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Ryvlin P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Epilepsia | Year: 2013

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents one of the most severe consequences of drug-resistant epilepsy, for which no evidence-based prevention is available. Development of effective prevention will depend on the following: (1) better understanding of the pathophysiology of SUDEP to define the most appropriate targets of intervention, and (2) identification of risk factors for SUDEP that would allow for the design of feasible clinical trials to test targeted interventions in high-risk populations. The most important known risk factor is the occurrence and frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS), a seizure type that triggers the majority of witnessed SUDEP. Therefore, one likely way to prevent SUDEP is to minimize the risk of GTCS with optimal medical management and patient education. However, whether one might prevent SUDEP in patients with refractory epilepsy by using more frequent review of antiepileptic treatment and earlier referral for presurgical evaluation, remains to be seen. Another hypothetical strategy to prevent SUDEP is to reduce the risk of GTCS-induced postictal respiratory distress. This might be achieved by using lattice pillow, providing nocturnal supervision, reinforcing interictal serotoninergic tone, and lowering opiate- or adenosine-induced postictal brainstem depression. Promising interventions can be tested first on surrogate markers, such as postictal hypoxia in epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs), before SUDEP trials can be implemented. EMU safety should also be improved to avoid SUDEP occurrence in that setting. Finally, the development of ambulatory SUDEP prevention devices should be encouraged but raises a number of unsolved issues. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2013

Several groups have described a syndrome in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) coexists with pulmonary emphysema. This comes as no surprise since both diseases are associated with a history of exposure to cigarette smoke. The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is characterised by upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Physiological testing of these patients reveals preserved lung volume indices contrasted by markedly impaired diffusion capacity. The incidence of CPFE remains unknown but several case series suggest that this subgroup may comprise up to 35% of patients with IPF. CPFE is a strong determinant of associated pulmonary hypertension (PH). In addition, CPFE has major effects on measures of physiological function, exercise capacity and prognosis, and may affect the results of pulmonary fibrosis trials. Further studies are needed to ascertain the aetiology, morbidity, mortality and management of the CPFE syndrome, with or without PH, and to evaluate novel therapeutic options in CPFE. © ERS 2013.

Mostowy R.,ETH Zurich | Kouyos R.D.,ETH Zurich | Fouchet D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bonhoeffer S.,ETH Zurich
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The evolutionary implications of recombination in HIV remain not fully understood. A plausible effect could be an enhancement of immune escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In order to test this hypothesis, we constructed a population dynamic model of immune escape in HIV and examined the viral-immune dynamics with and without recombination. Our model shows that recombination (i) increases the genetic diversity of the viral population, (ii) accelerates the emergence of escape mutations with and without compensatory mutations, and (iii) accelerates the acquisition of immune escape mutations in the early stage of viral infection. We see a particularly strong impact of recombination in systems with broad, non-immunodominant CTL responses. Overall, our study argues for the importance of recombination in HIV in allowing the virus to adapt to changing selective pressures as imposed by the immune system and shows that the effect of recombination depends on the immunodominance pattern of effector T cell responses. © 2011 Mostowy et al.

In the presence of a nearby highly reflecting dielectric substrate, the optical response of a metal nanoparticle exhibits a rich multipolar plasmonic structure. For quantifying the multimodal plasmonic response of such hybrid particle/interface systems, the hydrodynamic plasmon hybridization (PH) method has been applied in the simple case of a solid metal sphere (PI-PH model). In this work I extend the formalism described in my previous paper (J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118, 28118) to the more general case where underlying dielectric media are present in the whole space (polarizable ionic background and matrix). In the quasistatic limit the method of images allows the PI-PH model to be closely related to the two-sphere dimer PH model. However, because the dynamics of the electron fluid and of the polarization charges in the mirror particle are enslaved to those in the real metal particle, strong differences between both PH models result from the reduction by a factor of two of the number of dynamical variables describing the system. As compared to jellium spheres in vacuum, the PH formalism is much more complex because the induced surface polarization charges in the underlying media contribute to the energetics of the system. In this work a very detailed analytical description of both PH models, allowing a direct numerical implementation, is provided. In the frame of the original and physically transparent method developed in my previous paper, particular emphasis is given to modeling the coupling of the nanosystem with an external applied field. In the presence of underlying dielectric media, I show that the taking into account of the field created by the additional polarization charge distributions induced by the bare applied field is essential for defining the effective external field that is coupled to the nanosystem. The predictions of both PH models are also compared, through absorption and extinction cross-section spectra, to exact results computed in the frame of the multipole expansion method, allowing the range of applicability and limits of both models to be determined. Finally, the PH formalism is shown to be generalizable to deal with underlying dielectric media characterized by complex (that is, absorbing) frequency-dependent permittivities. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Dreesen I.A.J.,ETH Zurich | Hamri G.C.-E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Fussenegger M.,ETH Zurich
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

While 15 million deaths per year are caused by communicable pathogens worldwide, health care authorities emphasize the considerable impact of poverty on the incidence of infectious diseases. The emergence of antigen-expressing plant tissues (e.g. rice, tomato, potato) has indicated the potential of land plants for low-cost vaccines in oral immunization programs. In this study, we engineered the chloroplasts of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the stable expression of the D2 fibronectin-binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), under the control of rbcL UTRs. Analysis of sera and faeces of mice, fed for 5 weeks with transgenic algae grown in confined Wave Bioreactor™, revealed the induction of specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Algae-based vaccination significantly reduced the pathogen load in the spleen and the intestine of treated mice and protected 80% of them against lethal doses of S. aureus. Importantly, the alga vaccine was stable for more than 1.5 years at room temperature. These results indicate that C. reinhardtii may play an important role in molecular pharming, as it combines the beneficial features of land plant vaccines, while offering unmatched ease of growth compared to other members of the plant kingdom. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bruot N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cicuta P.,University of Cambridge
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2016

Cilia and flagella in biological systems often show large scale cooperative behaviors such as the synchronization of their beats in "metachronal waves." These are beautiful examples of emergent dynamics in biology, and are essential for life, allowing diverse processes from the motility of eukaryotic microorganisms, to nutrient transport and clearance of pathogens from mammalian airways. How these collective states arise is not fully understood, but it is clear that individual cilia interact mechanically, and that a strong and long-ranged component of the coupling is mediated by the viscous fluid. We review here the work by ourselves and others aimed at understanding the behavior of hydrodynamically coupled systems, and particularly a set of results that have been obtained both experimentally and theoretically by studying actively driven colloidal systems. In these controlled scenarios, it is possible to selectively test aspects of living motile cilia, such as the geometrical arrangement, the effects of the driving profile and the distance to no-slip boundaries. We outline and give examples of how it is possible to link model systems to observations on living systems, which can be made on microorganisms, on cell cultures or on tissue sections. This area of research has clear clinical application in the long term, as severe pathologies are associated with compromised cilia function in humans. © Copyright 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Delprat C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Delprat C.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Delprat C.,University of Lyon | Delprat C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 2 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease affecting people of any age, with widely variable clinicalmanifestations and different outcomes. The precise chain of events driving lesional granuloma formation has remained elusive for many years. There is evidence for inherited predisposition to and derangement of apoptosis and inflammation in lesional dendritic cells. Recently somatic BRAFV600E mutation in myeloid precursor dendritic cells was associated with the more aggressive form of the disease, although the same mutation in a more differentiated dendritic cell might drive a less aggressive disease. Whether this picture convincingly put LCH in the field of myeloid neoplasm remains to be determined. Altogether, these findings suggest that future therapeutic strategy might incorporate a screening of this genetic mutation for high-risk patients potentially suitable for target therapy. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Pastore A.,University of Lyon | Pastore A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pastore A.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

We investigate the superfluid properties of the inner crust of neutron stars at finite temperature for different pairing functionals. We generalize the formalism adopted in Pastore to include the effect of the temperature to calculate the specific heat of each given Wigner-Seitz cell. The calculations are done for two pairing forces, Gogny D1 and Vlowk, with finite range and a density-dependent contact interaction. We compare in such a way the effect of the pairing strength and of the range on the thermal properties of the inner crust. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Berhouma M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
World Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, can lead to the development of hamartomas in various organs, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, skin and brain. The management of subependymal giant cell tumors (SGCTs) is still controversial, and peri- and/or intraventricular neoplasms may lead to life-threatening hydrocephalus. In the last years, many progresses have been made in research into the tumorigenesis and behaviors of SGCTs. This review aims to clarify the specific role of neurosurgeons in the multidisciplinary management of SGCTs in children with TSC. Data sources: Based on the recent scientific literature and personal experience, we reviewed the up-to-date data and discussed the trends in the management of SGCTs in children with TSC. The data were collected after a bibliography made using PubMed/Medline with these terms: subependymal, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell tumor, and tuberous sclerosis complex. Results: SGCTs are shown to be generated from a glioneuronal lineage, but their filiation with subependymal nodules (SENs) is still under debate. While SENs may develop anywhere in the ventricular walls, SGCTs arise almost exclusively around the Monro foramina. In children with TSC, precise clinical and/or imaging criteria are mandatory to differentiate SENs that are always asymptomatic and riskless from SGCTs that have the potential to grow and therefore to obstruct cerebrospinal fluid pathways leading to hydrocephalus. Conclusions: An earlier diagnosis of SGCT in neurologically asymptomatic children with TSC may allow a precocious surgical removal of the tumor before the installation of increased intracranial pressure signs, an attitude that is being progressively adopted to lessen the morbimortality rate. ©Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

Kamenik J.F.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Kamenik J.F.,University of Ljubljana | Smith C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The most general basis of operators parametrizing a low-scale departure from the SM particle content is constructed. The SM gauge invariance is enforced, and operators of lowest dimensions are retained separately for a new light neutral particle of spin 0, 1/2, 1, and 3/2. The basis is further decomposed into couplings to the SM Higgs/gauge fields, to pairs of quark/lepton fields, and to baryon/lepton number violating combinations of fermion fields. This basis is then used to systematically investigate the discovery potential of the rare FCNC decays of the K and B mesons with missing energy in the final state. The most sensitive decay modes in the s → d, b → d, and b → s sectors are identified and compared for each type of couplings to the new invisible state. © 2012 SISSA.

The genus Diplocynodon is widely recorded in Europe from Early Eocene up to Middle Miocene times. A fragmented but almost complete skull of a new species of Diplocynodon is reported from the Late Eocene locality of Domérat, northern border of the Massif Central (Allier), France. The present skull provides an important basis for comparison with other members of the genus and complements a fossil record full of gaps despite the large number of vertebrate localities spanning the Cenozoic. The new taxon occurs at a key period for climate evolution with conditions marking the transition from a greenhouse to an icehouse world. The response of crocodylian assemblages to this climatic shift is discussed in light of evidence for their decline in diversity from the Eocene period onward. © Cambridge University Press 2010.

Carpentier C.,University of Lorraine | Lathuiliere B.,University of Lorraine | Ferry S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Sedimentology | Year: 2010

The Middle Oxfordian of the eastern Paris Basin constitutes a remarkable example of the growth and demise of a carbonate platform. Fischer plots, sedimentary and diagenetic features allow the identification of four depositional cycles (S5 to S8) in the Transversarium Zone; they are inserted in a lower frequency cycle of increased/decreased accommodation space (SoIII). The long-term period of accommodation creation occurred during the older S5 and S6 cycles, the maximum accommodation zone being located in the lower part of the S6 cycle. This high accommodation period was tectonically controlled and was coeval with local distensive activity of a Hercynian fault. A major minimum accommodation zone exists during the S8 cycle. At that time, the platform was isolated and presented both a windward and a leeward margin. The growth of the platform was favoured by a warm and arid climate, oligotrophic conditions and reduced siliciclastic input during a highstand in relative sea-level. These palaeoenvironmental features favoured the proliferation of phototrophic organisms producing carbonate material. The death of the platform was generated by a reduction in the carbonate production surface during a lowstand in relative sea-level and by the appearance of mesotrophic conditions induced by the increase in siliciclastic inputs at the beginning of a period with a cooler and more humid climate. In the eastern Paris Basin, during the Middle Oxfordian, the parasequences are ordered and present 'greenhouse' characteristics. In contrast, at the beginning of the S8 cycle, the randomness in the thickness of contiguous parasequences increased. Decreased carbonate production during the lowstand caused by a transition from photozoan to heterozoan benthic communities certainly favoured this randomness and the appearance of catch-down parasequences. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 International Association of Sedimentologists.

Tsimpis D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The moduli space of the supersymmetric massive IIA AdS 4 × S 2(B 4) vacua, where S 2(B 4) is a two-sphere bundle over a four-dimensional Kähler-Einstein base B 4, includes three independent parameters which can be thought of as corresponding to the sizes of AdS 4, B 4 and the S 2 fiber. It might therefore be expected that these vacua do not suffer from the absence of scale separation. We show that the independence of the geometric moduli survives flux quantization. However, we uncover an attractor behavior whereby all sizes flow to equality in some neighborhood of spacetime independently of the initial conditions set by the parameters of the solution. This is further confirmed by the study of the ratio of internal to external scalar curvatures. We also show that the asymptotic Kaluza-Klein spectrum of a ten-dimensional massive scalar is governed by a scale of the order of the AdS 4 radius. Furthermore we point out that the curvature ratio in supersymmetric IIA AdS 4 vacua with rigid SU(3) structure is of order one, indicating the absence of scale separation in this large class of vacua. © 2012 SISSA.

The swallowhole of Romain-la-Roche yielded 225 rhinoceros remains, whose 174 are in a good state of preservation. The rhino is Coelodonta antiquitatis praecursor GUÉRIN, 1980 and constitutes a population of more than 5 grown-up individuals and 4 juveniles at various growth stages. The site is the most important presently known for the subspecies, and allows a better knowledge of its osteology and osteometry : subcomplete skulls were discovered for the first time, and all kind of limb bones are present in the site. The dimensions and proportions of the bones and the teeth are compared with those of european C. antiquitatis, Dicerorhinus hemitoechus and Dicerorhinus mercki. C. a. praecursor is not identical to C. tologoijensis, whose existence in the European Middle Pleistocene needs demonstration. C. a. praecursor appears as a large and rather slend subspecies. The degree of anatomical evolution of the Romain-la-Roche population allows us to date the site of the upper part of the biozone MNQ 24 (end of the MIS 6), corresponding about to the end of the penultimate glaciation. The presence of C. antiquitatis gives clear indication of an environment of a more or less wooded steppe. Altough some pieces of Mousterian industry were found in the site, Man has nothing to do with the accumulation of rhinoceros remains in it.

Tanguy A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
JOM | Year: 2015

The numerical study of the mechanical responses of amorphous materials at the nanometer scale shows characteristic length scales that are larger than the intrinsic length of the microstructure. In this article, we review the different scales appearing upon athermal elastoplastic mechanical load and we relate it to a detailed study of the vibrational response. We compare different materials with different microstructures and different bond directionality (from Lennard–Jones model materials to amorphous silicon and silicate glasses). This work suggests experimental measurements that could help to understand and, if possible, to predict plastic deformation in glasses. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

Barnych B.,CNRS Institute of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry and Biochemistry | Fenet B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Vatele J.-M.,CNRS Institute of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry and Biochemistry
Tetrahedron | Year: 2013

The first total synthesis of andavadoic acid, a naturally occurring five-membered ring peroxide, and its absolute configuration assignment are reported. Central to this venture was the development of an effective synthesis of a key β-hydroperoxy epoxy ester from (R)-epichlorohydrin via chemoselective methylenation with Nysted reagent in the presence of Ti(Oi-Pr)2Cl2 and chemo- and regioselective Mukaiyama-Isayama peroxidation. This approach also featured the construction of the 1,2-dioxolane ring system by an efficient base-promoted 5-exo epoxide opening by a hydroperoxy group. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bacchus-Montabonel M.C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2014

Charge transfer dynamics induced by collision of carbon ions with biological targets has been investigated theoretically by means of ab-initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The series of pyrimidine nucleobases, thymine, uracil and 5-halouracil with similar skeleton and different substituents have been considered. The charge effect between C6+ and C4+ carbon ions is analyzed as well as the anisotropy of the electron exchange process. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cottin V.,University of Lyon | Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Respirology | Year: 2016

A systematic approach is recommended to search for clinical and biological features of connective tissue disease (CTD) in any patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD). In the diagnostic approach to ILD, a diagnosis of CTD should be considered particularly in women and subjects younger than 50 years, and in those with an imaging and/or pathological pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia. However, the diagnosis of CTD may be difficult when ILD is the presenting or the dominant manifestation of CTD. A proportion of patients with ILD present symptoms that belong to the spectrum of CTD and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given CTD. Some imaging and histopathological patterns may also suggest the presence of an underlying CTD. Although studies published to date used heterogeneous definitions and terminology for this condition, evidence is accumulating that even limited CTD features are relevant regarding symptoms, imaging features, pathological pattern and possibly evolution to overt CTD, whereas the impact on prognosis needs confirmation. Conversely, autoantibodies alone do not seem to impact the prognosis or management in patients with otherwise typical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and no extra-pulmonary manifestation. A collective international multidisciplinary effort has proposed a uniform definition and criteria for 'interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features', a condition characterized by limited CTD features occurring in the setting of ILD, with the aim of fostering future clinical studies. Referral of ILD patients suspect to have CTD to a rheumatologist and possibly multidisciplinary discussion may contribute to a better management. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

Oukhaled A.G.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Modelling for Biology and Environment | Biance A.-L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pelta J.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Modelling for Biology and Environment | Auvray L.,University Paris Diderot | Bacri L.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Modelling for Biology and Environment
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We investigate the entrance of single poly(ethylene glycol) chains into an I-hemolysin channel. We detect the frequency and duration of the current blockades induced by large neutral polymers, where chain radius is larger than pore diameter. In the semidilute regime, these chains pass only if the monomer concentration is larger than a well-defined threshold. Experiments are performed in a very large domain of concentration and molecular mass, up to 35% and 200kDa, respectively, which was previously unexplored. The variation of the dwell time as a function of molecular mass shows that the chains are extracted from the semidilute solution in contact with the pore by a reptation mechanism. © 2012 American Physical Society.

In the presence of a nearby highly reflecting dielectric substrate the optical response of a metal nanoparticle exhibits a rich multipolar plasmonic structure. For interpreting and quantifying the spectral patterns, the quasistatic hydrodynamic plasmon hybridization (PH) method developed by the Nordlander group has been applied to the particle/interface system in the simple generic case of a jellium sphere (PI-PH model). In the quasistatic limit, the method of images allows the PI-PH model to be tightly related to the two-sphere dimer PH model (D-PH model). However, because the dynamics of the electron fluid in the mirror particle is enslaved to that of the particle above the interface, strong differences between both PH models result from the reduction by a factor two of the number of dynamical variables describing the electron fluids. In particular the PI-PH model involves only bonding bright modes, whereas bonding and antibonding, bright and dark modes are involved in the homodimer case. A very detailed description of both PH models is provided, with particular emphasis on the coupling with an external field and the transfer of the oscillator strength of the dipole excitations of the isolated particle(s) to high-order plasmon modes of the particle/interface or dimer systems. The predictions of both PH models are also compared, through absorption and extinction cross-section spectra, to exact results computed in the frame of the multipole expansion method, allowing the range of applicability and limits of both models to be determined. Some comments about heterodimers are also provided. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Numerous current marks are recorded on an Early Aptian unconformity surface observed over a large area of the Vocontian basin and its southern margin (southeastern France, Subalpine ranges). They occur in the transition zone between that basin and the adjacent Provence platform and correspond to various erosion marks, oriented biogenic remains (sponge spicules, belemnite rostra) and trace fossil directions (Rhizocorallium). Three local current orientations occur : 1) a westward orientation in the neritic zone, probably resulting from the trade winds that prevailed in the Tethyan domain; 2) a northward orientation in the deeper hemipelagic and pelagic zones probably resulting from a deviation of the westward currents by the Coriolis force; 3) a southward orientation in the eastern and western margins of the studied area, possibly induced by upwellings resulting from offshore northward deviated currents. These upwellings were characterized by cold water enriched with silica, phosphorous and organic matter. Some characteristics of the Early Aptian unconformity surface result from these different currents : 1) a specific type of erosion linked to mechanical and/or chemical features, 2) an erosion intensity displayed by the importance of the pre-Aptian stratigraphic gaps, 3) an erosion duration illustrated by the importance of the post-Aptian gaps. The spatial distribution of these features was controlled by the water-depth, depending locally on the occurrence of hemipelagic submarine reliefs of tectonic origin. Increases in current activity in the Early Aptian, linked to an acceleration of the atmospheric circulation, and highlighed by erosion and phosphatisation had previously been recorded for many other Eurasian and North Atlantic sites. This large spatial distribution suggests a global cause such as a temporary increase in the latitudinal thermal gradient and seasonal contrasts. According to the literature, these events may be related to the Early Aptian cooling, described by several authors in both high and low latitudes, which led to a remarkable pause in the middle Cretaceous warming.

Coiffard C.,Laboratoire Of Paleobotanique Et Paleoe | Gomez B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Lethaia | Year: 2010

The earliest fossil records of angiosperms in Europe occur in the Barremian and consist of freshwater wetland plants. From the Barremian onwards, angiosperms show a stepwise widening of their ecological range with the result that they inhabited most environments by the Cenomanian. Nevertheless, most angiosperms had still restricted habitats, while a few angiosperm trees were confined to disturbed environments, such as channel margins. A Wagner's Parsimony Method analysis performed on a fossil plant and locality database from the Turonian to the Campanian of Europe indicates continued decrease in richness of ferns and gymnosperms compared with angiosperms, turnover between conifer and palm trees in freshwater-related swamps at about the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary, and spreading of angiosperm trees through the floodplains. The ecological range of angiosperm trees was increased, being recorded in channel margins from the Cenomanian and spreading over floodplains (e.g. Platanaceae) and swamps (e.g. Arecaceae) by the Campanian. These new ecological ranges and successions went with innovative architectures, such as dicot trees and palm trees. Most living core angiosperm families had their earliest representatives in the Late Cretaceous, which should be considered as the dawn of modern angiosperm forests. □ Core angiosperms, Europe, Late Cretaceous, palms, Wagner's Parsimony Method. © 2009 The Authors, Journal compilation © 2009 The Lethaia Foundation.

Balter V.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Lecuyer C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lecuyer C.,Institut Universitaire de France
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2010

The Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in inorganic apatite are strongly dependent on the temperature of the aqueous medium during precipitation. If valid in biogenic apatite, these thermometers would offer the advantage of being more resistant to diagenesis than those calibrated on biogenic calcite and aragonite. We have reared seabreams (Sparus aurata) in tanks with controlled conditions during experiments lasting for more than 2years at 13, 17, 23 and 27°C, in order to determine the variations in Sr and Ba partitioning relative to Ca (DSr and DBa, respectively) between seawater and fish apatitic hard tissues (i.e. teeth and bones), as a function of temperature. The sensitivity of the Sr and Ba thermometers (i.e. ∂DSr/∂T and ∂DBa/∂T, respectively), are similar in bone (∂Db-wSr/∂T=0.0036±0.0003 and ∂Db-wBa/∂T=0.0134±0.0026, respectively) and enamel (∂De-wSr/∂T=0.0037±0.0005 and ∂De-wBa/∂T=0.0107±0.0026, respectively). The positive values of ∂DSr/∂T and ∂DBa/∂T in bone and enamel indicate that DSr and DBa increase with increasing temperature, a pattern opposite to that observed for inorganic apatite. This distinct thermodependent trace element partitioning between inorganic and organic apatite and water highlights the contradictory effects of the crystal-chemical and biological controls on the partitioning of Ca, Sr and Ba in vertebrate organisms. Taking into account the diet Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca values, it is shown that the bone Ba/Ca signature of fish can be explained by Ca-biopurification and inorganic apatite precipitation, whereas both of these processes fail to predict the bone Sr/Ca values. Therefore, the metabolism of Ca as a function of temperature still needs to be fully understood. However, the biogenic Sr thermometer is used to calculate an average seawater temperature of 30.6°C using the Sr/Ca compositions of fossil shark teeth at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, and a typical seawater Sr/Ca ratio of 0.02. Finally, while the present work should be completed with data obtained in natural contexts, it is clear that Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in fossil biogenic apatite already constitute attractive thermometers for marine paleoenvironments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Gektin A.V.,Institute for Scintillation Materials of Ukraine | Belsky A.N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Vasil'Ev A.N.,Moscow State University
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science | Year: 2014

Analysis of the last years theoretical studies and track simulations to conclusion that primary stages (electron scattering and e-h thermalization) play the key role in the following scintillator efficiency. The long thermalization length comparing to Onsager radius is the main reason for geminate pair concentration decrease and later luminescence losses. The easiest way for thermalization length decrease is the scintillation crystal doping or even transfer to the mixed crystals (solid solution). The simple model of modification of electrons scattering and e-h pairs thermalization for the mixed crystals is proposed. It is shown that solid solutions have higher light output independently on the crystal type. Analysis of experimental data confirmed this conclusion. This phenomenon is found for halide, oxide and sulfates scintillators. The similar behavior is typical for mixed anion and/or cation systems. The key role of initial track formation stages is illustrated by the same trend for activated scintillators and pure crystal with intrinsic luminescence. These estimations and experimental data lead to the conclusion that the scintillation efficiency improvement by mixed crystal use can play an important role in the search and development of new scintillators. © 2013 IEEE.

