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University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and Center Leon Berard | Date: 2017-03-29

The present invention provides antibodies directed against ICOS or a derivative thereof which induce IL-10 and IFN production, induce CD4+ T cells proliferation, reduce Tconv proliferation, and increase the immunosuppressive function of Treg. The present invention also relates to uses of said antibodies for treating autoimmune diseases, transplantation rejection and graft versus host disease.

University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Hospices Civils De Lyon and University of Washington | Date: 2017-03-29

The present invention relates to the use of at least one biomarker for predicting the severity of a disease caused by the infection of an individual with an influenza virus, wherein said biomarker is selected in a group comprising (i) the alpha diversity value of the microbiome present in a respiratory sample of said individual and (ii) the microbiome profile of the said respiratory sample.

Dubois D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Prade H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Rico A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2017

The paper discusses graded extensions of the cube of opposition, a structure that naturally emerges from the square of opposition in philosophical logic. These extensions of the cube of opposition agree with possibility theory and its four set functions. This extended cube then provides a synthetic and unified view of possibility theory. This is an opportunity to revisit basic notions of possibility theory, in particular regarding the handling of fuzzy events. It turns out that in possibility theory, two extensions of the four basic set functions to fuzzy events exist, which are needed for serving different purposes. The expressions of these extensions involve many-valued conjunction and implication operators that are related either via semi-duality or via residuation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Andre F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2017

The recently proposed ℓ-distribution/ICE (Iterative Copula Evaluation) method of gas radiation suffers from symmetry issues when applied in highly non-isothermal and non-homogeneous gaseous media. This problem is studied in a detailed theoretical way. The objective of the present paper is: 1/to provide a mathematical analysis of this problem of symmetry and, 2/to suggest a decisive factor, defined in terms of the ratio between the narrow band Planck and Rosseland mean absorption coefficients, to handle this issue. Comparisons of model predictions with reference LBL calculations show that the proposed criterion improves the accuracy of the intuitive ICE method for applications in highly non-uniform gases at high temperatures. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Lavrard H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Popowycz F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2017

Numerous procedures have been described for the functionalization of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine, mainly involving nucleophilic substitutions at the C-4 position or esterifications/amidations at the C-5 position. In this paper, we describe a robust, easy to implement protocol for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of chloroarene 2, followed by in-situ lactonization to provide chromenopyrazolopyridines. The extension of the scope of the reaction to fused naphthyridinones is also reported. This strategy gave access to 10 original pyrazolopyridine-containing tetracyclic compounds. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Marlot L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Faure K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2017

The increasing performances of analytical techniques, especially two-dimensional liquid chromatography hyphenated with highly sensitive detectors, allow discovery of new targeted compounds in highly complex samples, whether biomarkers in environmental effluents, natural metabolomes in natural products or unknown impurities in synthetic chemical process. While structural identification can usually be achieved through mass spectrometry and databases, it can be useful to confirm the potential structure via NMR analysis and/or to obtain standard reference material for quantitative purposes, incentive for the production of μg to mg of new target compounds. Hence, preparative chromatography, which was initially run for large-scale production, is now facing new challenges, with small volumes of highly complex samples to deal with. Unfortunately, one dimensional chromatographic methods exhibit limited performances when targets are minor compounds in a complex matrix. Moreover, for process intensification or limited amount of sample, it is now a priority to be able to isolate multiple components with the largest yield possible using as few purification steps as possible. With these specifications in mind, a comprehensive multidimensional chromatographic method for preparative purposes is becoming appealing. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Vernoux P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Catalysis | Year: 2017

Electrochemical Promotion of Catalysis (EPOC) is a promising concept to in-operando modify with electric polarizations the catalytic properties of metal films interfaced on ionically conducting supports. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of recent advances in this field. The first section is focused on the understanding of the EPOC process. The second highlights the quest to dispersed electropromoted catalysts. The growing field of self-sustained electrochemical promotion is described in the third part whereas the fourth one illustrates the recent trends including electropromoted non-noble metals and the intensive research on CO2 hydrogenation. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017.

Aman-Pommier F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Jallut C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2017

The aim of this work is to develop a model for the dependence of the excess specific volume of the water + tert-butyl alcohol system on both composition and temperature under the temperature and pressure conditions relevant to the manufacturing and processing of poorly water-soluble drug formulations intended to be freeze-dried. For this purpose, experimental excess volumes of binary solvent mixtures were obtained from density measurements performed with a vibrating-tube density meter and carried out at atmospheric pressure for thirty-nine compositions covering the whole composition range and at five temperatures over the range from 293.15 to 313.15 K. For every temperature investigated, experimental excess volume data were fitted by a Redlich-Kister-based equation. By considering the temperature dependence of the regression coefficient estimates thus determined, the complete model equation was obtained and further validated by testing its correlative and predictive capabilities against data from this work and those from literature, respectively. Then, it was used to derive expressions for the excess partial thermodynamic quantities and their variations with respect to composition and temperature were discussed in terms of molecular interactions and structural arrangements in solution. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Platre M.P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Jaillais Y.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2017

A wide range of signaling processes occurs at the cell surface through the reversible association of proteins from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Some low abundant lipids are enriched at the membrane of specific compartments and thereby contribute to the identity of cell organelles by acting as biochemical landmarks. Lipids also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as an important feature in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters are crucial for signal transduction and include lipid packing, membrane curvature and electrostatics. In particular, membrane electrostatics specifies the identity of the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Membrane surface charges are carried by anionic phospholipids, however the exact nature of the lipid(s) that powers the plasma membrane electrostatic field varies among eukaryotes and has been hotly debated during the last decade. Herein, we discuss the role of anionic lipids in setting up plasma membrane electrostatics and we compare similarities and differences that were found in different eukaryotic cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC © 2017, © CNRS.

