These scalings lead to substantiate the conjecture obtained from mean-field models that a Hopf bifurcation could be involved near seizure onset. On the largest spatial scale we introduce a measure based on phase-locking intervals and wavelets into seizure modelling. It is used to resolve synchronization between different regions in the brain and identifies time-shifted scaling laws at different wavelet scales. We also compare our wavelet-based multiscale approach with maximum linear cross-correlation and mean-phase coherence measures. © 2012 Meisel, Kuehn.

Kambas K.,Democritus University of Thrace | Chrysanthopoulou A.,Democritus University of Thrace | Vassilopoulos D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Apostolidou E.,Democritus University of Thrace | And 15 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Objectives: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is characterised by neutrophil activation. An elevated prevalence of venous thromboembolic events has been reported in AAV. Because of the critical role of neutrophils in inflammation associated thrombosis, we asked whether neutrophil tissue factor (TF) may be implicated in the thrombotic diathesis in AAV.

Roessner V.,University Clinic Carl Gustav Carus | Roessner V.,University of Gottingen | Wittfoth M.,Hannover Medical School | Schmidt-Samoa C.,University of Gottingen | And 4 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2012

In Tourette syndrome (TS), not only the tics but also the findings on deficits in motor performance indicate motor system alterations. But our knowledge about the pathophysiology of the motor system in TS is still limited. To better understand the neuronal correlates of motor performance in TS, 19 treatment-naïve boys [age 12.5 (SD 1.4) years] with TS without comorbid symptomatology were compared to an age-matched healthy control group [n = 16; age 12.9 (SD 1.6) years] in regard to brain activation during right-hand index finger tapping by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group differences were found mainly in the left (contralateral) precentral gyrus, which was less activated in boys suffering from TS and in caudate nucleus as well as in medial prefrontal cortex, which was more activated compared to healthy boys. These results show that even in the first years after the onset of the disorder, an altered brain network of motor performance is recruited. These alterations in brain regions frequently associated with TS are probably based on functional changes, which are discussed in terms of early compensatory mechanisms of the motor execution network. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wirth M.,University Clinic Carl Gustav Carus | Tammela T.,University of Tampere | Cicalese V.,Azienda Ospedaliera S. Giuseppe Moscati | Gomez Veiga F.,University of La Coruna | And 9 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2015

Background Patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer (PCa) are at risk of developing bone metastases (BMs). Zoledronic acid (ZA) significantly reduces the incidence of skeletal complications in castration-resistant metastatic PCa versus placebo. Objective To investigate ZA for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa. Design, setting, and participants Randomised open-label multinational study with patients having at least one of the following: prostate-specific antigen ≤20 ng/ml, node-positive disease, or Gleason score 8-10. Intervention Standard PCa therapy alone or combined with 4 mg ZA intravenously every 3 mo for ≤4 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis BMs were assessed using locally evaluated bone-imaging procedures (BIPs), with subsequent blinded central review. Patients with BMs, time to BMs, overall survival, and adverse events were compared between treatment groups. Results and limitations A total of 1393 of 1433 randomised patients were used for intention-to-treat (ITT) efficacy analyses, with 1040 patients with BIP-BM outcome status at 4 0.5 yr. The local urologist/radiologist diagnosed BIP-BMs in 88 of 515 patients (17.1%) in the ZA group and 89 of 525 patients (17.0%) in the control group (chi-square test: p = 0.95), with a difference between proportions of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.4 to 4.7) in favour of the control group. In the ITT population (n = 1393), the Kaplan-Meier estimated proportion of BMs after a median follow-up of 4.8 yr was 14.7% in the ZA group versus 13.2% in the control group (log-rank: p = 0.65). Low hot spot numbers on bone scans were confirmed as metastases with additional imaging. Central reviews of BIPs were possible only on a subset of patients. Conclusions ZA administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa patients at 4 yr. Patient summary Zoledronic acid administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of bone metastases in high-risk nonmetastatic PCa patients at 4 yr. © 2014 European Association of Urology.

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