Cochat P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2012

Primary hyperoxaluria Type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. The disorder results in overproduction and excessive urinary excretion of oxalate, causing recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. As glomerular filtration rate declines due to progressive renal involvement, oxalate accumulates leading to systemic oxalosis. The diagnosis is based on clinical and sonographic findings, urine oxalate assessment, enzymology and/or DNA analysis. Early initiation of conservative treatment (high fluid intake, pyridoxine, inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization) aims at maintaining renal function. In chronic kidney disease Stages 4 and 5, the best outcomes to date were achieved with combined liver-kidney transplantation.

Carlsson B.G.,Lund University | Toivanen J.,University of Jyvaskyla | Pastore A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

An iterative method we previously proposed to compute nuclear strength functions is developed to allow it to accurately calculate properties of individual nuclear states. The approach is based on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) and uses an iterative non-Hermitian Arnoldi diagonalization method where the QRPA matrix does not have to be explicitly calculated and stored. The method gives substantial advantages over conventional QRPA calculations with regards to the computational cost. The method is used to calculate excitation energies and decay rates of the lowest-lying 2 + and 3 - states in Pb, Sn, Ni, and Ca isotopes using three different Skyrme interactions and a separable Gaussian pairing force. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Samtleben H.,University of Lyon | Samtleben H.,Institut Universitaire de France | Tsimpis D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We consider rigid supersymmetric theories in four-dimensional Riemannian spin manifolds. We build the Lagrangian directly in Euclidean signature from the outset, keeping track of potential boundary terms. We reformulate the conditions for supersymmetry as a set of conditions on the torsion classes of a suitable SU(2) or trivial G-structure. We illustrate the formalism with a number of examples including supersymmetric backgrounds with non-vanishing Weyl tensor.

Bacchus-Montabonela M.C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Physical Journal D | Year: 2012

A theoretical approach of the charge transfer dynamics induced by collision of C 6+ ions with biological targets has been performed in a wide collision energy range by means of ab-initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The process has been investigated for the target series thymine, uracil and 5-halouracil corresponding to similar molecules with different substituent on carbon C5. Such a study may be related to hadrontherapy treatments by C 6+carbon ions and may provide, in particular, information on the radio-sensitivity of the different bases with regard to ion-induced radiation damage. The results have been compared to a previous analysis concerning the collision of C 4+ carbon ions with the same biomolecular targets and significant charge effects have been pointed out. © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2012.

Pearson J.M.,University of Montreal | Chamel N.,Free University of Colombia | Goriely S.,Free University of Colombia | Ducoin C.,University of Coimbra | Ducoin C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

The equation of state and composition of the inner crust of neutron stars at zero temperature are calculated, using the T = 0 version of the temperature-dependent extended Thomas-Fermi plus Strutinsky integral method, for each of a family of three functionals based on Skyrme-type forces BSk19, BSk20, and BSk21, which are characterized by different degrees of symmetry-energy stiffness, and also for the SLy4 functional. We also solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations to calculate the distribution of mass within the inner crust. Qualitatively similar results are found for all four functionals, and in particular the number of protons per Wigner-Seitz cell is in all cases equal to 40 throughout the inner crust. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Morin N.,IRSTEA | Miege C.,IRSTEA | Coquery M.,IRSTEA | Randon J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was relatively recently developed to trap hydrophilic organic micropollutants in aquatic environments. The aim of this article is to compile information from numerous references involving the POCIS in order to discuss the evaluation of time-weighted average concentrations (e.g., calibration methods, sampling rates, performance and reference compounds) and to review critically the different in situ applications (e.g., screening or quantifying micropollutants, and coupling to toxicity tests), application domains (e.g., molecules analyzed, and sampling media) and analytical protocols (e.g., processing, analysis, and exposure duration). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Caracas R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2015

We estimate the implications of having hydrogen dissolved in the solid core from a mineral physics perspective. Based on first-principles calculations, we observe that hydrogen has a strong effect on decreasing the density of the hexagonal close-packed structure of Fe. The structural effect is weakly dependent on the ordering pattern of the hydrogen defects. However, hydrogen also increases the elastic moduli of Fe at core pressures. Both the compressional and the shear wave velocities increase with addition even of small amounts of hydrogen, the increase of shear going against the geophysical requirements for light elements. This aspect makes hydrogen an undesirable light element in the Earth's core if we try to match the seismological observations. ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Jean-Mistral C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Vu Cong T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Sylvestre A.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Dielectric generators require an external circuit with a high bias voltage source to polarize them. To drastically reduce this circuit and to avoid external polarization, we propose here original transducers combining electrets and dielectric elastomer. Two operating modes have been studied and electromechanical analytical models have been developed from the combination of electrets theory and dielectric model. These concepts are applied on e-textile application: scavenging energy during human motion. An energy density around 6 mJ g -1 is expected on an optimal load of 10 MΩ. More generally, the flexibility, the lightness, the absence of high-voltage supply open many fields of applications beyond e-textiles. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Lerosey-Aubril R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Geological Magazine | Year: 2015

The Weeks Formation preserves a diverse, yet largely undescribed, exceptionally preserved fauna of late Guzhangian age. Here I describe Notchia weugi gen. et sp. nov., a new arthropod characterized by a short cephalon, a trunk with 12 tergites and weakly differentiated into two morphological regions, and a spine-bearing rectangular telson. This combination of characters is incompatible with its assignment to any known groups. The new taxon also adds to examples of convergent evolution of ramified digestive glands in arthropods, possibly as an adaptation to infrequent feeding. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

Ji Y.,Soochow University of China | Idrissi K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2012

Facial expression's machine analysis is one of the most challenging problems in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Naturally, facial expressions depend on subtle movements of facial muscles to show emotional states. After having studied the relations between basic expressions and corresponding facial deformation models, we propose two new textons, VTB and moments on spatiotemporal plane, to describe the transformation of human face during facial expressions. These descriptors aim at catching both general shape changes and motion texture details. Therefore, modeling the temporal behavior of facial expression captures the dynamic deformation of facial components. Finally, SVM based system is used to efficiently recognize the expression for a single image in sequence. Then, the probabilities of all the frames are used to predict the class of the current sequence. The experimental results are evaluated on both Cohan-Kanade and MMI databases. By comparison to other methods, the effectiveness of our method is clearly demonstrated. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Girona K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Laurencin J.,CEA Grenoble | Fouletier J.,Joseph Fourier University | Lefebvre-Joud F.,CEA Grenoble
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

Due to their high operating temperatures, SOFCs can be directly fed with biogas, mainly composed of CH 4 and CO 2. In this work, experiments was performed with a classical Ni-YSZ cermet//YSZ//LSM cell fed either with a synthetic simulated biogas (CH 4/CO 2 ratio equal to 1 with 6% humidity), or with humidified H 2. In both cases, the performances are found to be very similar, which confirms the ability of SOFCs to operate with internal reforming of biogas. Nevertheless, carbon formation in these operating conditions needs to be considered because of durability concerns. Thermodynamic calculations and modelling are carried out to evaluate the risk of carbon deposition depending on operating parameters. In the ternary diagram CHO, the limits for carbon deposition are plotted, allowing the determination of "safe" operating conditions in terms of CH 4 inlet flow rate and cell voltage. First experiments confirm these modelling results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bacchus-Montabonel M.C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Astronomische Nachrichten | Year: 2012

The theoretical treatment of charge transfer processes is developed using ab-initio molecular calculations. Semi-classical and quantal dynamical approaches are presented for the determination of cross sections and rate constants which are important data for space chemistry models. Accurate cross section values may be determined, taking account of rotational couplings with regard to the collision energy. Such theoretical approaches provide besides an insight into the mechanism of these processes with consideration of anisotropic and vibrational effects for collisions with diatomic molecular targets. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Delair T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Regenerative medicine is evolving fast, in particular since the potential of stem cells has been assessed. This evolution process requires the development of new tools capable of meeting the needs of this field of investigation. Cell delivery is a crucial issue for the success of regenerative medicine as cells should be easily seeded, expanded and introduced on site with maintenance of their phenotype and their capability to develop into a neo tissue/organ. On a material standpoint, cell delivery system should meet the preceding needs but also permit an easy introduction at the site and remain without hampering tissue development. As is shown in this review, polysaccharide hydrogels, and in particular in situ forming ones, are materials with a high application potential in regenerative medicine. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mavromatidis L.E.,National School of Architecture | Bykalyuk A.,INSA Lyon | Bykalyuk A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lequay H.,National School of Architecture
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

The building envelope's insulating efficiency is always a key element regarding the energy consumption control of the whole building. This article aims to propose a simple method based on classic and fractional factorial simulation plans to obtain regression models in the form of polynomial functions that link the angle, the thermal conductivity and the thickness of each envelope's component to the overall wall's thermal resistance. Original software that combines classic and novel modeling techniques has been used in order to have a precise and validated numerical investigation that focuses in a variety of possible composite dynamic wall's configurations. For the purposes of this study, the combined radiation/conduction heat transfer finite volume numerical model was updated complex enough to predict the temperature distribution and heat transfer in composite envelopes for a variety of inclination angles. The model takes into account the coupling between the solid conduction of both solid and fibrous systems and the gaseous conduction and radiation. The radiation heat transfer through each insulating layer has been modeled via the two flux approximation in order to take into account both optically thick and optically thin materials, as well as potential reflective surfaces currently used on composite wall's applications. Different simulation scenarios have been conceived according to basic fractional factorial simulation plans in order to obtain valid empirical polynomial functions. To validate this statistical forecast system, many simulation scenarios were carried out and the statistical results are in compliance with the numerical simulations. The regression models' results show that the error caused by simplification is acceptable in most conditions, and a lot of coupling calculation could be saved. Furthermore, the reduction of the complex numerical model to simple regression models in the form of polynomial equations aims to assist architects and engineers to directly obtain during the early design stages a high precision forecast of a composite envelope's thermal performance without mobilizing an expert's knowledge. Hence, having this knowledge they could optimize during the early design process the envelope's performance in order to finally achieve an integrated building design. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2013

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can occur in any of the connective tissue diseases (CTD) with varying frequency and severity, and an overall long-term prognosis that is less severe than that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Because ILD may be the presenting manifestation of CTD and/or the dominant manifestation of CTD, clinical extra-thoracic manifestations should be systematically considered in the diagnostic approach of ILD. When present, autoantibodies strongly contribute to the recognition and classification of the CTD. Patients with clinical extrathoracic manifestations of CTD and/or autoantibodies (especially with a high titer and/or the antibody is considered "highly specific" of an autoimmune condition), but who do not fit with established international CTD criteria may be called undifferentiated CTD or "lung-dominant CTD". Although it remains to be determined which combination of symptoms and serologic tests best identify the subset of patients with clinically relevant CTD features, available evidence suggests that such patients may have distinct clinical and imaging presentation and may portend a distinct clinical course. However, autoantibodies alone when present in IPF patients do not seem to impact prognosis or management. Referral to a rheumatologist and multidisciplinary discussion may contribute to management of patients with undifferentiated CTD. © ERS 2013.

Petitjean C.,University Paris - Sud | Deschamps P.,University Paris - Sud | Lopez-Garcia P.,University Paris - Sud | Moreira D.,University Paris - Sud | Brochier-Armanet C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Initial studies of the archaeal phylogeny relied mainly on the analysis of the RNA component of the small subunit of the ribosome (SSU rRNA). The resulting phylogenies have provided interesting but partial information on the evolutionary history of the third domain of life because SSU rRNA sequences do not contain enough phylogenetic signal to resolve all nodes of the archaeal tree. Thus, many relationships, and especially the most ancient ones, remained elusive. Moreover, SSU rRNA phylogenies can be heavily biased by tree reconstruction artifacts. The sequencing of complete genomes allows using a variety of protein markers as an alternative to SSU rRNA. Taking advantage of the recent burst of archaeal complete genome sequences, we have carried out an in-depth phylogenomic analysis of this domain. We have identified 200 new protein families that, in addition to the ribosomal proteins and the subunits of the RNA polymerase, form a conserved phylogenetic core of archaeal genes. The accurate analysis of these markers combined with desaturation approaches shed new light on the evolutionary history of Archaea and reveals that several relationships recovered in recent analyses are likely the consequence of tree reconstruction artifacts. Among others, we resolve a number of important relationships, such as those among methanogens Class I, and we propose the definition of two new superclasses within the Euryarchaeota: Methanomada and Diaforarchaea. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Douville M.-A.,Mines Douai | Douville M.-A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Le Grognec P.,Mines Douai
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2013

Sandwich structures are widely used in many industrial applications, due to the attractive combination of a lightweight and strong mechanical properties. This compromise is realized thanks to the presence of different parts in the composite material, namely the skins and possibly core reinforcements or thin-walled core structure which are both thin/slender and stiff relative to the other parts, namely the homogeneous core material, if any. The buckling phenomenon thus becomes mainly responsible for the final collapse of such sandwiches. In this paper, classical sandwich beam-columns (with homogeneous core materials) are considered and elastic buckling analyses are performed in order to derive the critical values and the associated bifurcation modes under various loadings (compression and pure bending). The two faces are represented by Euler-Bernoulli beams, whereas the core material is considered as a 2D continuous solid. A set of partial differential equations is first obtained from a general bifurcation analysis, using the above assumptions. Original closed-form analytical solutions of the critical loading and mode of a sandwich beam-column are then derived for various loading conditions. Finally, the proposed analytical formulae are validated using 2D linearized buckling finite element computations, and parametric analyses are performed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bacchus W.,ETH Zurich | Aubel D.,ETH Zurich | Aubel D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Fussenegger M.,ETH Zurich | Fussenegger M.,University of Basel
Molecular Systems Biology | Year: 2013

The development and progress in synthetic biology has been remarkable. Although still in its infancy, synthetic biology has achieved much during the past decade. Improvements in genetic circuit design have increased the potential for clinical applicability of synthetic biology research. What began as simple transcriptional gene switches has rapidly developed into a variety of complex regulatory circuits based on the transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation. Instead of compounds with potential pharmacologic side effects, the inducer molecules now used are metabolites of the human body and even members of native cell signaling pathways. In this review, we address recent progress in mammalian synthetic biology circuit design and focus on how novel designs push synthetic biology toward clinical implementation. Groundbreaking research on the implementation of optogenetics and intercellular communications is addressed, as particularly optogenetics provides unprecedented opportunities for clinical application. Along with an increase in synthetic network complexity, multicellular systems are now being used to provide a platform for next-generation circuit design. © 2013 EMBO and Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Confavreux C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | O'Connor P.,University of Toronto | Comi G.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Freedman M.S.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2014

Background: Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy approved for treatment of relapsing or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We aimed to provide further evidence for the safety and efficacy of teriflunomide in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods: This international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study enrolled adults aged 18-55 years with relapsing multiple sclerosis, one or more relapse in the previous 12 months or two or more in the previous 24 months but no relapse in the previous 30 days, and an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 5·5 points or less. Patients were recruited from 189 sites in 26 countries and randomly assigned (1:1:1) to once-daily placebo, teriflunomide 7 mg, or teriflunomide 14 mg via an interactive voice recognition system. Treatment duration was variable, ending 48 weeks after the last patient was included. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate (number of relapses per patient-year) and the key secondary endpoint was time to sustained accumulation of disability (an EDSS score increase of at least 1 EDSS point sustained for a minimum of 12 weeks), both analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population (all patients who received at least one dose of assigned study medication). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00751881. Findings: Between Sept 17, 2008, and Feb 17, 2011, 1169 patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group, of whom 388, 407, and 370 patients received at least one dose of placebo, teriflunomide 7 mg, or teriflunomide 14 mg, respectively. By the end of the study, the annualised relapse rate was higher in patients assigned to placebo (0·50 [95% CI 0·43-0·58]) than in those assigned to teriflunomide 14 mg (0·32 [0·27-0·38]; p=0·0001) or teriflunomide 7 mg (0·39 [0·33-0·46]; p=0·0183). Compared with placebo, teriflunomide 14 mg reduced the risk of sustained accumulation of disability (hazard ratio [HR] 0·68 [95% CI 0·47-1·00]; log-rank p=0·0442); however, teriflunomide 7 mg had no effect on sustained accumulation of disability (HR 0·95 [0·68-1·35]; log-rank p=0·7620). The most common adverse events were alanine aminotransferase increases (32 [8%] of 385 patients in the placebo group vs 46 [11%] of 409 patients in the teriflunomide 7 mg group vs 52 [14%] of 371 patients in the teriflunomide 14 mg group), hair thinning (17 [4%] vs 42 [10%] vs 50 [13%]), and headache (42 [11%] vs 60 [15%] vs 46 [12%]). Incidence of serious adverse events was similar in all treatment groups (47 [12%] vs 52 [13%] vs 44 [12%]). Four deaths occurred, none of which was considered to be related to study drug (respiratory infection in the placebo group, traffic accident in the teriflunomide 7 mg group, and suicide and septicaemia due to Gram-negative infection complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in the teriflunomide 14 mg group). Interpretation: Teriflunomide 14 mg was associated with a lower relapse rate and less disability accumulation compared with placebo, with a similar safety and tolerability profile to that reported in previous studies. These results confirm the dose effect reported in previous trials and support the use of teriflunomide 14 mg in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Funding: Genzyme, a Sanofi company. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Pierre-Louis O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials | Year: 2016

The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview on solid-state wetting, starting from basic concepts, and introducing the useful mathematical paraphernalia. We review and discuss the similarities and the differences between liquid-state and solid-state wetting. Then, we show how wetting concepts provide tools to understand the morphology and stability of solid-state thin films and nano-islands. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Hans U.,ETH Zurich | Kleine T.,ETH Zurich | Kleine T.,University of Munster | Bourdon B.,ETH Zurich | Bourdon B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2013

A strong depletion in moderately volatile elements is a characteristic feature of many planetary bodies in the inner solar system and either reflects the rapid accretion of planetesimals from an incompletely condensed solar nebula, or is the result of energetic collisions during planetary accretion. To better constrain the origin and timescales of this volatile depletion, we have precisely measured Sr isotope compositions in angrites, eucrites and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI). Angrites have an initial (87Sr/86Sr)ADOR=0.698978±0.000004, which is indistinguishable from (87Sr/86Sr)BABI=0.698970±0.000028 obtained for eucrites. In agreement with earlier studies we find that angrites and eucrites have higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios than CAI, at face value corresponding to model timescales for volatile loss of several millions of years. However, all the investigated CAI are characterized by elevated 84Sr/86Sr ratios compared to angrites and eucrites, which we interpret to reflect an excess of r-process Sr in the CAI. If this is correct, then the nucleosynthetic Sr isotope anomalies in the CAI require an upward correction of their measured 87Sr/86Sr. After this correction CAI have an initial (87Sr/86Sr)CAI=0.698975±0.000008, which is indistinguishable from ADOR and BABI. This implies volatile loss from the angrite and eucrite parent bodies within less than ~1Ma after formation of CAI. The volatile-depleted nature of these differentiated protoplanets thus most likely reflects their rapid accretion from volatile-poor dust in an incompletely condensed solar nebula. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Davidovic L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Davidovic L.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Navratil V.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | Navratil V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 7 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2011

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first cause of inherited intellectual disability, due to the silencing of the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene encoding the RNA-binding protein FMRP. While extensive studies have focused on the cellular and molecular basis of FXS, neither human Fragile X patients nor the mouse model of FXS-the Fmr1-null mouse-have been profiled systematically at the metabolic and neurochemical level to provide a complementary perspective on the current, yet scattered, knowledge of FXS. Using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR-MAS NMR)-based metabolic profiling, we have identified a metabolic signature and biomarkers associated with FXS in various brain regions of Fmr1-deficient mice. Our study highlights for the first time that Fmr1 gene inactivation has profound, albeit coordinated consequences in brain metabolism leading to alterations in: (1) neurotransmitter levels, (2) osmoregulation, (3) energy metabolism, and (4) oxidative stress response. To functionally connect Fmr1-deficiency to its metabolic biomarkers, we derived a functional interaction network based on the existing knowledge (literature and databases) and show that the FXS metabolic response is initiated by distinct mRNAtargets and proteins interacting with FMRP, and then relayed by numerous regulatory proteins. This novel "integrated metabolome and interactome mapping" (iMIM) approach advantageously unifies novel metabolic findings with previously unrelated knowledge and highlights the contribution of novel cellular pathways to the pathophysiology of FXS. These metabolomic and integrative systems biology strategies will contribute to the development of potential drug targets and novel therapeutic interventions, which will eventually benefit FXS patients. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

De Bari B.,University of Lausanne | Alongi F.,Sacro Cuore Hospital | Lestrade L.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Geneva Hug | Giammarile F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2014

Among PET radiotracers, FDG seems to be quite accepted as an accurate oncology diagnostic tool, frequently helpful also in the evaluation of treatment response and in radiation therapy treatment planning for several cancer sites. To the contrary, the reliability of Choline as a tracer for prostate cancer (PC) still remains an object of debate for clinicians, including radiation oncologists. This review focuses on the available data about the potential impact of Choline-PET in the daily clinical practice of radiation oncologists managing PC patients. In summary, routine Choline-PET is not indicated for initial local T staging, but it seems better than conventional imaging for nodal staging and for all patients with suspected metastases. In these settings, Choline-PET showed the potential to change patient management. A critical limit remains spatial resolution, limiting the accuracy and reliability for small lesions. After a PSA rise, the problem of the trigger PSA value remains crucial. Indeed, the overall detection rate of Choline-PET is significantly increased when the trigger PSA, or the doubling time, increases, but higher PSA levels are often a sign of metastatic spread, a contraindication for potentially curable local treatments such as radiation therapy. Even if several published data seem to be promising, the current role of PET in treatment planning in PC patients to be irradiated still remains under investigation. Based on available literature data, all these issues are addressed and discussed in this review. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Rio E.,University Paris - Sud | Biance A.-L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2014

Recent advances in the coalescence in liquid foams are reviewed, with a special focus on the multiscale structure of foams. Studies concerning the stability of isolated foam films, on the one hand, and the coalescence process in macroscopic foams, on the other hand, are not always in good agreement. This discrepancy reveals that two routes can induce coalescence in a foam. The first route is thermodynamic and shows that coalescence is governed by a stochastic rupture of foam films. The second route relies on a mechanically induced rupture of the films, due to the spontaneous evolution of foams. From a literature review, the evaluation of the different timescales involved in these mechanisms allows defining the limiting parameters of foam coalescence. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ladjal H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Hanus J.-L.,INSA Val de Loire | Ferreira A.,INSA Val de Loire
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2013

To facilitate training of biological cell injection operations, we are developing an interactive virtual environment to simulate needle insertion into biological cells. This paper presents methodologies for dynamic modeling, visual/haptic display, and model validation of cell injection. We first investigate the challenging issues in the modeling of the biomechanical properties of living cells. We propose two dynamic models to simulate cell deformation and puncture. The first approach is based on the assumptions that the mechanical response of living cells is mainly determined by the cytoskeleton and that the cytoskeleton is organized as a tensegrity structure including microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Equivalent microtubules struts are represented with a linear mass-tensor finite-element model and equivalent microfilaments and intermediate filaments with viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt elements. The second modeling method assumes the overall cell as an homogeneous hyperelastic model (St, Venant-Kirchhoff). Both graphic and haptic rendering are provided in real time to the operator through a 3-D virtual environment. Simulated responses are compared to experimental data to show the effectiveness of the proposed physically based model. © 1964-2012 IEEE.

