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Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-11-2015 | Award Amount: 6.44M | Year: 2016

The objective of the SPCCT project is to develop and validate a widely accessible, new quantitative and analytical in vivo imaging technology combining Spectral Photon Counting CT and contrast agents, to accurately and early detect, characterize and monitor neurovascular and cardiovascular disease. Spectral Photon Counting Computed Tomography (SPCCT) is a new imaging modality, currently in development, with a totally new type of detection chain designed to provide high count-rate capabilities while offering energy discrimination with high spatial resolution of 200m. Based on this discrimination, SPCCT can detect and quantify accurately a large variety of atoms (including Gadolinium, Gold, Bismuth) by using the K-edge technique. SPCCT, by a more accurate, less invasive (in comparison with IVUS and coronary angiography) and reliable evaluation of vascular inflammation will allow earlier disease diagnosis such as plaque inflammation before rupture, leading to improved clinical decisions and outcomes. This will be achievable with a high spatial resolution combined to the newly developed vascular inflammation specific contrast agent detected with high quality K-edge technique that can only be provided by a multi-spectral X-ray system. The project will therefore provide a complete tool (acquisition system and specific probes) dedicated to CV imaging. It will finally contribute to: Improved early diagnosis of atherosclerosis, prevention of acute event (MI, stroke) and personalized preventive treatment; Improved management of patient presenting with an acute CV event and clinical validation of treatment efficiency; Sustainability and harmonization of healthcare systems, as costly disorders of heart failure and stroke-related disability would be better prevented and efficiently treated; Economic growth in the EU diagnostics sector, through the development of new targeted contrast materials for SPCCT by SMEs.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-22-2016 | Award Amount: 15.59M | Year: 2016

ZIKAlliance is a multidisciplinary project with a global One Health approach, built: on a multi-centric network of clinical cohorts in the Caribbean, Central & South America; research sites in countries where the virus has been or is currently circulating (Africa, Asia, Polynesia) or at risk for emergence (Reunion Island); a strong network of European and Brazilian clinical & basic research institutions; and multiple interfaces with other scientific and public health programmes. ZIKAlliance will addrees three key objectives relating to (i) impact of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and short & medium term effects on newborns, (ii) associated natural history of ZIKV infection in humans and their environment in the context of other circulating arboviruses and (iii) building the overall capacity for preparedness research for future epidemic threats in Latin America & the Caribbean. The project will take advantage of large standardised clinical cohorts of pregnant women and febrile patients in regions of Latin America and the Caribbean were the virus is circulating, expanding a preexisting network established by the IDAMS EU project. I will also benefit of a very strong expertise in basic and environmental sciences, with access to both field work and sophisticated technological infrastructures to characterise virus replication and physiopathology mechanisms. To meet its 3 key objectives, the scientific project has been organised in 9 work packages, with WP2/3 dedicated to clinical research (cohorts, clinical biology, epidemiology & modeling), WP3/4 to basic research (virology & antivirals, pathophysiology & animal models), WP5/6 to environmental research (animal reservoirs, vectors & vector control) , WP7/8 to social sciences & communication, and WP9 to management. The broad consortium set-up allow gathering the necessary expertise for an actual interdisciplinary approach, and operating in a range of countries with contrasting ZIKV epidemiological status.


Ryvlin P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Epilepsia | Year: 2013