Sanyal U.,Indian Institute of Science | Demirci U.B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Demirci U.B.,Montpellier University | Jagirdar B.R.,Indian Institute of Science | Miele P.,Montpellier University
ChemSusChem | Year: 2011

In today's era of energy crisis and global warming, hydrogen has been projected as a sustainable alternative to depleting CO 2-emitting fossil fuels. However, its deployment as an energy source is impeded by many issues, one of the most important being storage. Chemical hydrogen storage materials, in particular B-N compounds such as ammonia borane, with a potential storage capacity of 19.6 wt % H 2 and 0.145 kg H 2 L -1, have been intensively studied from the standpoint of addressing the storage issues. Ammonia borane undergoes dehydrogenation through hydrolysis at room temperature in the presence of a catalyst, but its practical implementation is hindered by several problems affecting all of the chemical compounds in the reaction scheme, including ammonia borane, water, borate byproducts, and hydrogen. In this Minireview, we exhaustively survey the state of the art, discuss the fundamental problems, and, where applicable, propose solutions with the prospect of technological applications. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fraune J.,University of Wurzburg | Brochier-Armanet C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Alsheimer M.,University of Wurzburg | Benavente R.,University of Wurzburg
Genetics | Year: 2013

During meiosis, the stable pairing of the homologous chromosomes is mediated by the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Its tripartite structure is well conserved in Metazoa and consists of two lateral elements (LEs) and a central region (CR) that in turn is formed by several transverse filaments (TFs) and a central element (CE). In a previous article, we have shown that not only the structure, but also the major structural proteins SYCP1 (TFs) and SYCP3 (LEs) of the mammalian SC are conserved in metazoan evolution. In continuation of this work, we now investigated the evolution of the mammalian CE-specific proteins using phylogenetic and biochemical/cytological approaches. In analogy to the observations made for SYCP1 and SYCP3, we did not detect homologs of the mammalian CE proteins in insects or nematodes, but in several other metazoan clades. We were able to identify homologs of three mammalian CE proteins in several vertebrate and invertebrate species, for two of these proteins down to the basal-branching phylum of Cnidaria. Our approaches indicate that the SC arose only once, but evolved dynamically during diversification of Metazoa. Certain proteins appear to be ancient in animals, but successive addition of further components as well as protein loss and/or replacements have also taken place in some lineages. © 2013 by the Genetics Society of America.

Auvergne R.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | Caillol S.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | David G.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | Boutevin B.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

The works undertaken to obtain either partially or fully biobased epoxide materials are studied. The reaction between the phenate ion and ECH 2 reveals two competitive mechanisms, one-step nucleophilic substitution with cleavage of the C-Cl bond and a two-step mechanism based on ring opening of ECH (2) with ArO- (1') followed by intramolecular cyclization (SNi) of the corresponding alcoholate, containing one atom of chlorine in the β-position, formed in situ. Depending on the substituent position or nature in the phenol, it takes 6-20 h at reflux or 24-26 h at room temperature to complete the reaction. The reaction of ECH with an alcohol is more difficult, with many side reactions, since this reaction generates new alcohol groups with similar pKa values which are able to react with the epoxy group of ECH, thus leading to its homopolymerization. Epoxies are able to react with (meth)acrylic acid to give formulations for coating applications or vinyl ester monomers and networks after radical polymerization.

Ryerson C.J.,University of British Columbia | Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Brown K.K.,National Jewish Health | Collard H.R.,University of California at San Francisco
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2015

The goal of this review is to summarise the clinical features, management, and prognosis of acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF). AE-IPF has previously been defined based on clinical and radiological features that include the subacute onset of dyspnoea, bilateral ground glass changes on chest high-resolution computed tomography, and the absence of an identifiable aetiology. The annual incidence of AE-IPF is typically reported at 5-15%, but is less common in mild disease. Features of diffuse alveolar damage are present when a biopsy is performed. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients with acute respiratory worsening are often initially treated with high dose corticosteroids and antimicrobials; however, there are no clear data to support these therapies, and the short-term mortality of AE-IPF is ∼50%. Recent studies have shown that the features and prognosis of AE-IPF are similar to other causes of acute respiratory worsening, including infection, aspiration, air pollution and mechanical injury to the alveolar epithelium. Based on this emerging evidence, we propose a novel approach to the classification of acute respiratory worsening events in patients with IPF that focuses on clinical and radiological findings consistent with an underlying pathobiology of diffuse alveolar damage. © ERS 2015.

Rizo H.,CNRS Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory | Boyet M.,CNRS Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory | Blichert-Toft J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Rosing M.,Copenhagen University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2011

We present the first combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd and 176Lu- 176Hf study of mafic rocks (amphibolites) from the western part of the Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB, SW Greenland). Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf whole-rock isochrons yield identical ages within error: 3.72±0.08 and 3.67±0.07Ga, respectively. 142Nd measurements confirm and extend the database of 142Nd excesses in Isua samples (μ 142Nd=7-16ppm relative to the terrestrial Nd standard), indicating that early-differentiated reservoirs escaped complete homogenization by mantle convection until the Archean. Combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd systematics suggest differentiation of the Isua amphibolite reservoir at maximum ages of ~4.53, ~4.47, and ~4.32Ga. These ages are relative to, respectively, ordinary-chondritic, enstatite-chondritic, and higher-than-chondritic mantle compositions. The intercept of the Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron is in accordance with 142Nd results and consistent with a superchondritic initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratio (ε 143Nd 3.7Ga=+1.41±0.98). In contrast, the corresponding initial ε 176Hf 3.7Ga=-1.41±0.57 is subchondritic. Since Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd fractionate similarly during mantle processes, the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems display incongruent relative parent-daughter behavior in the source of Isua amphibolites. Based on high-pressure and -temperature phase partition coefficients, we propose a model that satisfies 147Sm- 143Nd, 176Lu- 176Hf, and 142Nd results, as well as trace element characteristics. A deep-seated source composed largely of magnesium perovskite (98% MgPv) and containing 2% calcium perovskite satisfactorily explains the Nd and Hf isotopic discordance observed for Isua amphibolites. The negative HFSE anomalies characterizing Isua basalts likewise could have been inherited from such an early (4.53-4.32Ga) deep mantle cumulate. Since the ~4Ga old Acasta Gneisses (Northwest Territories, Canada) have radiogenic 176Hf/ 177Hf (Scherer et al., 2010), dissociation of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systems may not be a ubiquitous feature of the Hadean mantle, but rather reflects that a deep-seated source was involved in the formation of ISB lavas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Perrier V.,University of Tartu | Vannier J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Siveter D.J.,University of Leicester
Palaeontology | Year: 2011

Bolbozoid and cypridinid myodocope ostracods from France, the Czech Republic and Sardinia consist of four genera (one new: Silurocypridina) and at least ten species (eight new: Bolbozoe acuta, B. rugosa, B. parvafraga, Parabolbozoe armoricana, Silurocypridina retroreticulata, S. variostriata, S. calva and Calocaria robusta). They have a functional design, palaeogeographical distribution, depositional setting and faunal associates that suggest that they were swimmers in the water column, living in dim light, relatively deep environments, above near bottom dysoxic/anoxic conditions. These myodocope faunas include some possible pelagic species sensu stricto, with widespread palaeogeographical (transoceanic) distribution, and some species that occupied hyperbenthic niches and were capable of making short incursions to the sediment to scavenge on carrion. These data support the model that Silurian myodocopes were pioneer pelagic ostracods. © The Palaeontological Association.

A well-preserved large limulid trackway related to Kouphichnium lithographicum is described from the Upper Kimmeridgian Lithographic Limestones of Cerin (Ain, France). It is three meters long and exhibits ten successive sets of imprints characterized by a pair of well-preserved tetradactyl external imprints of legs VI (named pushers) and a variable number (mostly three pairs) of straight thin intermediate imprints (legs III-V). The trackway is unusually wide and was probably made by a very large adult approximately 38 cm wide and 80 cm long when related to the proportions of the modern Limulus polyphemus. The straightness of the trackway, the great repeat distance (stride), the length of series of leg imprints, their slight angle to the mid-line, the well-marked pusher (= leg VI) imprints and the absence of groove made by the telson all indicate fast progression of a vigorous animal on the sea-floor. This walking trackway can be easily differentiated from other limulid crawling, ploughing, and dying trackways usually found in lithographic limestones or other deposits of the geological record. Main characteristics of these different limulid trackways are evidenced. The occurrence of a living adult in the Cerin restricted lagoon is probably related to a brief period of connection with the open sea. This occurrence indicates either a passive introduction of the animal into the lagoon or a spawning behaviour. © 2010 Swiss Geological Society.

Dole-Olivier M.-J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2011

The hyporheic zone (HZ) is thought to serve multiple functions for lotic invertebrates, but its role in the persistence of benthic assemblages after disturbances ('hyporheic refuge hypothesis', HRH) has never been clearly demonstrated since its initial proposal in 1953. Water exchanges through the HZ appear to be crucial in determining most hyporheic processes and subsequently, in controlling directly or indirectly the distribution of hyporheic assemblages. At present, it seems that the distribution of hyporheic refugia would also be controlled by hyporheic flowpaths, explaining the non-uniform response to the HRH documented in the literature. In light of recent developments in hyporheic hydrology, it is timely to propose research directions for understanding the distribution and patchiness of hyporheic refugia. This review proposes a framework of hypotheses, based on the recognition of hyporheic flowpaths across several scales and predicting the highest refugial capacity in large-scale upwelling zones. Outcomes from this framework include the development of physical indicators measuring the ability of the HZ to protect invertebrates, the identification of river areas demonstrating the highest refuge capacity (hyporheic hotspots) and the promotion in restoration projects of suitable hydrologic exchanges for enhancing the development of hyporheic hotspots. © CSIRO 2011.

Andrieu V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Andrieu V.,CNRS Automation and Process Engineering Laboratory | Prieur C.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems | Prieur C.,CNRS GIPSA Laboratory
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

The problem of piecing together two control Lyapunov functions (CLFs) is addressed. The first CLF characterizes a local asymptotic controllability property toward the origin, whereas the second CLF is related to a global asymptotic controllability property with respect to a compact set. A sufficient condition is expressed to obtain an explicit solution. This sufficient condition is shown to be always satisfied for a linear second order controllable system. In a second part, it is shown how this uniting CLF problem can be used to solve the problem of piecing together two stabilizing control laws. Finally, this framework is applied on a numerical example to improve local performance of a globally stabilizing state feedback. © 2010 IEEE.

Li J.J.,Lanzhou University | Li J.J.,University Paris - Sud | Long W.H.,Lanzhou University | Margueron J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Van Giai N.,University Paris - Sud
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We have explored the occurrence of the spherical shell closures for superheavy nuclei in the framework of the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (RHFB) theory. Shell effects are characterized in terms of two-nucleon gaps δ2n(p). Although the results depend slightly on the effective Lagrangians used, the general set of magic numbers beyond 208Pb are predicted to be Z = 120, 138 for protons and N = 172, 184, 228 and 258 for neutrons, respectively. Specifically the RHFB calculations favor the nuclide 120304 as the next spherical doubly magic one beyond 208Pb. Shell effects are sensitive to various terms of the mean-field, such as the spin-orbit coupling, the scalar and effective masses. © 2014 The Authors.

Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada | Fauquette S.,Montpellier University | Suc J.-P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

Pollen analysis of Miocene and Pliocene sediments from the Iberian Peninsula shows a progressive reduction in plant diversity through time caused by the disappearance of thermophilous and high-water requirement plants. In addition, an increase in warm-temperate (mesothermic), seasonal-adapted "Mediterranean" taxa, high-elevation conifers and herbs (mainly Artemisia) occurred during the Middle and Late Miocene and Pliocene. This has mainly been interpreted as a response of the vegetation to global and regional processes, including climate cooling related to the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and then the onset of the Arctic Ice Sheet, uplift of regional mountains related to the Alpine uplift and the progressive movement of Eurasia towards northern latitudes as a result of the northwards subduction of Africa. The development of steppe-like vegetation in southern Iberia is ancient and probably started during the Oligocene. The onset of a contrasted seasonality in temperature during the Mid-Pliocene superimposed on the pre-existing seasonality in precipitation, the annual length of which increased southward. The Mediterranean climatic rhythm (summer drought) began about 3.4. Ma and caused the individualization of modern Mediterranean ecosystems. Quaternary-type Mediterranean climatic fluctuations started at 2.6. Ma (Gelasian) resulting in repeated steppe vs. forest alternations. A latitudinal climatic gradient between the southern and the northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula existed since the Middle Miocene. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Rodrigue N.,University of Calgary | Lartillot N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Motivation: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the potential of codon substitution models for a variety of applications. However, the computational demands of these models have sometimes lead to the adoption of oversimplified assumptions, questionable statistical methods or a limited focus on small data sets.Results: Here, we offer a scalable, message-passing- interface-based Bayesian implementation of site-heterogeneous codon models in the mutation-selection framework. Our software jointly infers the global mutational parameters at the nucleotide level, the branch lengths of the tree and a Dirichlet process governing across-site variation at the amino acid level. We focus on an example estimation of the distribution of selection coefficients from an alignment of several hundred sequences of the influenza PB2 gene, and highlight the site-specific characterization enabled by such a modeling approach. Finally, we discuss future potential applications of the software for conducting evolutionary inferences. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

New and rare Jurassic ammonites have been found in Oman. Alatest Bajocian Arabian Platform-type species was discovered in the Haushi-Huqf Massif autochthon of southwestern Oman, and Bajocian species typical of the Mediterranean Tethys and northwestern Europe were found in the Kawr-Misfah exotic unit of the Hawasina Nappes in the Oman Mountains. The dates provided by the new fauna have resulted in a reinterpretarion of the geologic history of the containing rocks, and of their paleoecology and paleobiogeography. It is significant that ammonites from shallow-marine environments of the Arabian Platform are in close proximity to species from open-sea environments of the Mediterranean Tethys and northwestern Europe. This shows that endemism of the Arabian Province resulted from ecological isolation, whereas open-marine environments on the Oman margin, especially the pelagic seamounts off the margin, form part of a migration route between western and eastern Tethys (or Indo-Southwest Pacific), and perhaps far beyond. The occurrences among the Tethyan and pandemic components of ammonite faunas in the Canadian Pacific Cordillera of most of the taxa of the open-marine environments on the Oman margin reopens the question of Pacific biogeography during the Early Jurassic before the Hispanic oceanic corridor was completely open. Among the proposed models, the Pantropic Distribution Model of Newton is examined in the light of the Cretaceous paleobiogeography, with particular reference to rudists.

Goubet N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Portales H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Yan C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Arfaoui I.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Natural systems give the route to design periodic arrangements with mesoscopic architecture using individual nanocrystals as building blocks forming colloidal crystals or supracrystals. The collective properties of such supracrystals are one of the main driving forces in materials research for the 21st century with potential applications in electronics or biomedical environments. Here we describe two simultaneous supracrystal growth processes from gold nanocrystal suspension, taking place in solution and at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, the growth processes involve the crystallinity selection of nanocrystals and induce marked changes in the supracrystal mechanical properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Mollereau B.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Ma D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Apoptosis | Year: 2014

The canonical role of p53 in preserving genome integrity and limiting carcinogenesis has been well established. In the presence of acute DNA-damage, oncogene deregulation and other forms of cellular stress, p53 orchestrates a myriad of pleiotropic processes to repair cellular damages and maintain homeostasis. Beside these well-studied functions of p53, recent studies in Drosophila have unraveled intriguing roles of Dmp53 in promoting cell division in apoptosis-induced proliferation, enhancing fitness and proliferation of the winner cell in cell competition and coordinating growth at the organ and organismal level in the presence of stress. In this review, we describe these new functions of Dmp53 and discuss their relevance in the context of carcinogenesis. © 2014 The Author(s).

Matouzenko G.S.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Jeanneau E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Verat A.Y.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Bousseksou A.,CNRS Coordination Chemistry
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2011

Two polymorphic modifications 1 and 3 of binuclear compound [{Fe(dpia)(NCS) 2} 2(bpe)] and pseudo-polymorphic modification [{Fe(dpia)(NCS) 2} 2(bpe)]·2CH 3OH (2), where dpia = di-(2-picolyl)amine, bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl) ethene, were synthesized, and their structures, magnetic properties, and Mössbauer spectra were studied. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements of three binuclear compounds show different types of magnetic behaviour. The complex 1 exhibits a gradual two-step spin crossover (SCO) suggesting the occurrence of the mixed [HS-LS] (HS: high spin, LS: low spin) pair at the plateau temperature (182 K), at which about 50% of the complexes undergoes a thermal spin conversion. The complex 2 displays an abrupt full one-step spin transition without hysteresis, centred at about 159 K. The complex 3 is paramagnetic over the temperature range 20-290 K. The single-crystal X-ray studies show that all three compounds are built up from the bpe-bridged binuclear molecules. The structure of 1 was solved for three spin isomers [HS-HS], [HS-LS], and [LS-LS] at three temperatures 300 K, 183 K, and 90 K. The crystal structures for 2 and 3 were determined for the [HS-HS] complexes at room temperature. The analysis of correlations between the structural characteristics and different types of magnetic behaviour for new 1-3 binuclear complexes, as well as for previously reported binuclear compounds, revealed that the SCO process (occurrence of full one-step, two-step, or partial (50%) SCO) is specified by the degree of distortion of the octahedral geometry of the [FeN 6] core, caused by both packing and strain effects arising from terminal and/or bridging ligands. The comparison of the magnetic properties and the networks of intra- and inter-molecular interactions in the crystal lattice for the family of related SCO binuclear compounds suggests that the intermolecular interactions play a predominant role in the cooperativeness of the spin transition relative to the intramolecular interactions through the bridging ligand. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Pays O.,University of Angers | Sirot E.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Fritz H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Ethology | Year: 2012

Collective detection of predators is one of the main advantages of living in groups in prey species. However, the mechanisms linking individual and collective vigilance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated individual and collective vigilance in a natural population of greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a gregarious ruminant living under high predation risk. Controlling for environmental, individual and group factors, we show that the proportion of time during which at least one individual was vigilant increased with group size, whereas individual investment in vigilance decreased. We also show that individuals tended to synchronize both vigilance and feeding activities. More generally, and whatever the considered group size, we demonstrate how the independent scanning assumption underestimated both the proportion of time during which no individual was vigilant and the proportion of time during which all individuals were simultaneously vigilant, but overestimated the proportion of time during which one vigilant individual only was present. Our results thus contrast with the point of view that the alternative to independent vigilance is coordinated vigilance and plead for a better description of the processes whereby reciprocal influences between individuals shape collective patterns of vigilance. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Blichert-Toft J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Puchtel I.S.,University of Maryland University College
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2010

In this study, we present Lu-Hf isotope systematics and Lu and Hf abundances for komatiites from the lowermost part of the 2.8Ga Kostomuksha greenstone belt in the Baltic Shield and compare these, as well as available Sm-Nd isotope data, with those for the best characterized Archean komatiite systems. The Lu-Hf isotope compositions of four spatially associated differentiated lava flows from the Kostomuksha greenstone belt yield an isochron (MSWD=1.6) with an age of 2931±300Ma, which represents the first Lu-Hf isochron obtained for a suite of co-magmatic komatiite lavas. The calculated mean initial 176Hf/177Hf for the Kostomuksha komatiite samples is 0.281107±3 (2σmean), which corresponds to an initial ε176Hf of +4.9±0.1 (2σmean). Assuming that mantle differentiation occurred 10Ma after Earth's accretion at 4.558Ga, this precise initial ratio requires a time-integrated 176Lu/177Hf=0.03759±8, which is identical to the average time-integrated 176Lu/177Hf=0.0375±6 calculated for the best characterized late Archean komatiite systems. Together with the calculated average time-integrated 147Sm/144Nd=0.2091±4 for the same late Archean komatiite systems, these parameters represent our best estimate of the Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd properties in the late Archean mantle and indicate derivation of komatiite magmas from around the globe from long-term melt-depleted sources that were remarkably homogenous in terms of lithophile trace element systematics. These time-integrated ratios are identical to the respective values of 0.0375 and 0.209 calculated by Boyet and Carlson (2006) for the so-called Early Depleted Reservoir (EDR), and may indicate that the late Archean mantle was similar in composition to the putative EDR, whereas early Archean systems had higher, and Proterozoic systems lower time-integrated Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd ratios. The observed decrease in time-integrated Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd in komatiite sources over time is interpreted as strong evidence for the existence of a hidden enriched reservoir complementary to the EDR that has been gradually mixed back into the mantle over time. The overall depletion of the early mantle likely occurred very early in Earth's history as a result of either global magma ocean differentiation or extraction and subsequent long-term isolation of primordial terrestrial crust. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Rieger J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Zhang W.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Stoffelbach F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Charleux B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

Water-soluble poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)s (PDMAAm) with a reactive trithiocarbonate group exhibiting different structures were used as macromolecular RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) agents in the surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate and styrene, under ab initio, batch conditions. Independently of the structure of the RAFT group, the polymerizations were fast and controlled with molar masses that matched well the theoretical values and rather low polydispersity indexes. Monomer conversions close to 100% were reached and the polymerizations behaved as controlled systems, even when solids contents up to 40% were targeted. The system thus led to poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-polystyrene amphiphilic diblock copolymers formed in situ and self-assembled upon chain extension. The stability of the aqueous dispersions, measured by the amount of coagulum formed, improved with increasing length of the stabilizing hydrophilic PDMAAm segments. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Kahan D.,San Diego State University | Nicaise V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2012

Background: Despite frequent use of pedometers in interventions targeting youth PA, there is no literature that addresses the prevalence and reasons for protocol nonadherence. Methods: Adherence behaviors of early adolescents (n = 43; Meanage = 12.3 ± 1.0) in an 8-week, faith-based intervention were monitored/recorded. Students provided reasons for various aspects of protocol breach, which were used to develop a post intervention questionnaire. Analyses included calculations of frequency/percentage as well as cross tabulations/chi square to detect gender/age differences. Results: Over the intervention, recording PA in logs decreased by 85% and was attributed to forgetfulness and lack of time. For pedometers, highest-frequency events included error codes (n = 501), incorrect wear (37%, ≥ 1 day), and shaking (58%-69%, ≥ 1 time). Top reasons for shaking were to make up for lost step opportunities and get further along the route. Of permissible stepping strategies, males used ambulatory activity on the playground and stair usage more, while 6th graders used speed stepping in place more than their respective counterparts. Conclusions: Students admit to basal levels of nonadherence, which should be taken into consideration when designing/implementing interventions. Integrating intervention tasks into the regular curriculum and providing sufficient opportunities to perform them may alleviate some barriers to adherence. Future research should attempt to confirm results in other school types/levels as well as quantify these behaviors in free-living or unstructured settings. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.

da Fonseca R.,Institute National Des Science Appliques Of Lyon Insa Lyon | Bideaux E.,Institute National Des Science Appliques Of Lyon Insa Lyon | Gerard M.,CEA Grenoble | Jeanneret B.,Institute Francais des science et Technology des Transports | And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

In this paper, a non linear control strategy is applied to the air supply subsystem of a polymer electrode membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Based on a simplified control model and using the differential flatness control theory, a controller is designed in order to regulate the most important variables in the air supply subsystem: the oxygen stoechiometry and the cathode pressure. Simulations are made using a very detailed model validated experimentally, which allows the evolution of different state variables in the stack to be observed during the power deliver operation. The simulation results show that the controller gives a good response in terms of performance, robustness and durability of the system, despite the dynamics power profiles demanded, the approximations made and the disturbances. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jayawardhana B.,University of Groningen | Ouyang R.,University of Groningen | Andrieu V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Automatica | Year: 2012

In this paper, we discuss the dissipativity property of the counterclockwise Duhem operator. Sufficient conditions on the functions which define the Duhem operator are given such that the Duhem operator has counterclockwise inputoutput dynamics. In particular, an explicit construction of the storage functions satisfying the counterclockwise dissipation inequality is given. The constructed storage function is also related to the underlying anhysteresis function which is commonly used to describe hysteresis in magnetic materials. The results can thus facilitate analysis of systems with the counterclockwise Duhem operator via the dissipativity approach. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mithieux G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Correspondances en MHND | Year: 2016

Intestinal gluconeogenesis is a function recently described that regulates food intake and glycemic control. The glucose released is detected in the wall of the portal vein by neurons that activate key regions of the brain involved in the control of energy homeostasis. Dietary proteins induce satiety by inducing intestinal gluconeogenesis. The mechanism involves the prior detection of peptides by specific receptors in the nervous system of the portal vein and a reflex arc with the brain that induces intestinal gluconeogenesis. Short chains fatty acids produced by the microbiota from fermentable fibers act through intestinal gluconeogenesis to exert their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. In the case of propionate, the mechanism involves the prior activation in the nerves of the portal vein walls of a fatty acid receptor and a reflex arc initiating intestinal gluconeogenesis. These new data have extended the concept of the gut-brain axis control of energy homeostasis, by adding nervous sensing mechanisms to the well known mechanisms relayed by gastrointestinal hormones transported by the humoral way.

Davesne D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pastore A.,Free University of Colombia | Navarro J.,University of Valencia
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2013

The explicit form of the next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO) of the Skyrme effective pseudopotential compatible with all required symmetries and especially with gauge invariance is presented in a Cartesian basis. It is shown in particular that for such a pseudopotential there is no spin-orbit contribution and that the D-wave term suggested in the original Skyrme formulation does not satisfy the invariance properties. The six new N 2LO terms contribute to both the equation of state and the Landau parameters. These contributions to symmetric nuclear matter are given explicitly and discussed. Communicated by Jacek Dobaczewski © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Loriot V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gitzinger G.,FASTLITE | Forget N.,FASTLITE
Optics Express | Year: 2013

We investigate a variant of the d-scan technique, an intuitive pulse characterization method for retrieving the spectral phase of ultrashort laser pulses. In this variant a ramp of quadratic spectral phases is applied to the input pulses and the second harmonic spectra of the resulting pulses are measured for each chirp value. We demonstrate that a given field envelope produces a unique and unequivocal chirp-scan map and that, under some asymptotic assumptions, both the spectral amplitude and phase of the measured pulse can be retrieved analytically from only two measurements. An iterative algorithm can exploit the redundancy of the information contained in the chirp-scan map to discard experimental noise, artifacts, calibration errors and improve the reconstruction of both the spectral intensity and phase. This technique is compared to two reference characterization techniques (FROG and SRSI). Finally, we perform d-scan measurements with a simple grating-pair compressor. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Khan E.,University Paris - Sud | Margueron J.,University Paris - Sud | Margueron J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Background: The determination of the density dependence of the nuclear incompressibility can be investigated using the isoscalar giant monopole resonance. Purpose: The importance of the so-called crossing density at subsaturation density is underlined. Methods: The measurements of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR), also called the breathing mode, are analyzed with respect to their constraints on the quantity Mc, e.g., the density dependence of the nuclear incompressibility around the so-called crossing density ρc=0.1 fm-3. Results: The correlation between the centroid of the GMR, EGMR, and Mc is shown to be more accurate than the one between EGMR and the incompressibility modulus at saturation density, K∞, giving rise to an improved determination on the nuclear equation of state. The relationship between M c and K∞ is given as a function of the skewness parameter Q∞ associated with the density dependence of the equation of state. The large variation of Q∞ among different energy density functionals directly impacts the knowledge of K ∞: A better knowledge of Q∞ is required to deduce more accurately K∞. Using the local density approximation, a simple and accurate expression relating EGMR and the quantity Mc is derived and successfully compared to the fully microscopic predictions. Conclusions: The measurement of the GMR constrains the slope of the incompressibility Mc at the crossing density rather than the incompressibility modulus at the saturation density. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Chazot J.-D.,Compiegne University of Technology | Zhang E.,Compiegne University of Technology | Antoni J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2012

A characterization method of poroelastic materials saturated by air is described. This inverse method enables the evaluation of all the parameters with a simple measurement in a standing wave tube. Moreover, a Bayesian approach is used to return probabilistic data such as the maximum a posteriori and the confidence interval of each parameter. To get these data, it is necessary to define prior probability distributions on the parameters characterizing the studied material. This last point is very important to regularize the inverse problem of identification. In a first step, the direct problem formulation is presented. Then, the inverse characterization is developed and applied to simulated and experimental data. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

Lacour J.-R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires | Year: 2011

Most of increases in energy metabolism are induced by exercise. They are related with power and efficiency. In cycle ergometer exercise efficiency is positively correlated with exercise power and negatively correlated with pedaling rate. Ramp exercises are associated with an apparent increase in efficiency. Movements of daily life activity are too complex to make evaluation of power or efficiency possible. Energy expenditure assessment is based on direct measurement of the energy metabolism increase. The energy cost of movement or economy is calculated. Daily activity recording provides an assessment of the energy metabolism ability of patients. Muscle contractile activity is linked with ATP splitting. The pathways to resynthesize ATP include anaerobic glycogenolysis and the aerobic breakdown of substrates. Type I fibres have a higher oxidative capacity than type II fibres. Type II fibres demonstrate a higher glycolytic capacity, contract faster, and are more fatigable. Information relative to energy expenditure during daily life activity allows clinicians to better assess the clinical implications of the stress tests results. © 2011 SPLF.

Erkosar Combe B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
PloS one | Year: 2014

Most metazoans engage in mutualistic interactions with their intestinal microbiota. Despite recent progress the molecular mechanisms through which microbiota exerts its beneficial influences on host physiology are still largely uncharacterized. Here we use axenic Drosophila melanogaster adults associated with a standardized microbiota composed of a defined set of commensal bacterial strains to study the impact of microbiota association on its host transcriptome. Our results demonstrate that Drosophila microbiota has a marked impact on the midgut transcriptome and promotes the expression of genes involved in host digestive functions and primary metabolism. We identify the IMD/Relish signaling pathway as a central regulator of this microbiota-mediated transcriptional response and we reveal a marked transcriptional trade-off between the midgut response to its beneficial microbiota and to bacterial pathogens. Taken together our results indicate that microbiota association potentiates host nutrition and host metabolic state, two key physiological parameters influencing host fitness. Our work paves the way to subsequent mechanistic studies to reveal how these microbiota-dependent transcriptional signatures translate into host physiological benefits.

Martini M.,Free University of Colombia | Ericson M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ericson M.,CERN
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate the MiniBooNE recent data on the antineutrino-nucleus interaction, using the same theoretical description with the same parameters as in our previous work on neutrino interactions. The double differential quasielastic cross section, which is free from the energy reconstruction problem, is well reproduced by our model once the multinucleon excitations are incorporated. A similar agreement is achieved for the Q2 distribution. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Nussey D.H.,University of Edinburgh | Coulson T.,Imperial College London | Delorme D.,Office Nationale de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage | Clutton-Brock T.H.,University of Cambridge | And 3 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2011

Declines in survival and reproduction with age are prevalent in wild vertebrates, but we know little about longitudinal changes in behavioral, morphological, or physiological variables that may explain these demographic declines. We compared age-related variation in body mass of adult females in three free-living ungulate populations that have been the focus of long-term, individual-based research: bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Canada; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) at Trois Fontaines, France; and Soay sheep (Ovis aries) on St. Kilda, Scotland. We use two recently proposed approaches to separate contributions to age-dependent variation at the population level from within-individual changes and between-individual selective disappearance. Selective disappearance of light individuals in all three populations was most evident at the youngest and oldest ages. In later adulthood, bighorn sheep and roe deer showed a continuous decline in body mass that accelerated with age while Soay sheep showed a precipitous decrease in mass in the two years preceding death. Our results highlight the importance of mass loss in explaining withinindividual demographic declines in later adulthood in natural populations. They also reveal that the pattern of senescence, and potentially also the processes underlying demographic declines in late life, can differ markedly across related species with similarlife histories. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Vu-Cong T.,Joseph Fourier University | Jean-Mistral C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sylvestre A.,Joseph Fourier University
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2013

Dielectric elastomer generators offer great potential for soft applications involving fluid or human interactions. These scavengers are light, compliant, have a wide range of functions and develop an important energy density. Nevertheless, these systems are passive and require an external bias source, namely a high voltage source and complex power circuits. This cumbersome polarization complexes the system in a drastic way and slows down the development of dielectric generators. In order to remove these problems, we propose here new transducers based on the use of an electret coupled with dielectric elastomer, thus avoiding the use of a high external voltage source, and leading to the design of a soft autonomous dielectric generator. By combining a dielectric model and the electret theory, an electromechanical model was developed to evaluate the capabilities of such a generator. This generator was then produced starting from Teflon™ as electret and silicone PolyPower™ as electroactive polymer. A good agreement between the model and the experiment were obtained. An experimental energy density of 0.55 mJ g-1 was reached for 50% strain (electret potential of -1000 V). Once optimized in its design, such a soft generator could produce energy density up to 1.42 mJ g-1. An energy density of 4.16 mJ g-1 is expected with an electret potential of -2000 V. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Antoni J.,Compiegne University of Technology | Antoni J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Chauhan S.,Bruel and Kjaer Vibro
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2013

Second-order blind source separation (SOBSS) has gained recent interest in operational modal analysis (OMA), since it is able to separate a set of system responses into modal coordinates from which the system poles can be extracted by single-degree-of-freedom techniques. In addition, SOBSS returns a mixing matrix whose columns are the estimates of the system mode shapes. The objective of this paper is threefold. First, a theoretical analysis of current SOBSS methods is conducted within the OMA framework and its precise conditions of applicability are established. Second, a new separation method is proposed that fixes current limitations of SOBSS: It returns estimate of complex mode shapes, it can deal with more active modes than the number of available sensors, and it shows superior performance in the case of heavily damped and/or strongly coupled modes. Third, a theoretical connection is drawn between SOBSS and stochastic subspace identification (SSI), which stands as one of the points of reference in OMA. All approaches are finally compared by means of numerical simulations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doledec S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Phillips N.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Townsend C.,University of Otago
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2011

Large-scale comparative studies of ecological responses to anthropological stressors in rivers require measures that are consistent across a range of spatial scales. The biological trait profile of communities offers an alternative approach to traditional measures of macroinvertebrate taxonomic identity and is less constrained by biogeographic influences. We compared the capacities of taxonomic composition and biological trait composition to discriminate the effects of land use (measured as percentage of the catchment in pasture) across a large geographic zone (the whole of New Zealand) in 30 sub-catchments grouped into five ecoregions throughout the North and South Islands of New Zealand. In addition, we investigated trait consistency (i.e. whether similar traits had similar trait responses to land use at local (catchment) and broad scales). The analysis of taxonomic composition showed that community structure was indeed influenced by land-use intensity, but that relationships differed among ecoregions. In contrast, traditional assessment metrics (Macroinvertebrate Community Index, richness in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera taxa) and trait composition were uninfluenced by region. Trait responses were consistent at the broad and catchment scales, with similar traits responding to pastoral land use at both scales. We used general linear modelling to investigate individual trait responses to land-use intensity, catchment area and region, focussing on 15 trait categories known to be influenced by land-use intensity at the catchment scale. Several trait categories varied with land-use intensity and demonstrated consistency at both catchment and broad scales. Of these, the representation of shorter generation time, asexual reproduction and hermaphroditism, ability to lay eggs beneath the water surface, egg protection and respiration types tolerant of oxygen depletion generally increased in assemblages exposed to more intense pastoral land use. At the same time, the representation of short life duration of adults, prevalence of laying eggs at the water surface, sexual reproduction and low body flexibility decreased in assemblages exposed to land-use intensification. Our results highlight the value of developing predictive response measures that are relevant at multiple scales and provide the basis for new measures of river condition that are as effective as taxonomic identity in terms of response reliability. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Peyrin F.,INSA Lyon | Peyrin F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Peyrin F.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

This paper reviews the possibilities offered by X-ray micro-CT in bone tissue engineering. This technique provides a fast, nondestructive, and 3D quantification of bone scaffolds, bone ingrowth, and microvascularization. Synchrotron radiation absorption and phase micro-CT offer additional advantages to image newly formed bone in bioceramic scaffolds and pre-bone matrix. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011.

Dubourg J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Messerer M.,University of Lausanne
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2011

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as a cause of hypopituitarism even after mild TBI. Although over the past decade, a growing body of research has detailed neuroendocrine changes induced by TBI, the mechanisms and risk factors responsible for this pituitary dysfunction are still unclear. Around the world, sports-especially combative sports-are very popular. However, sports are not generally considered as a cause of TBI in most epidemiological studies, and the link between sports-related head trauma and hypopituitarism has not been investigated until recently. Thus, there is a paucity of data regarding this important concern. Because of the large number of young sports participants with near-normal life expectancy, the implications of undiagnosed or untreated postconcussion pituitary dysfunction can be dramatic. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of hypopituitarism caused by sports injuries is thus an important issue that concerns both medical staff and sponsors of sports. The aim of this paper was to summarize the best evidence for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and to discuss the current data and recommendations on sports-related head trauma as a cause of hypopituitarism.

Pouillot R.,7403 Wyndale Lane | Delignette-Muller M.L.,University of Lyon | Delignette-Muller M.L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Delignette-Muller M.L.,VetAgro Sup
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Quantitative risk assessment has emerged as a valuable tool to enhance the scientific basis of regulatory decisions in the food safety domain. This article introduces the use of two new computing resources (R packages) specifically developed to help risk assessors in their projects. The first package, "fitdistrplus", gathers tools for choosing and fitting a parametric univariate distribution to a given dataset. The data may be continuous or discrete. Continuous data may be right-, left- or interval-censored as is frequently obtained with analytical methods, with the possibility of various censoring thresholds within the dataset. Bootstrap procedures then allow the assessor to evaluate and model the uncertainty around the parameters and to transfer this information into a quantitative risk assessment model. The second package, "mc2d", helps to build and study two dimensional (or second-order) Monte-Carlo simulations in which the estimation of variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is separated. This package easily allows the transfer of separated variability and uncertainty along a chain of conditional mathematical and probabilistic models. The usefulness of these packages is illustrated through a risk assessment of hemolytic and uremic syndrome in children linked to the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. These R packages are freely available at the Comprehensive R Archive Network (cran.r-project.org). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Bacchus-Montabonel M.-C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Wiesenfeld L.,Joseph Fourier University
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

A theoretical treatment of the different processes involved in the collision of C2+ ions with molecular hydrogen is developed with consideration of charge transfer and formation of the CH+ molecular ion. Calculations of the potential energy surfaces and couplings are performed by means of ab initio quantum chemistry methods. Analysis of the different routes is detailed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lepine F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sansone G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Vrakking M.J.J.,Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

We review the present state of the application of attosecond lasers in molecular physics. Following the first synthesis and characterization of attosecond laser pulses a little more than a decade ago, the first applications in molecular physics have been published only in the last few years. These have yielded new insight into the coupling of multiple electronic degrees of freedom and that of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom on the attosecond to few-femtosecond timescale. We review these first experiments as well as theoretical work that was carried out during the same period, and sketch some future molecular applications of attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bacchus-Montabonel M.-C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Modeling-induced radiation damage in biological systems, in particular, in DNA building blocks, is of major concern in cancer therapy studies. Ion-induced charge-transfer dynamics may indeed be involved in proton and hadrontherapy treatments. We have thus performed a theoretical approach of the charge-transfer dynamics in collision of C4+ ions and protons with isolated 2-deoxy-d-ribose in a wide collision energy range by means of ab initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The comparison of both projectile ions has been performed with regard to previous theoretical and experimental results. The charge transfer appears markedly less efficient with the 2-deoxy-d-ribose target than that with pyrimidine nucleobases, which would induce an enhancement of the fragmentation process in agreement with experimental measurements. The mechanism has been analyzed with regard to inner orbital excitations, and qualitative tendencies have been pointed out for studies on DNA buiding block damage. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Zhang L.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Xue T.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | He D.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Guzik M.,Wroclaw University | Boulon G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Optics Express | Year: 2015

Lasing properties have been investigated for Yb3+ doped glasses with similar emission cross sections (σemi) and lifetime while possessing different Stark levels. Narrow Stark splitting of Yb3+-phosphate glass is responsible for severe heat generation, narrow emission band and much smaller σemi at lasing wavelength, making Yb3+-phosphate glass unsuccessful to achieve laser output, whereas 1.166W cw laser was obtained in Yb3+-fluorophosphate (FP) glass with broader Stark splitting. Analysis on laser system levels reveals that under room temperature, Yb3+ laser is quasi-3.13-level in phosphate glass and quasi-3.36-level in FP glass. These demonstrations suggest that unless the Stark splitting is enlarged, conventional Yb3+-phosphate glass is not a good gain medium for bulk Yb3+-laser. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

Teulier L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Few-Body Systems | Year: 2011

A brief review is first presented of attempts to predict stable multiquark states within current models of hadron spectroscopy. Then a model combining flip-flop and connected Steiner trees is introduced and shown to lead to stable multiquarks, in particular for some configurations involving several heavy quarks and bearing exotic quantum numbers. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

Current and upcoming experiments should improve the sensitivity to e α → e βγ decays by an order of magnitude. This paper assumes that one of the τ → e βγ decays is observed, and explores the structure and consequences of the required new flavoured couplings. In simple models (a low-scale seesaw, leptoquarks) it is shown that the dipole vertex function is proportional to a product of flavoured matrices from the Lagrangian (a "Jarlskog-like"invariant), provided that the loop particles are weakly coupled to the Higgs. Secondly, if the dipole vertex function has a hierarchical structure, this might imply that only some of the τ → e βγ modes can be observed, due to the "approximate zero" implied by the bound on μ→e γ. The assumptions underlying this potential test of a hierarchical structure are discussed. © Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica 2012.

Zhang E.,Compiegne University of Technology | Antoni J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Feissel P.,Compiegne University of Technology
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

This paper presents a Bayesian approach for force reconstruction which can deal with both measurement noise and model uncertainty. In particular, an uncertain model is considered for inversion in the form of a matrix of frequency response functions whose modal parameters originate from either measurements or a finite element model. The model uncertainty and the regularization parameter are jointly determined with the unknown force through Monte Carlo Markov chain methods. Bayesian credible intervals of the force are built from its posterior probability density function by taking into account the quantified model uncertainty and measurement noise. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated on numerical and experimental examples. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ramdarshan A.,Montpellier University | Merceron G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Tafforeau P.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Marivaux L.,Montpellier University
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2010

The primate family, Amphipithecidae, lived during the early Cenozoic in South Asia. In this study, the diet of late middle Eocene amphipithecids from the Pondaung Formation (Central Myanmar) is characterized using three different approaches: body mass estimation, shearing quotient quantification and dental microwear analysis. Our results are compared with other Paleogene amphipithecids from Thailand and Pakistan, and to the other members of the primate community from the Pondaung Formation. Our results indicate a majority of frugivores within this primate community. Pondaungia and " Amphipithecus" included hard objects, such as seeds and nuts, in their diet. Folivory is secondary for these taxa. Myanmarpithecus probably had a mixed diet based on fruit and leaves. Contrasting results and a unique dental morphology distinguish Ganlea from other amphipithecids. These render interpretation difficult but nevertheless indicate a diet tending towards leaves and fruit. However, the anterior dentition of Ganlea suggests that this taxon engaged in seed predation, using its protruding canine as a tool to husk hard fruits and obtain the soft seeds inside. Bahinia and Paukkaungia, two other Pondaung primates, are small (<500 g) and therefore would have depended on insects as their source of protein. As such, they occupied a very different ecological niche from Pondaung amphipithecids. This primate community is then compared with the Eocene-Oligocene primate communities of the Fayum from North Africa. Similarities between the late middle Eocene Pondaung primate community and extant equatorial and tropical South American primate communities are noted. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Floret D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Medecine Therapeutique Medecine de la Reproduction, Gynecologie et Endocrinologie | Year: 2016

Mandatory vaccination is currently a topic of fierce debate in France. Vaccination is required for only three diseases - diphtheria, tetanus, and polio - and only among children. The obligatory nature of these vaccinations dates back more than 50 years, although the epidemiology of these diseases has changed. Accordingly, these requirements raise numerous issues, in particular, their implicit devaluation of vaccines that are not mandatory but nonetheless important and the absence of vaccine preparations containing only these three vaccines. Healthcare professionals are required to be vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B, tuberculosis and - only for laboratory workers handling stool samples - typhoid fever. Other vaccines are recommended for healthcare personnel: influenza, whooping cough, measles, chickenpox, and hepatitis A, for some professionals. These vaccinations have a double aim: to protect staff exposed to contact with infected patients but also to protect patients from contamination by infected professionals. Vaccination coverage is currently inadequate, which raises the question of whether they should be made mandatory. Copyright © 2016 JLE.

Everaers R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Physical Journal: Special Topics | Year: 2016

AdResS multi scale simulations of liquid systems allow for a free exchange of particles between regions, where their interactions are described by different models. The desired “model coexistence” is somewhat reminiscent of phase-coexistence. But while the latter describes heterogeneous systems with position-independent interactions, AdResS is meant to generate homogeneous systems with position-dependent interactions. Here we formulate the bulk equilibrium conditions for model coexistence, discuss the connection between the Hamiltonian H-AdResS scheme and widely used free energy methods based on the Kirkwood coupling parameter method of thermodynamic integration, and point out the relation between thermodynamic corrections in AdResS simulations and tail corrections for truncated long-range potentials. In particular, we use the analogy to derive expressions for the form of the correction profiles in narrow transition zones, which cannot be fully described by the local coupling parameter approximation. Finally, we illustrate how to treat transient mergers of small, diffusing all atom zones attached to reference particles in dynamic AdResS simulations without additional calibrations beyond the initial parameterization of the correction profile for individual all atom zones. © 2016 EDP Sciences and Springer

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Richeldi L.,University of Southampton
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2014

In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), some facts or concepts based on substantial evidence, whilst implicit for learned subspecialists, have previously been neglected and/or not explicitly formulated or made accessible to a wider audience. IPF is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and is predominantly a disease of ageing. However, its cause(s) remain elusive and, thus, it is one of the most challenging diseases for the development of novel effective and safe therapies. With the approval of pirfenidone for patients with mild-to-moderate IPF, an earlier diagnosis of IPF is a prerequisite for earlier treatment and, potentially, improvement of the long-term clinical outcome of this progressive and ultimately fatal disease. An earlier diagnosis may be achieved in IPF by promoting thin-slice chest high-resolution computed tomography screening of interstitial lung disease as a "by-product" of large-scale lung cancer screening strategies in smokers, but other techniques, which have been neglected in the past, are now available. Lung auscultation and early identification of "velcro" crackles has been proposed as a key component of early diagnosis of IPF. An ongoing study is exploring correlations between lung sounds on auscultation obtained using electronic stethoscopes and high-resolution computed tomography patterns. © ERS 2014.

Yamamoto M.,University of Maryland University College | Pierre-Louis O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Huang J.,University of Maryland University College | Fuhrer M.S.,University of Maryland University College | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2012

Thin membranes exhibit complex responses to external forces or geometrical constraints. A familiar example is the wrinkling, exhibited by human skin, plant leaves, and fabrics, that results from the relative ease of bending versus stretching. Here, we study the wrinkling of graphene, the thinnest and stiffest known membrane, deposited on a silica substrate decorated with silica nanoparticles. At small nanoparticle density, monolayer graphene adheres to the substrate, detached only in small regions around the nanoparticles. With increasing nanoparticle density, we observe the formation of wrinkles which connect nanoparticles. Above a critical nanoparticle density, the wrinkles form a percolating network through the sample. As the graphene membrane is made thicker, global delamination from the substrate is observed. The observations can be well understood within a continuum-elastic model and have important implications for strain-engineering the electronic properties of graphene.