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents one of the most severe consequences of drug-resistant epilepsy, for which no evidence-based prevention is available. Development of effective prevention will depend on the following: (1) better understanding of the pathophysiology of SUDEP to define the most appropriate targets of intervention, and (2) identification of risk factors for SUDEP that would allow for the design of feasible clinical trials to test targeted interventions in high-risk populations. The most important known risk factor is the occurrence and frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS), a seizure type that triggers the majority of witnessed SUDEP. Therefore, one likely way to prevent SUDEP is to minimize the risk of GTCS with optimal medical management and patient education. However, whether one might prevent SUDEP in patients with refractory epilepsy by using more frequent review of antiepileptic treatment and earlier referral for presurgical evaluation, remains to be seen. Another hypothetical strategy to prevent SUDEP is to reduce the risk of GTCS-induced postictal respiratory distress. This might be achieved by using lattice pillow, providing nocturnal supervision, reinforcing interictal serotoninergic tone, and lowering opiate- or adenosine-induced postictal brainstem depression. Promising interventions can be tested first on surrogate markers, such as postictal hypoxia in epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs), before SUDEP trials can be implemented. EMU safety should also be improved to avoid SUDEP occurrence in that setting. Finally, the development of ambulatory SUDEP prevention devices should be encouraged but raises a number of unsolved issues. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.


Cochat P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Rumsby G.,University College London
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

Primary hyperoxaluria should be considered in any patient with a history of recurrent calcium oxalate stones, nephrocalcinosis, or both (Table 2). Once the diagnosis has been confirmed by genetic testing, aggressive supportive treatment is indicated, followed by an appropriate organ-transplantation strategy if renal function is declining. Future therapeutic developments are aimed at correcting the underlying defects without exposing patients to the lifelong risks associated with organ transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Baudoin O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Transition-metal-catalyzed C-H bond arylation has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the functionalization of organic molecules that may complement or even replace traditional catalytic cross-couplings. While many efforts have focused on the arylation of arenes and heteroarenes in the past two decades, less studies have been devoted to the arylation of nonacidic C-H bonds of alkyl groups. This tutorial review highlights recent work in this active area. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-STG | Phase: ERC-2016-STG | Award Amount: 1.26M | Year: 2017

The initial conditions of the Earth and other terrestrial planets were set 4.5 Gy ago during their accretion from the solar nebula and their concomitant differentiation into an iron-rich core and a silicate mantle. Accretion in the solar system went through several different dynamical phases involving increasingly energetic and catastrophic impacts and collisions. The last phase of accretion, in which most of the Earth mass was accreted, involved extremely energetic collisions between already differentiated planetary embryos (1000 km size), which resulted in widespread melting and the formation of magma oceans in which metal and silicates segregated to form the core and mantle. Geochemical data provide critical information on the timing of accretion and the prevailing physical conditions, but it is far from a trivial task to interpret the geochemical data in terms of physical conditions and processes. I propose here a fluid dynamics oriented study of metal-silicate interactions and differentiation following planetary impacts, based in part on fluid dynamics laboratory experiments. The aim is to answer critical questions pertaining to the dynamics of metal-silicate segregation and interactions during each core-formation events, before developing parameterized models of metal-silicate mass and heat exchange, which will then be incorporated in geochemical models of the terrestrial planets formation and differentiation. The expected outcomes are a better understanding of the physics of metal-silicate segregation and core-mantle differentiation, as well as improved geochemical constraints on the timing and physical conditions of the terrestrial planets formation.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-ADG | Phase: ERC-ADG-2015 | Award Amount: 2.49M | Year: 2016

Synaptic scaffolding molecules control the localization and the abundance of neurotransmitter receptors at the synapse, a key parameter to shape synaptic transfer function. Most characterized synaptic scaffolds are intracellular, yet a growing number of secreted proteins appear to organize the synapse from the outside of the cell. We recently demonstrated in C. elegans that an evolutionarily conserved protein secreted by motoneurons specifies the excitatory versus inhibitory identity of the postsynaptic domains at neuromuscular synapses. We propose to use this system as a genetically tractable paradigm to perform a comprehensive characterization of this unforeseen synaptic organization. Specifically, this project will pursue 4 complementary aims: 1) Identify and characterize a comprehensive set of genes that organize and control the formation and maintenance of these scaffolds through a series of genetic screens based on the direct visualization of fluorescent acetylcholine and GABA receptors in living animals. 2) Solve the spatial synaptic organization of these scaffolds at a nanoscale resolution using super-resolutive and correlative light and electron microscopy, and analyze their dynamic behavior in vivo by implementing Single Particle Tracking imaging in living worms. 3) Decipher the role of the synaptomatrix in the organization of synaptic extracellular scaffolds and evaluate its functional contribution at the physiological and molecular levels using a candidate gene strategy and innovative imaging. 4) Analyze the formation and decline of these scaffolds at the lifetime scale and evaluate the role of synaptic activity and aging in these processes by taking advantage of the possibility to follow identified synapses over the entire life of C. elegans. Using powerful genetics in combination with cutting-edge in vivo imaging and electrophysiology, we anticipate to identify new genes and new mechanisms at work to regulate normal and pathological synaptic function.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-RIA | Phase: ECSEL-01-2015 | Award Amount: 33.04M | Year: 2015