Gan H.K.,Joint Austin Ludwig Medical Oncology Unit | Gan H.K.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | You B.,University of Toronto | You B.,Center Hospitalier Lyon Sud | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Background In designing phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs), the expected magnitude of the benefit of the experimental therapy (δ) determines the number of patients required and the number of person-years of follow-up. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate how reliably δ approximates the observed benefit (B) in RCTs that evaluated cancer treatment. Methods RCTs evaluating systemic therapy in adult cancer patients published in 10 journals from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009, were identified. Data were extracted from each publication independently by two investigators. The related-samples Sign test was used to determine whether the median difference between δ and B was statistically significant in different study subsets and was two-sided. Results A total of 253 RCTs met the eligibility criteria and were included in the analysis. Regardless of whether benefit was defined as proportional change (median difference between δ and B =-13.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =-21.0% to-8.0%), absolute change (median difference between δ and B =-8.0%, 95% CI =-9.9% to-5.1%), or median increase in a time-to-event endpoint (median difference between δ and B =-1.4 months, 95% CI =-2.1 to-0.8 months), δ was consistently and statistically significantly larger than B (P < .001, for each, respectively). This relationship between δ and B was independent of year of publication, industry funding, management by cooperative trial groups, type of control arm, type of experimental arm, disease site, adjuvant treatment, or treatment for advanced disease, and likely contributed to the high proportion of negative RCTs (158 [62.5%] of 253 studies). Conclusion sInvestigators consistently make overly optimistic assumptions regarding treatment benefits when designing RCTs. Attempts to reduce the number of negative RCTs should focus on more realistic estimations of δ. Increased use of interim analyses, certain adaptive trial designs, and better biological characterization of patients are potential ways of mitigating this problem. © 2012 The Author.

Blay J.-Y.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Rutkowski P.,Center of Oncology of Poland
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2014

Imatinib mesylate, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is indicated for first-line treatment of patients with unresectable and/or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Imatinib also is approved as adjuvant therapy for patients following resection of primary GIST. Despite the efficacy of imatinib for the treatment of patients with GIST, adherence to treatment can prove difficult.Clinical studies have identified a number of factors that have a significant association with non-adherence to therapy, including age >51. years, female sex, a high number of concomitant medications, and complications with patients' therapy or the disease itself. Moreover, treatment-related adverse events and increased healthcare costs have been shown to have an impact on patients' adherence to therapy. A study of perceptions of adherence to therapy found discrepancies between actual and perceived adherence rates; both patients and physicians overestimate adherence to treatment.Non-adherence to treatment is not exclusive to oncology, and occurs in other disease areas, particularly with chronic conditions. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that routine assessment of adherence and the implementation of adherence programs can lead to improvements in health status and reduced healthcare costs.Improving patient adherence to imatinib treatment for patients with unresectable/metastatic GIST is particularly important, because non-adherence has a significant impact on clinical outcomes and healthcare costs. Therefore, the effective management of treatment-related adverse events along with patient education may be important in keeping patients compliant with continuous therapy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Pier B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics | Year: 2011

The dynamics of unstable systems crucially depends on the nature of the instability, either convective or absolute. The signalling problem, which is the study of the spatial response to a localized time-harmonic forcing, is generally believed to be relevant only for stable or convectively unstable systems and to be ill-posed for absolutely unstable systems, where the self-sustained perturbations grow faster than the forced harmonic response. The present investigation shows that the signalling problem may still be well posed for media displaying absolutely unstable regions. Considering weakly spatially inhomogenous systems, conditions are derived for the validity of the signalling problem. The complete spatial response to harmonic forcing is first analytically derived in terms of asymptotic approximations and then confirmed by direct numerical simulations. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Jaillais Y.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Vert G.,University Paris - Sud
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroid molecules perceived at the cell surface and that act as plant hormones. Since their discovery as crucial growth substances, BRs were mainly studied for their action in above ground organs and the BR signaling pathway was largely uncovered in the context of hypocotyl elongation. However, for the past two years, most of the exciting findings on BR signaling have been made using roots as a model. The Arabidopsis root is a system of choice for cell biology and allowed detailed characterization of BR perception at the cell membrane. In addition, a series of elegant articles dissected how BRs act in tissue specific manners to control root growth and development. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Asnacios A.,University Paris Diderot | Hamant O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Hamant O.,University of Lyon
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The generation of cell polarity is one of the most intriguing symmetry-breaking events in biology. It is involved in almost all physiological and developmental processes and, despite the differences between plant and animal cell structures, cell polarity is generated by a similar core mechanism that comprises the extracellular matrix (ECM), Rho GTPase, the cytoskeleton, and the membranes. Several recent articles show that mechanical factors also contribute to the establishment and robustness of cell polarity, and the different molecular actors of cell polarity are now viewed as integrators of both biochemical and mechanical signals. Although cell polarity remains a complex process, some level of functional convergence between plants and animals is revealed. Following comparative presentation of cell polarity in plants and animals, we will discuss the theoretical background behind the role of mechanics in polarity and the relevant experimental tests, focusing on ECM anchorage, cytoskeleton behavior, and membrane tension. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Agulhon P.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Robitzer M.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | David L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Quignard F.,Charles Gerhardt Institute
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2012

The morphologies of several ionotropic alginate hydrogels and aerogels were investigated by SAXS according to the nature of the divalent metal cation (Mn 2+, Co 2+, Zn 2+, Cu 2+) and the guluronic fraction of the alginate. All alginate hydrogel and aerogel samples show isotropic small-angle X-ray scattering. Gelation results from cooperative associations of cations and chain segments and yields different nanostructures, that is, nanofibrillar morphology or multiple junction morphology, according to cation type and eventually mannuronic/guluronic ratio. Therefore, Mn and Cu gels present the same morphology whatever the guluronic ratio, whereas Co and Zn gels yield different nanostructures. In the size range investigated by SAXS (∼10-200 Å), the structure of aerogels obtained by CO 2 supercritical drying is found to be inherited from the morphology of the parent hydrogel whatever the initial structural regime. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Statzner B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Beche L.A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2010

Accurately assessing the effects of multiple human-caused stressors on freshwater (and other) ecosystems is an essential step in the development of efficient decision support tools for environmental managers. Our objective is to review potentials and limitations of the use of biological traits as indicators (BTIs) of multiple stressor effects on running water (i.e. lotic) ecosystems. 2. Pioneers in ecology provided mechanistic explanations for responses of alternative biological traits to a given stressor and for the action of habitat harshness as a trait filter. These ideas were subsequently integrated in theoretical ecological constructs (e.g. Habitat Templet Concept) that form the basis of the BTI approach. 3. To resolve the effects of multiple stressors on running waters requires multiple traits of a biologically diverse group of organisms such as lotic invertebrates. To meet this goal, however, recently created databases on the biological traits of lotic invertebrates must be expanded and unified. 4. Addressing the technical implementation of the BTI approach, we illustrate that anticipated problems with phylogenetic trait syndromes are seemingly less serious in reality and that presence-absence data of genera and few sample replicates are sufficient for accurate trait descriptions of invertebrate communities. 5. Current trends in politics demand that biomonitoring tools be effective at large scales, i.e. large-scale trait patterns of natural communities (i.e. at reference conditions) should be relatively stable. The trait composition of natural invertebrate communities is relatively stable at the scale of Europe and North America because trait filters of natural lotic habitats act similarly across large biogeographical units. 6. The mechanistic actions of stressors on the biological traits of invertebrates should facilitate a priori predictions, but the complexity of potential trait responses makes such predictions sometimes difficult. 7. To illustrate potentials and limitations of BTIs to identify a given stressor acting exclusively (or primarily), we examine the (i) use of functional feeding groups to indicate the action of various stressors and (ii) trait responses to an indirectly acting stressor (discharge variation) and to a more directly acting stressor (near-bottom flow). If the excessive use of specific traits for the indication of too many different stressors is avoided and a given stressor acts directly on traits as a priori predicted, reliable interpretations of trait responses can be achieved. 8. To illustrate how BTIs can identify individual stressors acting in combination, we examine three cases of multiple stressors: (i) heavy metal pollution in combination with cargo-ship traffic; (ii) eutrophication and fine sediment deposits associated with land use; and (iii) various stressors associated with climate change in combination with salinity. If the number of the assessed traits is sufficiently great and the action of each individual among the multiple stressors is not too weak, multiple traits can potentially resolve the effects of multiple stressors. 9. Thematic implications: if the expansion and unification of existing trait databases can be achieved, the rapidly growing knowledge about biological trait responses of lotic invertebrates to individual and multiple stressors should enable the identification of management priorities focused on: (i) individually acting stressors (manage stressor A at site X prior to stressor B at site Y); (ii) multiple stressors acting in different combinations at different sites (manage stressors A & B at site X prior to stressors C & D at site Y); and (iii) individual stressors acting in combination (manage stressor A prior to stressor B at site X). Thus, the BTI approach has the potential to inaugurate a new era in the biomonitoring of lotic (and other) ecosystems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Martin J.E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lauprasert K.,Mahasarakham University
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

Despite the report of fragmentary remains from China, the fossil record of primitive Alligatorinae is unbalanced with most of its members reported from North America and Europe. Here, we describe cranial, mandibular, and some postcranial elements of a new alligatorine taxon from the Late Eocene of Krabi Basin, southern Thailand. Krabisuchus siamogallicus gen. et sp. nov. was a small animal probably not surpassing 2 m in total length. Despite deformation, the remains show a dorsally elevated cranium similar to Arambourgia gaudryi and Osteolaemus tetraspis. The new alligatorine is characterized by a very short snout and a blunt dentition in the posterior region. Krabisuchus siamogallicus is the first fossil alligatorine from Asia to be incorporated into cladistic analysis. Results indicate a close relationship of the newtaxon to Procaimanoidea, Arambourgia gaudryi, and Allognathosuchus polyodon, all of them being sister groups to the Alligator clade. Alligatorine were widespread as early as the Late Eocene across the northern hemisphere. Scenarios of alligatorine dispersal during the Palaeogene are discussed in comparison with the European and North American alligatorine fossil record. Basal alligatorines were probably land-dwelling animals contrary to modern-day crocodylians. Such a mode of life may have allowed this group to colonize vast territories, especially during periods of global warm climates. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

Fardin M.A.,CNRS Physics Laboratory | Fardin M.A.,Academy of Bradylogists | Perge C.,CNRS Physics Laboratory | Taberlet N.,CNRS Physics Laboratory | Taberlet N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Soft Matter | Year: 2014

The flow between concentric cylinders is routinely used in soft matter studies. In many cases, the purpose of the setup is rheometric: the idea is to relate macroscopic changes in material properties to microscopic changes in the structure of the material. The correspondence between the modifications of the microscopic structure and the macroscopic flow often relies on viscometric assumptions, which require the flow to be at least laminar. Flow instabilities are usually neglected because the viscosities of the materials are high and the geometries are small, such that the creeping flow approximation can be used. Nonetheless, the phenomenology of viscoelastic instabilities that emerged in the last twenty years warns us that flows can become turbulent without inertia, in particular flows between concentric cylinders. Given the strong similarities between inertial hydrodynamic instabilities and viscoelastic instabilities, a general knowledge of the former is advised for any researcher working on complex fluids. In this tutorial review, we focus on the inertial instability of isothermal and incompressible Newtonian fluids flowing between concentric cylinders. We highlight important aspects that can guide the study and control of instabilities in complex fluids in general. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mertens P.,Catholic University of Louvain | Smithb C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The New Physics sensitivity of the s → dγ transition and its accessibility through hadronic processes are thoroughly investigated. Firstly, the Standard Model predictions for the direct CP-violating observables in radiative K decays are systematically improved. Besides, the magnetic contribution to ε is estimated and found subleading, even in the presence of New Physics, and a new strategy to resolve the ε electroweak versus QCD penguin fraction is identified. Secondly, the signatures of a series of New Physics scenarios, characterized as model-independently as possible in terms of their underlying dynamics, are investigated by combining the information from all the FCNC transitions in the s →d sector.

Bouvier P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sehaba K.,University of Lyon | Lavoue E.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3
User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction | Year: 2014

Analysing and monitoring users’ engaged-behaviours continuously and under ecologically valid conditions can reveal valuable information for designers and practitioners, allowing them to analyse, design and monitor the interactive mediated activity, and then to adapt and personalise it. An interactive mediated activity is a human activity supported by digital interactive technologies. While classical metric methods fall within quantitative approaches, this paper proposes a qualitative approach to identifying users’ engagement and qualifying their engaged-behaviours from their traces of interaction. Traces of interaction represent the users’ activities with an interactive environment. The basis of our approach is to transform low-level traces of interaction into meaningful information represented in higher-level traces. For this, our approach combines three theoretical frameworks: the Self-Determination Theory, the Activity Theory and the Trace Theory. Our approach has been implemented and tested in the context of the QUEJANT Projet. QUEJANT targets the development of a system allowing the actors of Social Gaming to analyse players’ engagement from an analysis of their activity traces. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we implemented the whole process in a prototype and applied it to 12 players’ interaction data collected over four months. Based on these interaction data, we were able to identify engaged and non-engaged users and to qualify their types of engaged-behaviours. We also conducted a user study based on a validation of our results by experts. The high prediction rate obtained confirms the performance of our approach. We finally discuss the limitations of our approach, the potential fields of application and the implications for digital behavioural interventions. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Gherras N.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Fevotte G.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Fevotte G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
AIChE Journal | Year: 2012

The batch cooling solution crystallization of ammonium oxalate was performed in water at various constant cooling rates. Measurements of the solute concentration were obtained using in situ attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and final estimates of the crystal size distribution (CSD) were computed; thanks to in situ image acquisition and off-line image analysis. The crystallization process was then simulated using population balance equations (PBEs). Estimates of the nucleation and the growth parameters were computed through model/experiments fitting. According to the cooling rate, the PBE model allowed distinguishing between two distinct crystallization regimes, separated by an "intermediate regime." The respective contributions and shortcomings of solute concentration measurements and granulometric data to the identification of nucleation and growth kinetic parameters are analyzed and discussed. It is shown in particular that no real separate estimation of nucleation and growth parameters can be obtained in the absence of CSD data. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

Haas H.L.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Lin J.-S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

An essential component of the whole-body homoeostasis provided by the hypothalamus is the management of available energy. This includes the regulation of sleeping and waking, feeding and drinking, body temperature and activity, as well as the endocrinium. The waking brain, in particular the cerebral cortex, needs to be activated through neuronal pathways ascending from the brainstem reticular formation (ascending reticular activating system, ARAS) and reaching the cortical structures by a dorsal route through the thalamus and a ventral route, including the hypothalamus and the basal forebrain. This review concentrates on the more recently explored ventral route and the hypothalamus with its different regions involved in the control of the waking state. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2013

This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria.Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear. © ERS 2013.

Tournus F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2014

We present a robust and efficient framework to compute isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) curves for magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. The assembly is modelled by independent, randomly oriented, uniaxial macrospins and we use a Néel model to take into account the thermal relaxation. A simple analytic expression is established for a single size, in a sudden switching approximation, and is compared to more evolved models. We show that for realistic samples (necessarily presenting a size dispersion) the simple model is very satisfactory. With this framework, it is then possible to reliably simulate IRM curves, which can be compared to experimental measurements and used in a best fit procedure. We also examine the influence of several parameters on the IRM curves and we discuss the link between the irreversible susceptibility and the switching field distribution. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Michel C.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Auneau F.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Auneau F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Delbecq F.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Sautet P.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2011

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that hydrogen bonded neighbors can assist or hinder alcohol dehydrogenation on a metal catalyst. This critical role on C-H and O-H bond ruptures is addressed through two main cases: (i) the intermolecular hydrogen bond in the coadsorption of ethanol and water, and (ii) the intramolecular hydrogen bonds in glycerol. In the case of ethanol dehydrogenation, we show that the best catalyst is not bare Rh(111) but a surface with preadsorbed water or ethanol, the reactant ethanol being hydrogen bonded to the chemisorbed molecule, in a favorable configuration for O-H dissociation at the Rh surface. In addition, the intrinsic C-H/O-H reactivity is altered by hydrogen bonded neighbors. The O-H bond dissociation barrier is lowered by up to 0.25 eV. Conversely, the C-H bond scission is slightly inhibited (barrier increased by 0.1 eV maximum). As a result, O-H dissociation becomes favored. Glycerol reactivity is modulated by intramolecular H-bonds, with an additional constraint imposed by the carbon skeleton. Its reactivity is different from that of an isolated ethanol molecule, again with a preference for O-H cleavage. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Angeli F.,CEA Marcoule Nuclear Site | Charpentier T.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | De Ligny D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cailleteau C.,CEA Marcoule Nuclear Site
Journal of the American Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

Boron speciation was investigated in soda-lime borosilicate glass containing zirconium. In such compositions, competition between charge compensators (here, sodium and calcium) can occur for the compensation of tetrahedral boron or octahedral zirconium units. 11B MAS NMR is particularly suitable for obtaining data on preferential compensation behavior that directly affects the boron coordination number. In addition to the classical proportions of tri- and tetrahedral boron, additional data can be obtained on the contributions involved in these two coordination numbers. An approach is described here based on simultaneous MAS spectrum analysis of borosilicate glass with variable Zr/Si and Ca/Na ratios at two magnetic field strengths (11.7 and 18.8 T), with constraints arising from MQMAS spectroscopy, detailed analysis of satellite transitions, and spin-echo experiments. New possibilities of 11B NMR were presented for improving the identification and quantification of the different contributions involved in tri- and tetrahedral boron coordination. Both NMR and Raman revealed a trend of decreased tetrahedral boron proportion with the increase of Ca/Na ratio or the Zr/Si ratio. This strongly suggests that zirconium compensation takes preference over boron compensation, and that zirconium and boron are both compensated mainly by sodium rather than calcium. © 2010 The American Ceramic Society.

Peresypkina E.V.,RAS Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry | Majcher A.M.,Jagiellonian University | Rams M.,Jagiellonian University | Vostrikova K.E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

The first single chain magnet (SCM) based on orbitally degenerate hexacyanoosmate(iii) was prepared. The high values of energy barriers for the [Mn(acacen)Os(CN)6]2- complex of 81 and 48.4 K are the result of interplay of three axes anisotropic coupling of [Os(CN) 6]3- with zero field splitted Mn3+. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Haned H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

Forensim is a new package for the R statistical software that is dedicated to forensic DNA evidence interpretation. As far as we know, forensim is the first open-source tool that allows for the simulation of data encountered in forensic genetics studies. The package also implements common statistical methods used for reporting the weight of DNA evidence. Forensim is written in the R language and is freely available from http://forensim.r-forge.r-project. org. This paper presents an overview of the software's functionalities. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Durieux G.,Catholic University of Louvain | Gerard J.-M.,Catholic University of Louvain | Maltoni F.,Catholic University of Louvain | Smith C.,Joseph Fourier University | Smith C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

One of the most puzzling questions in particle physics concerns the status of the baryon (B) and lepton (L) quantum numbers. On the theoretical side, most new physics scenarios naturally lead to their non-conservation and some amount of violation is actually needed to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. On the experimental side, low-energy constraints such as those on proton decay are so stringent that it is generally believed that no B and L violation will ever be seen in laboratories. We observe that this apparent contradiction, however, disappears when the flavor symmetries involving all three generations are taken into account. We then identify model-independent classes of B and/or L violating six-fermion-based processes that indeed simultaneously satisfy low-energy constraints and produce clearly identifiable signals at the LHC. Finally, through simplified models, we study two classes characterized by (δB;δL)=(±1;±3) and (±2;0), that lead to particularly striking signatures (tμ+e+ and tt+jets, respectively). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Guilbaud M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2013

We present the measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity (η) density distribution, dNch/dη, for a number of centrality bins in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76TeV over a wide pseudorapidity range. Using the innermost pixel layers of the ALICE tracking system and the ALICE forward detectors (VZERO and FMD), we cover the pseudorapidity range: -5 < η < 5.5. The analysis is performed using a dedicated technique utilizing the collisions with LHC 'satellite' bunches. These collisions have displaced vertices in the range -187.5

StuDY DESIGN: A case study. The aim was to investigate whether motor imagery (MI) could be successfully incorporated into conventional therapy among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to improve upper limb (UL) function. The Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit at the Henry Gabrielle Hospital in Lyon, France. The participant was an individual with a complete C6 SCI. MI content was focused on functional UL movements, to improve hand transport to reach out and grasp with tenodesis. The participant was tested before and after 15 MI training sessions (45 min each, three times a week during 5 consecutive weeks). MI ability and program compliance were used as indicators of feasibility. The Minnesota and Box and Blocks tests, as well as movement time and hand trajectory during targeted movements were the dependent variables, evaluating motor performance before and after MI training. The participant's ability to generate MI was checked and compliance with the rehabilitation program was confirmed. The time needed to complete the Minnesota test decreased by 1 min 25 s. The Box and Blocks score was improved by three units after MI program. Decreased movement time and enhanced hand trajectory smoothness were still observed 3 months later, despite a slight decrease in performance. This study supports the feasibility for introducing MI in conventional therapy. Further studies should confirm the potential role of MI in motor recovery with a larger sample.

Chierici R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Rivista del Nuovo Cimento | Year: 2014

Top quark physics is one of the pillars of fundamental research in the field of high-energy physics. It gives access to precision measurements for constraining the standard model of particles and interactions, but it also represents a privileged domain for new physics searches. This review summarizes the main results in top quark physics obtained with the two general-purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS during the first two years of operations of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It covers the 2010 and 2011 data taking periods, where the LHC ran at a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV. After an introduction to the phenomenology of the top quark at hadron colliders and the experimental setup at the LHC, a review of the measurements performed by exploiting top quark pair and single top production will be presented. The results will be discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the treatment of systematic errors, often dominating the experimental sensitivity, and will be compared with the expectations from theory. The review will conclude with a few examples of searches for new physics signals with signatures involving top quarks. © CERN under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0. © 2013 IEEE.

Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Descotes-Genon S.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Contact interactions are the low-energy footprints of New Physics, so ideally, constraints upon them should be as generic and model independent as possible. Hadron colliders search for four-quark contact interactions with incident valence quarks, and the LHC currently sets limits on a flavour sum (over uu, dd and ud) of selected interactions. We approximately translate these bounds to a more complete (and larger) set of dimension-six interactions of specified flavours. These estimates are obtained at the parton level, are mostly analytic and are less restrictive than the experimental bounds on flavour-summed interactions. The estimates may scale in a simple way to higher energy and luminosity. © 2014 The Author(s).

Chaari N.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Clouet E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Rodney D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Although the favored glide planes in hexagonal close-packed Zr are prismatic, screw dislocations can escape their habit plane to glide in either pyramidal or basal planes. Using ab initio calculations within the nudged elastic band method, we show that, surprisingly, both events share the same thermally activated process with an unusual conservative motion of the prismatic stacking fault perpendicularly to itself. Halfway through the migration, the screw dislocation adopts a nonplanar metastable configuration with stacking faults in adjacent prismatic planes joined by a two-layer pyramidal twin. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Costa P.,University of Coimbra | Ferreira M.,University of Coimbra | Hansen H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Menezes D.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Providencia C.,University of Coimbra
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

The location of the critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is determined under different scenarios. The effect of strangeness, isospin/charge asymmetry and an external magnetic field is investigated. The discussion is performed within the 2+1 flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop. It is shown that isospin asymmetry shifts the CEP to larger baryonic chemical potentials and smaller temperatures. At large asymmetries the CEP disappears. However, a strong enough magnetic field drives the system into a first order phase transition. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Brenier A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Optics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

We have investigated the Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 biaxial laser crystal for wave propagation directions in the vicinity of the optical axis at wavelengths tunable around 800 nm. The angular absorption distribution was found to be strongly anisotropic. Increasing absorption, the optical axis splits in two new ones able to propagate unchanged a left or a right circularly polarized light and able to propagate a circularly polarized Voigt wave with a linear spatial dependence. The intensities of the transmitted light in different configurations of polarizations were investigated. The angular displacement of the two optical axes versus the absorbed wavelengths was measured and explained with a single oscillator model. The light energy propagation was found distributed inside a crescent-shaped area. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Hogaasen H.,University of Oslo | Kou E.,University Paris - Sud | Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sorba P.,University of Savoy
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The isovector partners of the X(3872), recently found at BES III, Belle and CLEO-c were predicted in a simple model based on the chromomagnetic interaction among quarks. The extension to the hidden-beauty sector is discussed. © 2014.

Aymard F.,National Engineering School of Caen | Gulminelli F.,National Engineering School of Caen | Margueron J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Margueron J.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

A recently introduced analytical model for the nuclear density profile [P. Papakonstantinou, J. Margueron, F. Gulminelli, and Ad. R. Raduta, Phys. Rev. C 88, 045805 (2013)PRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.88.045805] is implemented in the extended Thomas-Fermi energy density functional. This allows us to (i) shed a new light on the issue of the sign of surface symmetry energy in nuclear mass formulas, which is strongly related to the nonuniformity of the isospin asymmetry in finite nuclei, as well as to (ii) evaluate the in-medium corrections to the nuclear cluster energies in thermodynamic conditions relevant for the description of the (proto)neutron star crust. The ground-state configurations of the model are compared to Hartree-Fock calculations in spherical symmetry for some selected isotopic chains, and systematic errors are quantified. The in-medium modification of the nuclear mass due to the presence of a gas component is shown to strongly depend both on the density and the asymmetry of the nucleon gas. This shows the importance of accounting for such effects in the realistic modelizations of the equation of state for core-collapse supernovae and protoneutron stars. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Davidson S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

An Effective Field Theory for dark matter at a TeV-scale hadron collider should include contact interactions of dark matter with the partons, the Higgs and the Z. This note estimates the impact of including dark matter-Z interactions on the complementarity of spin dependent direct detection and LHC monojet searches for dark matter. The effect of the Z is small, because it interacts with quarks via small electroweak couplings, and the contact interaction self-consistency condition C/⋀2 < 4π/ŝ restricts the coupling to dark matter. In this note, the contact interactions between the Z and dark matter are parametrised by derivative operators; this is convenient at colliders because such interactions do not match onto low energy quark-dark matter contact interactions. © The Authors.

Uras A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

Low-mass dimuon production, including light vector mesons ρ, ω, φ, provides key information on the hot and dense state of strongly interacting matter produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In particular, strangeness production can be studied via φ meson measurements, while the detailed description of the full dimuon mass spectrum down to the kinematic threshold can be used to reveal in-medium modifications of hadron properties and the thermal emission arising from the medium. Measurements in pp and p-A systems, in absence of hot nuclear matter effects, must be used as a reference to test our knowledge of the processes expected to contribute to dilepton production. Dimuon production is studied with the ALICE apparatus at the LHC at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4) with the Muon Spectrometer. In this contribution, results on low-mass dimuon production are shown, for various center-of-mass energies per nucleon pair, in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions.

Pole M.,Queensland Herbarium | Philippe M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Alcheringa | Year: 2010

Pitt Island, a part of the Chathams Islands group, lies 700 km east of New Zealand. Its geology includes the Tupuangi Formation, dated as Motuan to Teratan (late Albian to Santonian) on the basis of palynology. Samples of Tupuangi Formation mudstone yielded leaf cuticle assemblages dominated by araucarian and podocarp conifers and locally by angiosperms. The 12 distinguishable conifer taxa include a new species of Araucaria, A. rangiauriaensis, and the extinct genera Eromangia, Kakahuia (both Podocarpaceae), Otwayia (Cheirolepidiaceae), Paahake (Taxodiaceae or Taxaceae) and possibly Katikia (Podocarpaceae). Ginkgo and two types of dicotyledonous angiosperm cuticle are present. Based on the absence of bennettitaleans and rarity of Ginkgo, a Turonian or slightly younger age is inferred, making the Pitt Island assemblage the first Turonian plant macrofossils documented from New Zealand. The fossils provide a window into southern high-latitude (polar) vegetation of the mid-Cretaceous. Conifer charcoal (probably of Podocarpaceae) is locally abundant and suggests that fire was an important part of the ecosystem. A broad analogy with modern boreal conifer-deciduous angiosperm forests is suggested although clearly with warmer temperatures. © 2010 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists.

Juniper M.P.,University of Cambridge | Pier B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids | Year: 2015

The structural sensitivity shows where an instability of a fluid flow is most sensitive to changes in internal feedback mechanisms. It is formed from the overlap of the flow's direct and adjoint global modes. These global modes are usually calculated with 2D or 3D global stability analyses, which can be very computationally expensive. For weakly non-parallel flows the direct global mode can also be calculated with a local stability analysis, which is orders of magnitude cheaper. In this theoretical paper we show that, if the direct global mode has been calculated with a local analysis, then the adjoint global mode follows at little extra cost. We also show that the maximum of the structural sensitivity is the location at which the local k+ and k- branches have the same imaginary value. Finally, we use the local analysis to derive the structural sensitivity of two flows: a confined co-flow wake at Re=400, for which it works very well, and the flow behind a cylinder at Re=50, for which it works reasonably well. As expected, we find that the local analysis becomes less accurate when the flow becomes less parallel. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Picazo F.,University of Murcia | Millan A.,University of Murcia | Doledec S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2012

1.Coleoptera species show considerable diversity in life histories and ecological strategies, which makes possible their wide distribution in freshwater habitats, including highly stressed ones such as saline or temporary waterbodies. Explaining how particular combinations of traits allow species to occupy distinctive habitats is a central question in ecology. 2.A total of 212 sites, sampled over a wide range of inland aquatic habitats in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula, yielded 272 species belonging to 68 genera and 11 families. The affinities of genera for 11 biological and 11 ecological traits, gathered from literature and the authors' own expertise, were used to assess the degree of congruence between taxonomic, biological and ecological traits. 3.Taxonomic richness was significantly related to the number of both biological and ecological trait categories, with the richest families also showing the highest functional and ecological diversity. A fuzzy correspondence analysis performed on the abundance-weighed array of biological traits separated genera according to categories of diet, feeding habits, respiration, reproduction and locomotion. A similar analysis of ecological traits revealed that preferences related to longitudinal distribution (headwater to mouth), local habitat and current velocity best discriminated genera. At the family level, there was a distinctive functional grouping of genera based on biological traits. Only Elmidae showed noticeable homogeneity across genera for both biological and ecological traits. 4.Co-inertia analysis demonstrated a significant match between biological and ecological traits (Rv-correlation=0.35, P<0.001). Elmidae genera displayed the highest concordance, whereas Hydraenidae demonstrated the lowest. 5.These results indicate that the predominance of habitat filtering processes in headwater streams yields biological trait conservatism (as shown by Elmidae genera), as well as trait convergence for some specific traits (for instance, respiration) among certain Dytiscidae genera and other typical rheophilic taxa, whereas other biotic factors, such as competition among species, appear more prominent in less stressed habitats. Further knowledge of traits, especially regarding physiological capabilities, is needed to better understand water beetle life history strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Chiron G.R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Guiard J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | van den Berg C.,State University of Feira de Santana
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

Phylogenetic relationships for a large number of Brazilian species of Pleurothallis sensi lato (Acianthera, Anathallis, Pabstiella and Specklinia) were inferred in an analysis of ITS nrDNA using both parsimony and Bayesian methods. Our results show that: 1) most Brazilian Pleurothallis species recently transferred into Stelis in fact belong to the genus Pabstiella; 2) groups of species previously generally considered to be part of the genus Specklinia belong to Pabstiella; 3) some infrageneric groups-mostly compatible with Luer's sectional organization of his Pleurothallis subgenus Acianthera-are clearly supported within Acianthera; and 4) two species could represent a new genus. © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Philippe M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2011

Fossil wood, similar to that of modern Araucariaceae, has been known for a long time, and is usually called Araucarioxylon. More than 400 morphospecies have been described, whereas this wood type displays few characteristic features. This taxonomical profusion is compounded by nomenclatural problems, Araucarioxylon being an illegitimate name. The status of the wood morphogenus, the infrageneric structure and the names that apply to the taxa designated for fossil woods of the Araucarioxylon-type are discussed. A database with 428 morphospecies designated for Araucarioxylon-type of wood is analyzed. The name Agathoxylon Hartig seems to be the most appropriate for the corresponding morphogenus. Albeit theoretically several hundred morphospecies could be recognized within this group, it is at least as probable that only one should be retained. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2014

This review presents the results of the 2013 Advancing IPF Research (AIR) survey, which assessed current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by experienced physicians. A total of 149 physicians, predominantly from European countries, replied to the 28-question survey. The results of the AIR survey were compared with a similar survey of 509 French pulmonologists conducted by the French National Reference Centre and the Network of Regional Competence Centres for Rare Lung Diseases. A number of positive findings emerged from the AIR survey, including the high level of multidisciplinary team involvement in both diagnosis and management. This survey, when taken together with the French survey, suggests that there is still a need to improve earlier diagnosis of IPF. © ERS 2014.

Statzner B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: <10 -6-<10 -15) for nine sediment variables describing baseflow and flood-induced sediment transport as well as sediment surface modifications. For example, bioturbator biomass and/or algal abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~70 and ~90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial sediments over three orders of magnitude and (ii) frequencies of mass transport events over five orders of magnitude. The fastest way to identify promising subsequent research routes in this field would be through a variety of abundance manipulations of lotic organisms (animals and plants having different mechanistic sediment-engineering abilities) in real rivers in combination with a simple approach to assess the critical shear stress in situ for varying types of sediments. This would require joint research by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists, and ecologists. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Luquot L.,Montpellier University | Andreani M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gouze P.,Montpellier University | Camps P.,Montpellier University
Chemical Geology | Year: 2012

Underground CO 2 sequestration is highly recommended as an effective means of significantly decreasing CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. Mineral storage is the more secure technology, but requires the presence of high concentration of divalent cations in the pore-fluid. Results from CO 2 percolation experiments through chlorite/zeolite-rich sandstone samples from the Pretty Hill Formation (Otway Basin, Australia) are presented. The dissolution of the laumontite (7wt.%) and chamosite (7wt.%) are the potential sources of calcium, iron and magnesium required for carbonate precipitation. The percolation experiment was setup to reproduce, at laboratory scale, the in situ temperature and pressure conditions (T=95°C and P=10MPa). The fluid injected at constant flow rate is a rock-equilibrated brine subsequently enriched in CO 2 up to partial pressure of 6MPa.We observe feldspars, laumontite and chamosite dissolution, kaolinite and silica precipitation and a noticeable sink of CO 2 in the sample which is attributed to the precipitation of both amorphous carbon due to the reduction of CO 2 and Fe-rich carbonate. Permeability decreases of about one order of magnitude due to the localization of the kaolinite precipitation in the main flow paths, while porosity increases.The high reactivity of this sandstone makes this reservoir a valuable target for CO 2 mineralization, but the associated permeability decrease may limit the injection rate and the spreading of the CO 2 in the reservoir. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Typically, lotic caddisflies attach their mineral pupal cases to cobbles in riffles, where rapid flows facilitate respiration but also decrease case-building material availability through erosion. Effects of local grain availability on grain quantities in and architecture of (per capita grain size use) pupal cases should be more important in Resident Construction Workers (RCWs, building immediately before pupation with minerals collected near the pupation location) than in Itinerant Construction Workers (ICWs, building months before pupation with minerals collected distantly from the pupation location). I tested these hypotheses analyzing mineral grain sizes in pupal cases and streambed sediments of cobble habitats in riffles of five running water types (headwater to large river in different regions) at baseflow or exceptional droughts. When pupae were abundant, the data supported both hypotheses at the local scale of samples, as grain size use by RCWs (as a group) but not by ICWs increased across all sites with local grain availability and abundant taxa among the former responded with four types of case-architecture modifications to grain size shortage. The data also supported the idea that at larger scales such as river or habitat types, mineral grains may be a limited resource for caddisflies building pupal cases with them. These findings suggest that water currents in streams or near shores of lakes and oceans that erode finer mineral grains can create conflicts in resource requirements for invertebrates that build with locally occurring finer mineral grains and simultaneously need high oxygen renewal rates and coarse grains for attachment. © EDP Sciences, 2011.

Rolf T.,ETH Zurich | Coltice N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Coltice N.,Institut Universitaire de France | Tackley P.J.,ETH Zurich
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012

Continents slowly drift at the top of the mantle, sometimes colliding, splitting and aggregating. The evolutions of the continent configuration, as well as oceanic plate tectonics, are surface expressions of mantle convection and closely linked to the thermal state of the mantle; however, quantitative studies are so far lacking. In the present study we use 3D spherical numerical simulations with self-consistently generated plates and compositionally and rheologically distinct continents floating at the top of the mantle in order to investigate the feedbacks between continental drift, oceanic plate tectonics and the thermal state of the Earth's mantle, by using different continent configurations ranging from one supercontinent to six small continents. With the presence of a supercontinent we find a strong time-dependence of the oceanic surface heat flow and suboceanic mantle temperature, driven by the generation of new plate boundaries. Very large oceanic plates correlate with periods of hot suboceanic mantle, while the mantle below smaller oceanic plates tends to be colder. Temperature fluctuations of subcontinental mantle are significantly smaller than in oceanic regions and are caused by a time-variable efficiency of thermal insulation of the continental convection cell. With the presence of multiple continents the temperature below individual continents is generally lower than below supercontinent and is more time-dependent, with fluctuations as large as 15% that are caused by continental assembly and dispersal. The periods featuring a hot subcontinental mantle correlate with strong clustering of the continents and periods characterized by cold subcontinental mantle, at which it can even be colder than suboceanic mantle, with a more dispersed continent configuration. Our findings with multiple continents imply that periods of partial melting and strong magmatic activity inside the continents, which may contribute to continental rifting and pronounced growth of continental crust, might be episodic processes related to the supercontinent cycle. Finally, we observe an influence of continents on the wavelength of convection: for a given strength of the lithosphere we observe longer-wavelength flow components, when continents are present. This observation is regardless of the number of continents, but most pronounced for a single supercontinent. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Calvo F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2010

Nested Markov chain Monte Carlo is a rigorous way to enhance sampling of a given energy landscape using an auxiliary, approximate potential energy surface. Its practical efficiency mainly depends on how cheap and how different are the auxiliary potential with respect to the reference system. In this article, a combined efficiency index is proposed and assessed for two important families of energy surfaces. As illustrated for water clusters, many-body polarizable potentials can be approximated by simplifying the polarization contribution and keeping only the two-body terms. In small systems, neglecting polarization entirely is also acceptable. When the reference potential energy is obtained from diagonalization of a quantum mechanical Hamiltonian, a first-order perturbation scheme can be used to estimate the energy difference occuring on a Monte Carlo move. Our results indicate that this perturbation approximation performs well provided that the number of steps between successive diagonalization is adjusted beforehand. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Juillard A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Low Temperature Physics | Year: 2016

EDELWEISS-III is a direct dark matter search experiment, running 800 g heat-and-ionization cryogenic germanium detectors equipped with Full InterDigitized electrodes (FID) for the rejection of near-surface events. We report a preliminary analysis for a subset of the data (35 kg(Formula presented.)days) as well as future prospects for low-mass WIMPs seach. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Rizo H.,CNRS Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory | Boyet M.,CNRS Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory | Blichert-Toft J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Rosing M.T.,Copenhagen University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2013

The composition and evolution of the silicate Earth during Hadean/Eoarchean times are widely debated and largely unknown due to the sparse geological record preserved from Earth's infancy. The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd chronometer applied to 3.8-3.7 Ga old mantle-derived amphibolites from the Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB) in southwest Greenland has revealed ubiquitous 142Nd excesses in these rocks compared to modern samples and terrestrial Nd standards. Because the parent isotope, 146Sm, was extant only during the first few hundred million years of Solar System history, this implies derivation of the Greenland samples from a source formed in the Hadean. This mantle source is the oldest yet identified on Earth and therefore provides key information about the nature and evolution of early-differentiated reservoirs. In contrast, modern mantle-derived rocks from around the world do not have 142Nd anomalies, suggesting that the primordial heterogeneities detected in Earth's early mantle have been erased over time. In order to better constrain the rate at which early mantle heterogeneities have been re-homogenized, we produced new 146Sm-142Nd data for both 3.8 and 3.3 Ga old mafic rocks from different tectonic domains of the ISB, accompanied by their corresponding 147Sm-143Nd and 176Lu-176Hf systematics. The 3.8 Ga suite yields 142Nd excesses comparable to those detected previously in 3.7 Ga old ISB amphibolites, indicating that Eoarchean mafic ISB lavas originated from sources with similar differentiation histories despite being from different juxtaposed tectonic segments. Conversely, 3.3 Ga old amphibolites from the ISB do not show resolvable 142Nd anomalies compared to terrestrial Nd standards. Since Rizo et al. (2012) reported 142Nd anomalies in 3.4 Ga old ISB samples, the present data suggest that the primordial 142Nd heterogeneities in the Isua mantle disappeared between 3.4 and 3.3 Ga. The present data set consists of samples from a unique location where 500 million years of history of the early terrestrial mantle have been preserved, hence offering an exceptional opportunity to gain new insight into the compositional evolution and dynamic workings of Earth's primordial mantle. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gaft M.,Laser Distance Spectrometry | Panczer G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2013

The paper summarises new data and results referring to the characterization of the nature of luminescence centres in minerals that were published during the last 8 years. Besides well-established luminescence centres, such as Mn2+, Fe3+, Cr3+, divalent and trivalent rare-earth elements, S2 -, and Pb2+, several other centres were proposed and substantiated, such as Mn3+, Mn4+, V2+, Ni2+, Pb+, Mn3+, Sb3+, Tl+, and radiation-induced centres. Also, a relatively new type of luminescence excitation mechanism is discussed briefly, namely plasma-induced luminescence. Here, the emission takes place when the matrix, where the formation of plasma is caused by irradiation with a beam of laser light, is capable to luminescence and contains luminescence centres. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Kotov A.,Federal University of Parana | Strobl T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We present a Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) gauge theory in which structure constants of the gauge group may depend on Higgs fields. The data of the theory are encoded in the bundle E→M, where the base M is the target space of Higgs fields and fibers carry information on the gauge group. M is equipped with a metric g and E carries a connection. If is flat, R=0, there is a local field redefinition which gives back the standard YMH gauge theory. If R≠0, one obtains a new class of gauge theories. In this case, contrary to the standard wisdom of the YMH theory, the space (M,g) may have no isometries. We build a simple example which illustrates this statement. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Hohenegger S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Iqbal A.,Harvard University | Rey S.-J.,Seoul National University | Rey S.-J.,Korea Basic Science Institute
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study relations between M-strings (one-dimensional intersections of M2-branes and M5-branes) in six dimensions and m-strings (magnetically charged monopole strings) in five dimensions. For specific configurations, we propose that the counting functions of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) bound states of M-strings capture the elliptic genus of the moduli space of m-strings. We check this proposal for the known cases, the Taub-NUT and Atiyah-Hitchin spaces, for which we find complete agreement. We further analyze the modular properties of the M-string free energies and find that they do not transform covariantly under SL(2,Z). However, for a given number of M-strings, we show that there exists a unique combination of unrefined genus-zero free energies that transforms as a Jacobi form under a congruence subgroup of SL(2,Z). These combinations correspond to summing over different numbers of M5-branes and make sense only if the distances between them are all equal. We explain that this is a necessary condition for the m-string moduli space to be factorizable into relative and center-of-mass parts. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Prins D.L.A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

The Stenzel space fourfold is a noncompact Calabi-Yau (CY) which is a higher-dimensional analogue of the deformed conifold. We consider N=(1,1), type-IIA, N=1 M-theory and N=(2,0), type-IIB compactifications on this Stenzel space, thus examining the gravity side of potentially higher-dimensional analogues of Klebanov-Strassler-like compactifications. We construct families of SU(4)-structures and solve associated moduli spaces, of complex and symplectic structures amongst others. By making use of these, we can construct IIA compactifications on manifolds homeomorphic to the Stenzel space fourfold, but with complex non-CY SU(4)-structures. Such compactifications are sourced by a distribution of NS5-branes. The external metric is asymptotically conformal AdS3 and should thus be suitable for holography applications. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Waitukaitis S.,Leiden University | Menaut R.,Leiden University | Menaut R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Chen B.G.-G.,Leiden University | Van Hecke M.,Leiden University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We show that the simplest building blocks of origami-based materials - rigid, degree-four vertices - are generically multistable. The existence of two distinct branches of folding motion emerging from the flat state suggests at least bistability, but we show how nonlinearities in the folding motions allow generic vertex geometries to have as many as five stable states. In special geometries with collinear folds and symmetry, more branches emerge leading to as many as six stable states. Tuning the fold energy parameters, we show how monostability is also possible. Finally, we show how to program the stability features of a single vertex into a periodic fold tessellation. The resulting metasheets provide a previously unanticipated functionality - tunable and switchable shape and size via multistability. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Courtois H.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Tully R.B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The construction of the Cosmicflows-2 compendium of distances involves the merging of distance measures contributed by the following methods: (Cepheid) period-luminosity, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), surface brightness fluctuation (SBF), luminosity-linewidth (TF), fundamental plane (FP), and Type Ia supernova (SNIa). The method involving SNIa is at the top of an interconnected ladder, providing accurate distances to well beyond the expected range of distortions to Hubble flow from peculiar motions. In this paper, the SNIa scale is anchored by 36 TF spirals with Cepheid or TRGB distances, 56 SNIa hosts with TF distances, and 61 groups or clusters hosting SNIa with Cepheid, SBF, TF, or FP distances. With the SNIa scale zero-point set, a value of the Hubble constant is evaluated over a range of redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.5, assuming a cosmological model with Ωm = 0.27 and ΩΛ = 0.73. The value determined for the Hubble constant is H 0 = 75.9 ± 3.8kms-1Mpc-1. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Bacchus-Montabonel M.-C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Physical Journal D | Year: 2015

Action of radiations on biological tissues is of major concern in cancer therapy development. Understanding the mechanisms involved at the molecular level in such reactions may be of crucial interest. In particular ion-induced ionization processes appear at the early stage of damage and a detailed analysis has been performed on the charge transfer dynamics of carbon ions with the different DNA and RNA building blocks in order to analyze their respective behavior in ion-induced collisions. We have considered the pyrimidine nucleobases uracil and thymine and the 5-halouracil molecules corresponding to the same skeleton, as well as the sugar moiety 2-deoxy-D-ribose. The calculations have been performed by means of ab initio quantum chemistry molecular methods followed by a semi-classical collision treatment in a wide collision energy range. Considerations of the structure of the biological target as well as analysis of the anisotropy of the process have been performed. The comparison with proton collisions has been developed with regard to previous results. Qualitative trends of interest for DNA building blocks damage may be pointed out. © 2015 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ericson M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ericson M.,CERN | Martini M.,Ghent University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

We discuss the nuclear interactions of neutrinos versus those of antineutrinos, a relevant comparison for CP violation experiments in the neutrino sector. We consider the MiniBooNE quasielastic-like double-differential neutrino and antineutrino cross sections that are dependent on the energy profiles of the neutrino fluxes and hence specific to the MiniBooNE setup. We combine them introducing their sum (ν+ν¯) and their difference (ν-ν¯). We show that the last combination gives general information on the multinucleon content of the axial-vector interference term. Our theoretical model reproduces well the two cross-section combinations, confirming the need for a sizable multinucleon component. © Published by the American Physical Society.

Naso A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2015

The cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry occurring in rotating turbulence is investigated through the analysis of the alignment statistics between vorticity and the rotation vector. The advantage of this approach, as compared to the usual measurement of the vertical vorticity skewness, is that the symmetry-breaking can be thus quantified through the analysis of first- and second-order moments, whose statistics convergence is more easily achieved than that of third-order ones. The vorticity/rotation alignment statistics are investigated by direct numerical simulation, both in forced and in freely decaying homogeneous turbulence. In the forced case, the cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry gets stronger as the Rossby number is decreased, whereas the opposite behavior occurs in the decaying case. These findings are shown to be consistent with the existence of a non-monotonic Rossby-number dependence of the asymmetry. A preferential antialignment of vorticity with the rotation vector is found in all the flows considered, a behavior supported by geometrical arguments and by a Taylor expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations for early times of rotation and in the weak rotation limit. A multiscale analysis of the alignment properties between vorticity and the rotation vector is also carried out in the forced case, evidencing the existence of a scale at which both the symmetry-breaking and the collinearity between the two vectors are maximal. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Descotes-Genon S.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Scalar leptoquarks, with baryon and lepton number conserving interactions, could have TeV scale masses, and be produced at colliders or contribute to a wide variety of rare decays. In pursuit of some insight as to the most sensitive search channels, we assume that the leptoquark-lepton-quark coupling can be constructed from the known mass matrices. We estimate the rates for selected rare processes in three cases: leptoquarks carrying lepton and quark flavour, leptoquarks with quark flavour only, and unflavoured leptoquarks. We find that leptoquark decay to top quarks is an interesting search channel. © 2010 SISSA.