The REFERENCE project aims to leverage a European leading edge Radio Frequency (RF) ecosystem based on RF Silicon On Insulator (SOI) disruptive technology, perceived as the most promising to address performance, cost and integration needs for RF Front End Modules (FEMs)s. The project targets to develop over the next 3 years, innovative solutions from material, engineered substrates, process, design, metrology to system integration capable to address the unresolved 4G\ requirements for RF FEMs (data rate >1Gb/s) and pave the way to 5G. The R&D and demonstration actions include: Development of innovative RFSOI substrates for 4G\ / 5G Move to 300 mm diameter Development of 4G\ / 5G RF-SOI devices with 2 major European foundries : analog in 200 mm 130nm technology, RF digital by combining RFSOI and FDSOI in 300 mm at 22nm; Innovative design for 4G\ /5G (analog and RF digital), Integration of several 4G\ FEM components on the same chip and demonstration System in Package Technology (SiP). 3 applications are investigated : Cellular / Iot : 4G\ RFSOI FEM demonstrator at SiP device level Automotive : 4G\ RF-SOI demonstrator at SiP device level Aviation: RF-SOI high data rate wireless communication module at system level; targeting a new frequency band for aeronautic. The project is executed within 5 European countries, by on a strong and complementary and well balanced consortium, 6 large industrial companies (world leaders in material, foundries, aeronautics), 4 SMEs and a network of world class level and major European public research institutes and academics. It clearly aims to develop industrial solutions enabling European leadership and production. Through this technology disruption, REFERENCE project addresses major thrusts for smart mobility, smart society, semiconductor processes, equipments, design technology and smart systems implementation, and support the societal challenges of smart transport, as well as secure and innovative society.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-STG | Phase: ERC-2016-STG | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2017

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and are two well-established powerful and versatile tools that are extensively used in many fields of research, in clinics and in industry. Despite considerable efforts involving highly sophisticated instrumentation, these techniques suffer from low sensitivity, which keeps many of todays most interesting problems in modern analytical sciences below the limits of MR detection. Hyperpolarization (HP) in principle provides a solution to this limitation. We have recently pioneered breakthrough approaches using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (d-DNP) for preparing nuclear spins in highly aligned states, and therefore boosting sensitivity in several proof-of-concept reports on model systems. The proposed project aims to leverage these new advances through a series of new concepts i) to generate the highest possible hyperpolarization that can be transported in a persistent state, and ii) to demonstrate their use in magnetic resonance experiments with > 10000 fold sensitivity enhancements, with the potential of revolutionizing the fields of MRI and NMR. By physically separating the source of polarization from the substrate at a microscopic level, we will achieve polarized samples with lifetimes of days that can be stored and transported over long distances to MRI centers, hospitals and NMR laboratories. Notable applications in the fields of drug discovery, metabolomics and real-time metabolic imaging in living animals will be demonstrated. These goals require a leap forward with respect to todays protocols, and we propose to achieve this through a combination of innovative sample formulations, new NMR methodology and advanced instrumentation. This project will yield to a broadly applicable method revolutionizing analytical chemistry, drug discovery and medical diagnostics, and thereby will provide a powerful tool to solve challenges at the forefront of molecular and chemical sciences today.

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