Detcheverry F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
EPL | Year: 2015

Swimming bacteria exhibit a variety of motion patterns, in which persistent runs are punctuated by turning events. A simple yet fundamental question is to establish the properties of these random walks. While a complete answer is available when turning events follow a Poisson process, much less is known outside this particular case. We present a generic framework for such non-Poissonian run-and-turn motions. Extending the formalism of continuous time random walks, we obtain the generating function of moments in terms of noncommuting operators. We characterize analytically a bimodal model of persistent motion, which describes all types of swimming pattern, and is also relevant for cell motility. © CopyrightEPLA, 2015.

Gonzalez-Alonso M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gonzalez-Alonso M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2015

Different aspects of Tau Physics are discussed, both as a probe of new physics and as a tool to study Standard Model Physics. The goal of this Tau2014 opening talk is to introduce some of the many research directions currently being pursued with tau leptons, which will be discussed in great technical detail in the following talks. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Floret D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal des Anti-Infectieux | Year: 2013

Contexte: Méthodes: Résultats: Conclusions: Background: The French vaccine schedule for children is somewhat complicated with a lot of shots. Adults are expected to receive a booster every 10 years, that is difficult to memorize and eventually not often respected. Recent data suggest the possibility to provide a good protection with fewer shots. Methods: A working group from the Technical Committee for Immunizations/High Council for Public Health made an extensive review of literature, collected data from other countries, heard national and international experts and implemented a study on acceptability of a new vaccine schedule. Results: A simplified vaccine schedule is implemented: the current infant immunization schedule against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae b invasive infections, comprised three shots (at 2, 3 and 4 months of age) and a booster administered between 16 and 18 months of age. The present schedule consists in the administration of two shots at two and four months of age and a booster at 11 months. The timing of the other vaccines is changed to allow co-administrations with a maximum of two shots at the same visit. Instead of booster vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis every 10 years, adults should now receive boosters at fixed age: 25 years (adding pertussis vaccine), 45, 65 years of age, then 75, 85 ...years (a 10-year interval due to immune senescence). Conclusion: This new vaccine schedule seems to be well accepted by health care professionals and is expected to improve the acceptability of vaccination and hence increase the vaccine coverage. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Richard J.-M.,CNRS Laboratory of Subatomic Physics & Cosmology | Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

The pentaquark is studied in a simple model of confinement in which the quarks and the antiquark are linked by flux tubes of minimal cumulated length and the Coulomb-like interaction, the spin-dependent terms, and the antisymmetrization constraints are neglected. The ground state is found to be stable against spontaneous dissociation into a meson and a baryon, both in the case of five equal-mass constituents and for a static quark or antiquark surrounded by four equal masses. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Martini M.,Ghent University | Ericson M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ericson M.,CERN
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

We analyze the experimental data on the inclusive double-differential cross section by neutrinos charged current, measured by T2K, with the same model which was successful for the MiniBooNE quasielastic cross sections. As in our previous analysis the multinucleon component is needed in order to reproduce the data. For the total cross section, our evaluation is smaller than the SciBooNE data above 1 GeV. This indicates the opening of a new channel not included in our evaluation, presumably the two-pion-emission channel. We also check that our description holds for the exclusive single-pion-production channel by confronting our evaluation with the MiniBooNE double-differential cross section for a single charged pion and the Q2 distribution. Both are compatible with the data. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Braak C.J.F.T.,Wageningen University | Cormont A.,Wageningen University | Dray S.P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Ecology | Year: 2012

The fourth-corner problem entails estimation and statistical testing of the relationship between species traits and environmental variables from the analysis of three data tables. In a 2008 paper, S. Dray and P. Legendre proposed and evaluated five permutation methods for statistical significance testing, including a new two-step testing procedure. However, none of these attained the correct type I error in all cases of interest. We solve this problem by showing that a small modification of their two-step procedure controls the type I error in all cases. The modification consists of adjusting the significance level from pffiaffiffi to a or, equivalently, of reporting the maximum of the individual P values as the final one. The test is also applicable to the three-table ordination method RLQ. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America.

Vijande J.,University of Valencia | Valcarce A.,University of Salamanca | Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We revisit the role of color mixing in the quark model calculation of tetraquark states, and compare simple pairwise potentials to more elaborate string models with three- and four-body forces. We attempt to disentangle the improved dynamics of confinement from the approximations made in the treatment of the internal color degrees of freedom. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Tully R.B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Courtois H.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Courtois H.M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

In order to measure distances with minimal systematics using the correlation between galaxy luminosities and rotation rates it is necessary to adhere to a strict and tested recipe. We now derive a measure of rotation from a new characterization of the width of a neutral hydrogen line profile. Additionally, new photometry and zero-point calibration data are available. Particularly the introduction of a new linewidth parameter necessitates the reconstruction and absolute calibration of the luminosity-linewidth template. The slope of the new template is set by 267 galaxies in 13 clusters. The zero point is set by 36 galaxies with Cepheid or tip of the red giant branch distances. Tentatively, we determine H 0 ∼ 75kms-1 Mpc-1. Distances determined using the luminosity-linewidth calibration will contribute to the distance compendium Cosmicflows-2. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Billard J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Over the past decades, several ideas and technologies have been developed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) from the galactic halo. All these detection strategies share the common goal of discriminating a WIMP signal from the residual backgrounds. By directly detecting WIMPs, one can measure some or all of the observables associated to each nuclear recoil candidates, such as their energy and direction. In this study, we compare and examine the discovery potentials of each readout strategies from counting only (bubble chambers) to directional detectors (Time Projection Chambers) with 1d-, 2d-, and 3d-sensitivity. Using a profile likelihood analysis, we show that, in the case of a large and irreducible background contamination characterized by an energy distribution similar to the expected WIMP signal, directional information can improve the sensitivity of the experiment by several orders of magnitude. We also found that 1d directional detection is only less effective than a full 3d directional sensitivity by about a factor of 3, or 10 if we assume no sense recognition, still improving by a factor of 2 or more if only the energy of the events is being measured. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Guerrasio L.,Klinikum Grosshadern | Quinet J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Buttner U.,Klinikum Grosshadern | Goffart L.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2010

When primates maintain their gaze directed toward a visual target (visual fixation), their eyes display a combination of miniature fast and slow movements. An involvement of the cerebellum in visual fixation is indicated by the severe gaze instabilities observed in patients suffering from cerebellar lesions. Recent studies in non-human primates have identified a cerebellar structure, the fastigial oculomotor region (FOR), as a major cerebellar output nucleus with projections toward oculomotor regions in the brain stem. Unilateral inactivation of the FOR leads to dysmetric visually guided saccades and to an offset in gaze direction when the animal fixates a visual target. However, the nature of this fixation offset is not fully understood. In the present work, we analyze the inactivation-induced effects on fixation. A novel technique is adopted to describe the generation of saccades when a target is being fixated (fixational saccades). We show that the offset is the result of a combination of impaired saccade accuracy and an altered encoding of the foveal target position. Because they are independent, we propose that these two impairments are mediated by the different projections of the FOR to the brain stem, in particular to the deep superior colliculus and the pontomedullary reticular formation. Our study demonstrates that the oculomotor cerebellum, through the activity in the FOR, regulates both the amplitude of fixational saccades and the position toward which the eyes must be directed, suggesting an involvement in the acquisition of visual information from the fovea. Copyright © 2010 The American Physiological Society.

Hallast P.,University of Leicester | Hallast P.,University Paul Sabatier | Balaresque P.,University of Leicester | Balaresque P.,Illumina | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) includes eight large inverted repeats (palindromes) in which arm-to-arm similarity exceeds 99.9%, due to gene conversion activity. Here, we studied one of these palindromes, P6, in order to illuminate the dynamics of the gene conversion process. We genotyped ten paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) within the arms of P6 in 378 Y chromosomes whose evolutionary relationships within the SNP-defined Y phylogeny are known. This allowed the identification of 146 historical gene conversion events involving individual PSVs, occurring at a rate of 2.9-8.4×10-4 events per generation. A consideration of the nature of nucleotide change and the ancestral state of each PSV showed that the conversion process was significantly biased towards the fixation of G or C nucleotides (GC-biased), and also towards the ancestral state. Determination of haplotypes by long-PCR allowed likely co-conversion of PSVs to be identified, and suggested that conversion tract lengths are large, with a mean of 2068 bp, and a maximum in excess of 9 kb. Despite the frequent formation of recombination intermediates implied by the rapid observed gene conversion activity, resolution via crossover is rare: only three inversions within P6 were detected in the sample. An analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla P6 orthologs showed that the ancestral state bias has existed in all three species, and comparison of human and chimpanzee sequences with the gorilla outgroup confirmed that GC bias of the conversion process has apparently been active in both the human and chimpanzee lineages. © 2013 Hallast et al.

Delair T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2011

Nanomedicine is an emerging field and requires new tools to achieve its goals, such as nanomaterials capable of performing various functions as bioactive (macro)molecule delivery in a spatio- and time-controlled manner, biofeedback as for instance imaging the course of a therapeutic treatment, active and controlled interaction with the biological environment as in vaccine applications. Obviously, these nanomaterials should be non-toxic, biocompatible, bioresorbable, which means also that the materials and the manufacturing processes should meet these requirements. This review is focused on colloidal polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan and dextran sulfate, (i) because these polysaccharides comply with the above specifications; (ii) because chitosan is a complex polysaccharide whose physicochemical properties depend on the molar mass and the fraction of N-acetyl glucosamine moieties within the chain; (iii) to underline the impact of the physicochemical properties of chitosan on the performances of the colloidal complexes; (iv) to establish the versatility of the coarcervation, a mild, energy-sparing, environment friendly, straightforward to set-up manufacturing process. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Calvo F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

The structural and dynamical stabilities of C60+He N clusters are theoretically investigated using global optimization and path-integral simulation methods. Up to N=32, the fullerene ion traps the helium atoms onto sixfold and fivefold faces, strongly enough to negate vibrational delocalization. Above this size, geometric frustration takes over and the clusters grow as a thin but homogeneous liquid layer. However, as their size reaches 60 atoms, corrugation barriers are suppressed and the cluster is again rigidlike. Additional fluid layers are predicted to arise above 72 atoms. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Perru O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Mutualism is a biological association for a mutual benefit between two different species. In this paper, firstly, we examine the history and signification of mutualism in relation to symbiosis. Then, we consider the link between concepts and models of mutualism. Models of mutualism depend on different concepts we use: If mutualism is situated at populations' level, it will be expressed by Lotka-Volterra models, concerning exclusively populations' size. If mutualism is considered as a resources' exchange or a biological market increasing the fitness of these organisms, it will be described at an individual level by a cost-benefit model. Our analysis will be limited to the history and epistemology of Lotka-Volterra models and we hypothesize that these models are adapted at first to translate dynamic evolutions of mutualism. They render stability or variations of size and assume that there are clear distinctions and a state of equilibrium between populations of different species. Italian mathematician Vito Volterra demonstrated that biological associations consist in a constant relation between some species. In 1931 and 1935, Volterra described the general form of antagonistic or mutualistic biological associations by the same differential equations. We recognize that these equations have been more used to model competition or prey-predator interactions, but a simple sign change allows describing mutualism. The epistemological problem is the following: Volterra's equations help us to conceptualize a global phenomenon. However, mutualistic interactions may have stronger effects away from equilibrium and these effects may be better understood at individual level. We conclude that, between 1985 and 2000, some researchers carried on working and converting Lotka-Volterra models but this description appeared as insufficient. So, other researchers adopted an economical viewpoint, considering mutualism as a biological market. © 2011 Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn.

Combescure M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Robert D.,University of Nantes
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to give a self-contained and unified presentation of a fermionic coherent state theory with the necessary mathematical details, discussing their definition, properties and some applications. After defining Grassmann algebras, it is possible to get a classical analog for the fermionic degrees of freedom in a quantum system. Following the basic work of Berezin (1966 The Method of Second Quantization (New York: Academic); 1987 Introduction to Superanalysis (Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company)), we show that we can compute with Grassmann numbers as we do with complex numbers: derivation, integration, Fourier transform. After that we show that we have quantization formulas for fermionic observables. In particular, there exists a Moyal product formula. As an application, we consider explicit computations for propagators with quadratic Hamiltonians in annihilation and creation operators. We prove a Mehler formula for the propagator and MehligWilkinson-type formulas for the covariant and contravariant symbols of metaplectic transformations for fermionic states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Juillard A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Low Temperature Physics | Year: 2012

We report the final results of EDELWEISS-II, obtained with ten 400 g heat-and-ionization cryogenic detectors equipped with InterDigit electrodes for the rejection of near-surface events. Results from fourteen months of continuous operation and a total exposure of 384 kg day are presented. We also present the status of EDELWEISS-III, which will accumulate more than 3000 kg day of data with 40 new 800 g detectors in the coming years. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Reubi O.,ETH Zurich | Reubi O.,University of Lausanne | Sims K.W.W.,University of Wyoming | Bourdon B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

Large excesses of 238U and 226Ra relative to 230Th characterize many arc magmas and are commonly interpreted to represent recent addition of slab-derived fluid to the mantle wedge beneath the arc. A significant proportion of arc magmas are, however, in 238U-230Th radioactive equilibrium. This is generally thought to result from "buffering" of the young slab fluid U-series signal by a sediment component in secular equilibrium. Here we present new 238U-230Th-226Ra and 235U-231Pa measurements for historic andesites from Volcán de Colima, Mexico. In all lavas (230Th/238U) are in equilibrium, whereas (231Pa/235U) and (226Ra/230Th) are significantly greater than one. These data demonstrate that arc magmas with (230Th/238U) equilibrium can have significant 231Pa and 226Ra excesses, precluding ageing of the magmas in the crust as the cause of 230Th/238U equilibrium. Quantitative modeling of metasomatic and melting processes further indicates that addition of sediment melts to a depleted mantle wedge produces significant 230Th excesses and that 238U excesses induced by recent addition of fluids derived from the altered oceanic crust are not sufficient to compensate these 230Th excesses. U-series activity ratios in Colima magmas are best explained by models in which the metasomatised mantle returns to secular equilibrium before melting, implying a time lag ≥350 kyr, with subsequent production of 231Pa and 226Ra excesses by in-growth during melting rather than by addition of slab fluids. Investigation of a global compilation of U-series data in arc magma indicates that our model proposed for Colima applies to most arc magmas in or near (230Th-238U) equilibrium. The time lag between mantle metasomatism and melting appears to vary between hundreds years to more than 350 kyr in subduction zones. We posit that the absence of U/Th elemental fractionation during melting of arc sources in (230Th/238U) equilibrium reflects a higher fO2 compared to MORB sources that yield magmas with 230Th excesses. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Stiele R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Stiele R.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schaffner-Bielich J.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

The unquenching of the Polyakov-loop potential has been shown to be an important improvement for the description of the phase structure and thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter at zero quark chemical potentials with Polyakov-loop-extended chiral models. This work constitutes the first application of the quark backreaction on the Polyakov-loop potential at nonzero density. The observation is that it links the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions also at small temperatures and large quark chemical potentials. The build-up of the surface tension in the Polyakov-loop-extended quark-meson model is explored by investigating the two- and 2+1-flavor quark-meson model and analyzing the impact of the Polyakov-loop extension. In general, the order of magnitude of the surface tension is given by the chiral phase transition. The coupling of the chiral and deconfinement transitions with the unquenched Polyakov-loop potential leads to the fact that the Polyakov loop contributes at all temperatures. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Reynard B.,University of Lyon | Reynard B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Reynard B.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Reynard B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bass J.D.,Urbana University
Journal of Metamorphic Geology | Year: 2014

The elastic properties of lawsonite determined from equations of state, Brillouin scattering, acoustic velocity measurements, and first-principles calculations are reviewed. Equations of state are essential for thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium at high pressure. Elastic tensor determinations allow calculation of the seismic properties of isotropic rocks, and of anisotropic rocks when combined with CPO determinations. Potential effects of low-T, high-P phase transitions in lawsonite on extrapolations to deep-Earth conditions are discussed. Seismological data suggest that metamorphic zoning in active cold subduction zones can be resolved as low velocity layers down to 250 km. Mineral physics and phase equilibria indicate that lawsonite is the best candidate for explaining such low velocities. These layers are likely the image of water recycling to the deep mantle in subduction zones. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Falkowski A.,University Paris - Sud | Gonzalez-Alonso M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Greljo A.,University of Zurich | Greljo A.,University of Sarajevo | Marzocca D.,University of Zurich
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2016

We present a combined analysis of LHC Higgs data (signal strengths) together with LEP-2 WW production measurements. To characterize possible deviations from the standard model (SM) predictions, we employ the framework of an effective field theory (EFT) where the SM is extended by higher-dimensional operators suppressed by the mass scale of new physics Λ. The analysis is performed consistently at the order Λ-2 in the EFT expansion keeping all the relevant operators. While the two data sets suffer from flat directions, together they impose stringent model-independent constraints on the anomalous triple gauge couplings. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Antona D.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Levy-Bruhl D.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Baudon C.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Freymuth F.,Caen University Hospital Center | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Although few measles cases were reported in France during 2006 and 2007, suggesting the country might have been close to eliminating the disease, a dramatic outbreak of >20,000 cases occurred during 2008-2011. Adolescents and young adults accounted for more than half of cases median patient age increased from 12 to 16 years during the outbreak. The highest incidence rate was observed in children <1 year of age, reaching 135 cases/100,000 infants during the last epidemic wave. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalized, including 1,023 for severe pneumonia and 27 for encephalitis/myelitis 10 patients died. More than 80% of the cases during this period occurred in unvaccinated persons, reflecting heterogeneous vaccination coverage, where pockets of susceptible persons still remain. Although vaccine coverage among children improved, convincing susceptible young adults to get vaccinated remains a critical issue if the target to eliminate the disease by 2015 is to be met.

Deguen R.,Johns Hopkins University | Deguen R.,CNRS Fluid Dynamics Institute of Toulouse | Deguen R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Landeau M.,University Paris Diderot | Olson P.,Johns Hopkins University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

Much of the Earth was built by high-energy impacts of planetesimals and embryos, many of these impactors already differentiated, with metallic cores of their own. Geochemical data provide critical information on the timing of accretion and the prevailing physical conditions, but their interpretation depends critically on the degree of metal-silicate chemical equilibration during core-mantle differentiation, which is poorly constrained. Efficient equilibration requires that the large volumes of iron derived from impactor cores mix with molten silicates down to scales small enough to allow fast metal-silicate mass transfer. Here we use fluid dynamics experiments to show that large metal blobs falling in a magma ocean mix with the molten silicate through turbulent entrainment, with fragmentation into droplets eventually resulting from the entrainment process. In our experiments, fragmentation of the dense fluid occurs after falling a distance equal to 3-4 times its initial diameter, at which point a sizable volume of ambient fluid has already been entrained and mixed with the dense falling fluid. Contrary to previous assumptions, we demonstrate that fragmentation of the metallic phase into droplets may not be required for efficient equilibration: turbulent mixing, by drastically increasing the metal-silicate interfacial area, may result in fast equilibration even before fragmentation. Efficient re-equilibration is predicted for impactors of size small compared to the magma ocean depth. In contrast, much less re-equilibration is predicted for large impacts in situations where the impactor core diameter approaches the magma ocean thickness. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ferey G.,University of Versailles | Serre C.,University of Versailles | Devic T.,University of Versailles | Maurin G.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | And 6 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Hybrid porous solids, with their tunable structures, their multifunctional properties and their numerous applications, are currently topical, particularly in the domain of adsorption and storage of greenhouse gases. Most of the data reported so far concern the performances of these solids in this domain, particularly in terms of adsorbed amounts of gas but do not explain at the atomic level why and how adsorption and storage occur. From a combination of structural, spectroscopic, thermodynamic experiments and of molecular simulations, this tutorial review proposes answers to these open questions with a special emphasis on CO2 and CH4 storage by some rigid and flexible hybrid porous materials. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Merabia S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Termentzidis K.,Lyon Center of Thermal Science | Termentzidis K.,Ecole Centrale Paris
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

In this article, we compare the results of nonequilibrium (NEMD) and equilibrium (EMD) molecular dynamics methods to compute the thermal conductance at the interface between solids. We propose to probe the thermal conductance using equilibrium simulations measuring the decay of the thermally induced energy fluctuations of each solid. We also show that NEMD and EMD give generally speaking inconsistent results for the thermal conductance: Green-Kubo simulations probe the Landauer conductance between two solids which assumes phonons on both sides of the interface to be at equilibrium. On the other hand, we show that NEMD give access to the out-of-equilibrium interfacial conductance consistent with the interfacial flux describing phonon transport in each solid. The difference may be large and reaches typically a factor 5 for interfaces between usual semiconductors. We analyze finite size effects for the two determinations of the interfacial thermal conductance, and show that the equilibrium simulations suffer from severe size effects as compared to NEMD. We also compare the predictions of the two above-mentioned methods-EMD and NEMD-regarding the interfacial conductance of a series of mass mismatched Lennard-Jones solids. We show that the Kapitza conductance obtained with EMD can be well described using the classical diffuse mismatch model (DMM). On the other hand, NEMD simulation results are consistent with an out-of-equilibrium generalization of the acoustic mismatch model (AMM). These considerations are important in rationalizing previous results obtained using molecular dynamics, and help in pinpointing the physical scattering mechanisms taking place at atomically perfect interfaces between solids, which is a prerequisite to understand interfacial heat transfer across real interfaces. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Cochat P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2013

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism of autosomal recessive inheritance, leading to progressive systemic oxalate storage (named 'oxalosis') with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, as well as an unacceptable quality of life for most patients. The adverse outcome, however, is partly due to issues that can be overcome. First, the diagnosis of PH is often delayed due to a general lack of knowledge of the disease among physicians. This accounts specifically for patients with pyridoxine sensitive PH, a group that is paradoxically most easy to treat. Second, lack of adherence to a strict conduction of conservative treatment and optimal urological management may enhance an adverse outcome of the disease. Third, specific techniques to establish PH1 and specific therapies are currently often not available in several low-resources countries with a high prevalence of PH. The management of patients with advanced disease is extremely difficult and warrants a tailor-made approach in most cases. Comprehensive programs for education of local physicians, installation of national centers of expertise, European support of low-resources countries for the management of PH patients and intensified international collaboration on the management of current patients, as well as on conduction of clinical studies, may further improve outcome of PH. © 2013 IPNA.

Colombani J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2013

Standard dissolution experiments are carried out in stirred liquid. Therefore, the measured dissolution rate con tains also diffusive and convective contributions, besides the desired surface reaction contribution. We present here a methodology, based on the hydro-dynamical analysis of classical dissolution experiments, enabling us to extract the pure dissolution rate constant from the set of the already measured dissolution rates. The application of this analysis to the case of gypsum shows that the removal of the mass transport contribution from the dissolution rates of this mineral found in the literature brings, despite their apparent inconsistency, a coherent description of its dissolution kinetics and a well-defined value of its rate constant. © 2012 IUPAC.

Mizuta S.,University of Oxford | Verhoog S.,University of Oxford | Engle K.M.,University of Oxford | Khotavivattana T.,University of Oxford | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A visible-light-mediated hydrotrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes that uses the Umemoto reagent as the CF3 source and MeOH as the reductant is disclosed. This effective transformation operates at room temperature in the presence of 5 mol % Ru(bpy)3Cl2; the process is characterized by its operational simplicity and functional group tolerance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Cacciapaglia G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sannino F.,University of Southern Denmark
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

We introduce a scalar-less anomaly free chiral gauge theory that serves as natural ultraviolet completion of models of fundamental composite (Goldstone) Higgs dynamics. The new theory is able to generate the top mass and furthermore features a built-in protection mechanism that naturally suppresses the bottom mass. At low energies the theory predicts new fractionally charged fermions, and a number of four-fermion operators that, besides being relevant for the generation of the top mass, also lead to an intriguing phenomenology for the new states predicted by the theory. © 2016 The Authors.

Bocquet L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Barrat J.-L.,Joseph Fourier University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a new derivation for the Green-Kubo relationship for the liquid-solid friction coefficient characterizing hydrodynamic slippage at a wall. It is based on a general Langevin approach for the fluctuating wall velocity involving a non-Markovian memory kernel with vanishing time integral. The calculation highlights some subtleties of the wall-liquid dynamics leading to superdiffusive motion of the fluctuating wall position. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Gribaldo S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Poole A.M.,University of Stockholm | Poole A.M.,University of Canterbury | Daubin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 4 more authors.
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2010

The origin of eukaryotes and their evolutionary relationship with the Archaea is a major biological question and the subject of intense debate. In the context of the classical view of the universal tree of life, the Archaea and the Eukarya have a common ancestor, the nature of which remains undetermined. Alternative views propose instead that the Eukarya evolved directly from a bona fide archaeal lineage. Several recent large-scale phylogenomic studies using an array of approaches are divided in supporting either one or the other scenario, despite analysing largely overlapping data sets of universal genes. We examine the reasons for such a lack of consensus and consider how alternative approaches may enable progress in answering this fascinating and as-yet-unresolved question. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Mahajan D.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Estevez R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Basu S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids | Year: 2010

Physical ageing of amorphous polymers well below their glass transition temperature leads to changes in almost all physical properties. Of particular interest is the increase in yield stress and post-yield strain softening that accompanies ageing of these materials. Moreover, at larger strain polymers seem to rejuvenate, i.e. aged and non-aged samples have identical stressstrain responses. Also, plastically deforming an aged sample seems to rejuvenate the polymer. In this work we use molecular dynamic simulations with a detailed force field suitable for macromolecular ensembles to simulate and understand the effects of ageing on the mechanical response of these materials. We show that within the timescales of these simulations it is possible to simulate both ageing and rejuvenation. The short range potentials play an important role in ageing and rejuvenation. A typical yield drop exhibited by glassy polymers is a manifestation of a sudden relaxation in the short range structure of an aged polymer. Moreover, the aged polymers are known to be brittle. We show that this is intimately related to its typical stressstrain response which allows it to carry arbitrarily large mean stresses ahead of a notch. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Revue Francaise d'Allergologie | Year: 2012

Eosinophilic pneumonias are characterised by lung opacities with peripheral blood eosinophilia>1,000/mm 3 and/or alveolar eosinophilia>25%. Blood eosinophilia may be lacking in the initial phase of acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia and in patients who are receiving corticosteroids. Several clinical presentations may be seen: Löeffler's syndrome, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and acute eosinophilic pneumonia (with possible acute respiratory failure). Extrathoracic manifestations should suggest Churg-Strauss syndrome or an idiopathic hypereosinphilic syndrome, with prognosis depending on cardiac involvement. Possible drug and parasitic causes should be investigated; idiopathic forms are the most frequent in France. In addition to etiologic treatment, management is based on corticosteroids, usually with a rapid, favorable outcome; however, relapses are frequent. Cyclophosphamide is necessary in patients having Churg-Strauss syndrome with poor prognostic factors. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Mithieux G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mithieux G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Mithieux G.,University of Lyon
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2012

The early improvement of glucose control taking place shortly after gastric bypass surgery in obese diabetic patients has long been mysterious. A recent study in mice has highlighted some specific mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The specificity of gastric bypass in obese diabetic mice relates to major changes in the sensations of hunger and to rapid improvement of glucose parameters. The induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis plays a major role in diminishing hunger, and in restoring insulin sensitivity of endogenous glucose production. In parallel, the restoration of the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 and insulin plays a key additional role, in this context of recovered insulin sensitivity, to improve postprandial glucose tolerance. Therefore, a synergy between an incretin effect and intestinal gluconeogenesis is a key feature accounting for the rapid improvement of glucose control in obese diabetic patients after bypass surgery. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Ghigliotti G.,Joseph Fourier University | Biben T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Misbah C.,Joseph Fourier University
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

The rheology of a dilute two-dimensional suspension of vesicles (closed bags of a lipid bilayer membrane) is studied by numerical simulations. The numerical methods used are based on the boundary integral formulation (Green's function technique) and the phase field approach, which has become a quite popular and powerful tool for the numerical study of free-boundary problems. The imposed flow is an unbounded linear shear. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the link between the rheology of vesicle suspensions and the microscopic dynamics of the constituent particles (tank-treading and tumbling motions). A comparison with emulsion rheology reveals the central role played by the membrane. In particular, at low viscosity ratio Λ(defined as the viscosity of the internal fluid over that of the ambient one), the effective viscosity decreases with Λ, while the opposite trend is exhibited by emulsions, according to the classical Taylor result. This fact is explained by considering the velocity field of the ambient fluid. The area-incompressibility of the vesicle membrane modifies the surrounding velocity field in a quite different manner than what a drop does. The overall numerical results in two dimensions are in reasonable agreement with the three-dimensional analytical theory derived recently in the small deformation limit (quasi-spherical shapes). The finding that the simulations in two dimensions capture the essential features of the three-dimensional rheology opens the way for extensive and large-scale simulations for semi-dilute and concentrated vesicle suspensions. We discuss some peculiar effects exhibited by the instantaneous viscosity in the tumbling regime of vesicles. Finally, the rheology is found to be relatively insensitive to shear rate. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Mayr G.,Senckenberg Institute | Alvarenga H.,Museu de Historia Natural de Taubate | Mourer-Chauvire C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2011

We describe the earliest fossils of the enigmatic avian taxon Opisthocomiformes (hoatzins) from the Oligo-Miocene (22-24 mya) of Brazil. The bones, a humerus, scapula and coracoid, closely resemble those of the extant hoatzin, Opisthocomus hoazin. The very similar osteology of the pectoral girdle in the new Brazilian fossil compared to the extant O. hoazin, in which it reflects peculiar feeding adaptations, may indicate that hoatzins had already evolved their highly specialized feeding behavior by the mid-Cenozoic. We further show that Namibiavis senutae from the early Miocene of Namibia is another, previously misclassified representative of Opisthocomiformes, which documents that the extant Neotropic distribution of hoatzins is relictual. Because of the weak flight capabilities of hoatzins, their occurrence on both sides of the South Atlantic is of particular biogeographic interest. We detail that this distribution pattern is best explained by dispersal from Africa to South America, and that Opisthocomiformes provide the first example of transatlantic rafting among birds. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Tillmann B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tillmann B.,University of Lyon | Tillmann B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gosselin N.,University of Montreal | And 3 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2012

Deficits for pitch structure processing in congenital amusia has been mostly reported for melodic stimuli and explicit judgments. The present study investigated congenital amusia with harmonic stimuli and a priming task. Amusic and control participants performed a speeded phoneme discrimination task on sung chord sequences. The target phoneme was sung either on a functionally important chord (tonic chord, referred to as "related target") or a less important one (subdominant chord, referred to as "less-related target"). Correct response times were faster when the target phoneme was sung on tonic chords rather than on subdominant chords, and this effect was less pronounced, albeit significant, in amusic participants. These data report for the first time a deficit in congenital amusia for chord processing, but also provide evidence that, despite this deficit, amusic individuals have internalized sophisticated syntactic-like functions of chords in the Western tonal musical system. This finding suggests that thanks to this musical knowledge, amusic individuals could develop expectancies for musical events, and, presumably, follow the tension-relaxation schemas in Western tonal music, which also influence emotional responses to music. © 2012 Elsevier Srl.

Detcheverry F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Physical Journal E | Year: 2014

We consider random walks that arise from the repetition of independent, statistically identical steps, whose nature may be arbitrary. Such unimodal motions appear in a variety of contexts, including particle propagation, cell motility, swimming of micro-organisms, animal motion and foraging strategies. Building on general frameworks, we focus on the case where step duration is exponentially distributed. We explore systematically unimodal processes whose steps are ballistic, diffusive, cyclic or governed by rotational diffusion, and give the exact propagator in Fourier-Laplace domain, from which the moments and the diffusion coefficient are obtained. We also address bimodal processes, where two kinds of step are taken in turn, and show that the mean square displacement, the quantity of prime importance in experiments, is simply related to those of unimodal motions. © 2014, EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Boudabbous Y.,University of Sfax | Pouzet M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2010

A tournament is acyclically indecomposable if no acyclic autonomous set of vertices has more than one element. We identify twelve infinite acyclically indecomposable tournaments and prove that every infinite acyclically indecomposable tournament contains a subtournament isomorphic to one of these tournaments. The profile of a tournament T is the function φT which counts for each integer n the number φT (n) of tournaments induced by T on the n-element subsets of T, isomorphic tournaments being identified. As a corollary of the result above we deduce that the growth of φT is either polynomial, in which case φT (n) ≃ a nk, for some positive real a, and some non-negative integer k, or as fast as some exponential. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rico A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Strauss O.,Montpellier University
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2010

In most sensor measure based applications, the raw sensor signal has to be processed by an appropriate filter to increase the signal-to-noise ratio or simply to recover the signal to be measured. In both cases, the filter output is obtained by convoluting the sensor signal with a supposedly known appropriate impulse response. However, in many real life situations, this impulse response cannot be precisely specified. The filtered value can thus be considered as biased by this arbitrary choice of one impulse response among all possible impulse responses considered in this specific context. In this paper, we propose a new approach to perform filtering that aims at computing an interval valued signal containing all outputs of filtering processes involving a coherent family of conventional linear filters. This approach is based on a very straightforward extension of the expectation operator involving appropriate concave capacities. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Tranquilli P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Tranquilli P.,Third University of Rome
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2011

We define pure intuitionistic differential proof nets, extending Ehrhard and Regnier's differential interaction nets with the exponential box of Linear Logic. Normalization of the exponential reduction and confluence of the full one is proved. These results are directed and adjusted to give a translation of Boudol's untyped λ-calculus with resources extended with a linearnonlinear reduction la Ehrhard and Regnier's differential λ-calculus. Such reduction comes in two flavours: baby-step and giant-step β-reduction. The translation, based on Girard's encoding A→B∼!AB and as such extending the usual one for λ-calculus into proof nets, enjoys bisimulation for giant-step β-reduction. From this result we also derive confluence of both reductions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Othman S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2011

Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used for fault detection and isolation in a variable speed horizontal-axis wind turbine composed of three blades and a full converter. The SVM approach is data based and is therefore robust to process knowledge. Moreover, it is based on structural risk minimization which enhances generalization and it allows accounting for process non linearity by using flexible Kernels. In this work, a radial basis function was used as Kernel. Different parts of the process were investigated including actuators, sensors and process faults. With duplicated sensors, we could detect sensor faults in blade pitch positions, generator and rotor speeds rapidly. Fixed value fault were detected in 2 sample periods and offset faults could be detected for Δβ ≥ 0.5° with a detection time that depends on the offset level. The converter torque fault (an actuator) could be detected within two sample periods. Faults in the actuators of the pitch systems could not be detected. Faults in the process concerning friction in the drive train could be detected only for very high offset ( Δ η dt ≥ 50%). © 2011 IFAC.

Boldo S.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Muller J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
IEEE Transactions on Computers | Year: 2011

The fused multiply accumulate-add (FMA) instruction, specified by the IEEE 754-2008 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic, eases some calculations, and is already available on some current processors such as the Power PC or the Itanium. We first extend an earlier work on the computation of the exact error of an FMA (by giving more general conditions and providing a formal proof). Then, we present a new algorithm that computes an approximation to the error of an FMA, and provide error bounds and a formal proof for that algorithm. © 2006 IEEE.

Groussin M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Biology letters | Year: 2013

Several lines of evidence such as the basal location of thermophilic lineages in large-scale phylogenetic trees and the ancestral sequence reconstruction of single enzymes or large protein concatenations support the conclusion that the ancestors of the bacterial and archaeal domains were thermophilic organisms which were adapted to hot environments during the early stages of the Earth. A parsimonious reasoning would therefore suggest that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) was also thermophilic. Various authors have used branch-wise non-homogeneous evolutionary models that better capture the variation of molecular compositions among lineages to accurately reconstruct the ancestral G + C contents of ribosomal RNAs and the ancestral amino acid composition of highly conserved proteins. They confirmed the thermophilic nature of the ancestors of Bacteria and Archaea but concluded that LUCA, their last common ancestor, was a mesophilic organism having a moderate optimal growth temperature. In this letter, we investigate the unknown nature of the phylogenetic signal that informs ancestral sequence reconstruction to support this non-parsimonious scenario. We find that rate variation across sites of molecular sequences provides information at different time scales by recording the oldest adaptation to temperature in slow-evolving regions and subsequent adaptations in fast-evolving ones.

Piedra-Arroni E.,CNRS Laboratory for Basic and Applied Heterochemistry | Ladaviere C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Amgoune A.,CNRS Laboratory for Basic and Applied Heterochemistry | Bourissou D.,CNRS Laboratory for Basic and Applied Heterochemistry
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Dual systems combining Zn(C6F5)2 with an organic base (an amine or a phosphine) promote the controlled ring-opening polymerization of lactide and ε-caprolactone. The Lewis pairs cooperate to activate the monomers, affording well-defined high molecular weight cyclic polyesters. Efficient chain-extension gives access to cyclic block copolymers. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Genelot M.,CNRS Research on Catalysis and Environment in Lyon | Dufaud V.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Dufaud V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Djakovitch L.,CNRS Research on Catalysis and Environment in Lyon
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2013

The behaviour of several organophosphino-palladium complexes immobilized on mesoporous silica during the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of propynone by carbonylative Sonogashira coupling was studied, particularly concerning leaching/redeposition phenomena. The results demonstrated that this cross-coupling reaction is catalyzed by soluble species. Furthermore, it is shown that the palladium leaching is not initiated by the oxidative addition step but rather by palladium-decoordination from grafted ligand. Despite this decoordination, catalyst performance after recycling is adequate. Additionally, several parameters linked either to catalyst preparation or reaction procedures were shown to reduce leaching allowing one to achieve metal contamination levels close to the recommendation of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Interestingly, this heterogeneous palladium-catalyzed procedure is fully selective toward the formation of ynones, allowing the preparation of various target compounds. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Deguen R.,Johns Hopkins University | Alboussiere T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cardin P.,Joseph Fourier University
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2013

Inner core translation, with solidification on one hemisphere and melting on the other, provides a promising basis for understanding the hemispherical dichotomy of the inner core, as well as the anomalous stable layer observed at the base of the outer core-the so-called F-layer- which might be sustained by continuous melting of inner core material. In this paper, we study in details the dynamics of inner core thermal convection when dynamically induced melting and freezing of the inner core boundary (ICB) are taken into account. If the inner core is unstably stratified, linear stability analysis and numerical simulations consistently show that the translation mode dominates only if the viscosity η is large enough, with a critical viscosity value, of order ̃3 × 1018 Pa s, depending on the ability of outer core convection to supply or remove the latent heat of melting or solidification. If η is smaller, the dynamic effect of melting and freezing is small. Convection takes a more classical form, with a one-cell axisymmetric mode at the onset and chaotic plume convection at large Rayleigh number. η being poorly known, either mode seems equally possible. We derive analytical expressions for the rates of translation and melting for the translation mode, and a scaling theory for high Rayleigh number plume convection. Coupling our dynamic models with a model of inner core thermal evolution, we predict the convection mode and melting rate as functions of inner core age, thermal conductivity, and viscosity. If the inner core is indeed in the translation regime, the predicted melting rate is high enough, according to Alboussière et al.'s experiments, to allow the formation of a stratified layer above the ICB. In the plume convection regime, the melting rate, although smaller than in the translation regime, can still be significant if η is not too small. Thermal convection requires that a superadiabatic temperature profile is maintained in the inner core, which depends on a competition between extraction of the inner core internal heat by conduction and cooling at the ICB. Inner core thermal convection appears very likely with the low thermal conductivity value proposed by Stacey & Loper, but nearly impossible with the much higher thermal conductivity recently put forward by Sha & Cohen, de Koker et al. and Pozzo et al.We argue however that the formation of an iron-rich layer above the ICB may have a positive feedback on inner core convection: it implies that the inner core crystallized from an increasingly iron-rich liquid, resulting in an unstable compositional stratification which could drive inner core convection, perhaps even if the inner core is subadiabatic. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

Iwamori H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Albarede F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Nakamura H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2010

In order to further our understanding of the global geochemical structure and mantle dynamics, a global isotopic data set of oceanic basalts was analyzed by Independent Component Analysis (ICA), a relatively new method of multivariate analysis. The data set consists of 2773 mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and 1515 ocean island basalts (OIB) with five isotopic ratios of Pb, Nd and Sr. The data set spatially covers the major oceans and enables us to compare the results with global geophysical observations. Three independent components (ICs) have been found, two of which are essentially identical to those previously found for basalts from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The two ICs (IC1 and IC2) span a compositional plane that accounts for 95.7% of the sample variance, while the third IC (IC3) accounts for 3.7%. Based on the geochemical nature of ICs and a forward model concerning trace elemental and isotopic compositions, the origin of the ICs is discussed. IC1 discriminates OIB from MORB, and may be related to elemental fractionation associated with melting and the subsequent radiogenic in growth with an average recycling time of 0.8 to 2.4. Ga. IC2 tracks the regional provenance of both MORB and OIB and may be related to aqueous fluid-rock interaction and the subsequent radiogenic ingrowth with an average recycling time of 0.3 to 0.9. Ga. IC3 fingerprints upper continental crustal material and its high value appears in limited geographical and tectonic settings. Variations in the melt component (IC1) and in the aqueous fluid component (IC2) inherited in the mantle most likely reflect mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone processes, respectively. Long-term accumulation of dense materials rich in the IC1 melt component at the base of the convective mantle accounts for its longer recycling time with respect to that for less dense materials rich in the aqueous fluid component (IC2). IC2 broadly correlates with the seismic velocity structures of the lowermost mantle and electric conductivity around the mantle transition zones. We propose that IC2 reflects hydrogen distribution within the mantle and that several global domains enriched in hydrogen could exist as vertical sectors extending all the way down to the core-mantle boundary. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Radchenko A.V.,Belarusian State University | Kostjuk S.V.,Belarusian State University | Ganachaud F.,INSA Lyon | Ganachaud F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2013

Cationic polymerization of isobutyl vinyl ether (IBVE) in aqueous media (suspension, dispersion or emulsion), using mainly BF3OEt2 as a co-initiator is reported. A high exotherm was observed while carrying out the polymerization in aqueous suspension, whereas in dispersion (mixture of water and n-hexane as reaction medium) or in emulsion particularly, efficient heat transfer decreased thermal runaway. Poly(isobutyl vinyl ether)s with M n up to 8600 g mol-1 and relatively broad molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn = 2.5-3.5) in high yield (>85%) were synthesized in aqueous dispersion. In direct emulsion, using BRIJ®98 (7 wt% to monomer) as a surfactant, polymers of low molecular weight (M n ≤ 2000 g mol-1) and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn = 2.0-2.5) were obtained in moderate yields (50-60%), whereas, in inverse emulsion (water-n-hexane as a reaction medium), higher yields (85-96%) and higher molecular weights (M n = 4500-5500 g mol-1) were reached. Chain-end analyses by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that most of the chains contain acetal end groups (typically ≥80%), while aldehyde (12-16%) and alkenal (0.5-3.5%) end groups were found in minor proportions. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Kaszuba J.,University of Wyoming | Yardley B.,University of Leeds | Andreani M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry | Year: 2013

This brief review has demonstrated the considerable breadth of experimental data that is available for mineral dissolution and precipitation due to CO 2-water-rock interactions as well as the diversity of laboratory techniques used to acquire these data. In particular, a sizeable dataset quantifying the dissolution rates of minerals likely to be of significance for Geological Carbon Storage has been assembled. We hope this review has also demonstrated that further laboratory experiments, particularly kinetic measurements, are needed for conditions close to those likely to be encountered in CO2 reservoirs. Here, pore fluids are likely to be already close to equilibrium with their host rocks prior to CO2 injection, and will respond primarily to the lowering of pH which results as CO2 dissolves into pore waters. Despite limitations in our understanding, a number of important conclusions can be drawn about CO2-water-rock interactions, particularly with respect to relative rates, that may be of value for the design of sequestration schemes. The fastest minerals to respond to the changes in fluid chemistry induced by CO2 injection are calcite, anhydrite and dolomite. When present in the reservoir, these minerals serve to raise pH on a timescale of days in response to dissolution of CO2 in formation waters, and as a result may further inhibit the slower response of silicate minerals to injection. Nevertheless, silicate reactions may take place within the lifetime of an injection site. Conversion of feldspars to secondary clay minerals is likely to be an important reservoir reaction, but at present the rates of such reactions are difficult to predict because they may be more dependent on the rate of precipitation of the secondary phases than on feldspar dissolution. This is important, because the secondary minerals may reduce permeability significantly and if this happens on the timescale of the original injection, it could reduce reservoir capacity. Impurities co-injected with CO2 may provide new sources of acidity as well as dissolved solutes that may promote precipitation of new minerals and additional growth of preexisting minerals. Along main flow paths exhibiting high permeability, fluid composition will likely be dominated by the injected fluid; more protected areas exhibiting reduced flow may instead retain rock-dominated fluids. Over time, mineral dissolution and precipitation may progressively modify flow pathways and shift the types of reaction taking place. These processes will collectively determine the interplay between reaction kinetics and mass transport processes in CO2 reservoirs. Copyright © 2013 Mineralogical Society of America.

Calvo F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pahl E.,University of Auckland | Wormit M.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Schwerdtfeger P.,University of Auckland | Schwerdtfeger P.,University of Marburg
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

An old problem solved: Monte Carlo simulations using the diatomic-in-molecule method derived from accurate ground- and excited-state relativistic calculations for Hg2 show that the melting temperature for bulk mercury is lowered by 105 K, which is due to relativistic effects. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ma T.,Tsinghua University | Cacciapaglia G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cacciapaglia G.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2016

Abstract: We present a new model of composite Higgs based on a gauged SU(N) group with 4 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. At low energy, the model has a global symmetry SU(4)×SU(4) broken to the diagonal SU(4), containing 2 Higgs doublets in the coset. We study in detail the issue of the vacuum alignment. In particular, we prove that, without loss of generality, the vacuum can always be aligned with one doublet. Under certain conditions on the top pre-Yukawas, the second doublet, together with the additional triplets, is stable and can thus play the role of Dark Matter. This model can therefore be an example of composite inert-2HDM model. © 2016, The Author(s).

Biver E.,University of Geneva | Thouverey C.,University of Geneva | Magne D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Caverzasio J.,University of Geneva
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) promote mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation, whereas platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activate their proliferation through receptors tyrosine kinase (RTK). The effects of PDGF or FGF receptor signaling pathway on BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation was investigated in human MSC (HMSC). Inhibition of PDGF or/and FGF receptors enhanced BMP2-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of Osterix, ALP and Bone sialoprotein, and matrix calcification. These effects were associated with increased Smad-1 activity, indicating that mitogenic factors interfere with Smad signaling in HMSC differentiation. RTK activate MAPK and inhibit GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Biochemical analysis indicated that MAPK JNK and GSK3 especially are potential signaling molecules regulating BMP-induced osteoblastic HMSC differentiation. These observations highlight that the osteogenic effects of BMP2 are modulated by mitogenic factors acting through RTK. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

A personal experience of long-term follow-up of children suffering from pervasive development disorders, has led us to formulate some principles of a global treatment - a conjunction of care, education and pedagogics - which are shared by the majority of psychiatric and social French services. This treatment is focused on the facilitation of the child starting an inner narrative, from the everyday life events. It implies in the care network a differentiation between various places and times, a coordination, a narrating of what happens to the child when engaged with different interlocutors, a supervision and above all a partnership with the parents. © 2011.

Ma W.-J.,University of Groningen | Vavre F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Beukeboom L.W.,University of Groningen
Sexual Development | Year: 2014

Arthropods exhibit a large variety of sex determination systems both at the chromosomal and molecular level. Male heterogamety, female heterogamety, and haplodiploidy occur frequently, but partially different genes are involved. Endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium,Rickettsia, and Spiroplasma, can manipulate host reproduction and sex determination. Four major reproductive manipulation types are distinguished: cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male killing, and feminization. In this review, the effects of these manipulation types and how they interfere with arthropod sex determination in terms of host developmental timing, alteration of sex determination, and modification of sexual differentiation pathways are summarized. Transitions between different manipulation types occur frequently which suggests that they are based on similar molecular processes. It is also discussed how mechanisms of reproductive manipulation and host sex determination can be informative on each other, with a special focus on haplodiploidy. Future directions on how the study of endosymbiotic manipulation of host reproduction can be key to further studies of arthropod sex determination are shown. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Grinenval E.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry | Basset J.-M.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry | Lefebvre F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010<