Zavras A.,University of Melbourne | Krstic M.,University of Split | Dugourd P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bonacic-Koutecky V.,Humboldt University of Berlin | O'Hair R.A.J.,University of Melbourne
ChemCatChem | Year: 2017

Design of new bimetallic catalysts requires an understanding of how cooperative effects of the metal sites influences reactivity. Here we show how switching one or both of the silver atoms in binuclear silver hydride cations, [dppmAg2(H)]+ (dppm=1,1-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-methane), with all combinations of copper and/or gold maintains selective dehydrogenation of formic acid, enhancing reactivity by up to 2 orders of magnitude. This is a key step in the selective, catalyzed extrusion of carbon dioxide from formic acid, HO2CH, with important applications in hydrogen storage and in situ generation of H2. Decarboxylation of [dppmMM′(O2CH)]+ through collision induced dissociation regenerates [dppmMM′(H)]+. DFT calculations provide insights into these cooperative effects. The copper homobinuclear catalyst performs best overall. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wang X.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bulle J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

The aim of the present study was to identify the factors affecting the driving posture and their order of importance for the postural prediction when using a digital human modelling tool. An experiment was carried out with 35 volunteers testing 5 different vehicles with a clutch pedal, covering a large range of European drivers and passenger vehicle types. The seat and steering wheel positions for each vehicle were first adjusted in a lab condition without riding. Then subjects were asked to drive the vehicle on road for about 5 min. Afterwards, they were asked to fill in a questionnaire in order to know the use of available vehicle interior adjustments and to identify the order of priority of the factors affecting the adjustment of vehicle interior dimensions. Results show that 47 out of 175 person-vehicle combinations (27 %) made at least one re-adjustment during the road driving session, suggesting the stationary lab condition could not fully represent road driving. For 55 of 175 volunteers-vehicle combinations (31.4 %), at least one adjustment was judged too restrictive. As expected, short volunteers complained more frequently than others did. The most important factor considered for adjusting the seat and steering wheel positions was the accessibility of the pedals for all participants. The second most important factor depended on stature group. For tall volunteers, the accessibility of the steering wheel was classified as the second most important, while it was the road visibility for short and average height volunteers. These observations could be helpful not only for identifying possible vehicle interior design issues but also for identifying task priority for driving posture prediction when using a DHM tool. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.

Gendrin M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gauthier J.-Y.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lin-Shi X.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2017

Nowadays, active-front-end rectifiers are increasingly used as grid connected devices. Their efficiency and performances have become relevant for reducing the overall grid losses. This paper thus introduces a predictive hybrid pulse-widthmodulation (PH-PWM) technique, adaptable to any space-vector PWM (SVPWM) controller. As opposed to hybrid PWM techniques based on sector partitioning, thePH-PWMtechnique selects the appropriate PWM sequence online with the help of a predictive algorithm. This selection is based on a cost-function where users can define a tradeoff between various criteria, such as the reduction of current distortion and switching losses, as presented in this paper. The use of the PH-PWM technique increases performances in comparison with the conventional PWM techniques. The simulation and experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed PH-PWM technique. Aside from the tradeoff capacity of the proposed PH-PWM technique, the simulation results validate a reduction of the switching losses for the converter up to 23% as compared with the conventional SVPWM technique. © 2016 IEEE.

Rutkowski L.,Umeå University | Morville J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2017

We have recently introduced the Vernier-based Direct Frequency Comb Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy technique which allows us to record broadband spectra at high sensitivity and GHz resolution (Rutkowski and Morville, 2014) [1]. We discuss here the effect of Vernier filtering on the observed lineshapes in the 3ν+δ band of water vapor and the entire A-band of oxygen around 800 nm in ambient air. We derive expressions for the absorption profiles resulting from the continuous Vernier filtering method, testing them on spectra covering more than 2000 cm−1 around 12,500 cm−1. With 31,300 independent spectral elements acquired at the second time scale, an absorption baseline noise of 2×10−8cm−1 is obtained, providing a figure of merit of 1.1×10−10 cm−1/Hz per spectral element with a cavity finesse of 3000 and a cavity round-trip length around 3.3 m. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Pottier B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bellon L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2017

When measuring quadratic values representative of random fluctuations, such as the thermal noise of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, the background measurement noise cannot be averaged to zero. We present a signal processing method that allows to get rid of this limitation using the ubiquitous optical beam deflection sensor of standard AFMs. We demonstrate a two orders of magnitude enhancement of the signal to noise ratio in our experiment, allowing the calibration of stiff cantilevers or easy identification of higher order modes from thermal noise measurements. © 2017 Author(s).

Artru X.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2017

In a crystal, thermal vibrations of neighboring atoms are correlated: long wavelength phonons make them displace in the same direction. These correlations can speed up the dechanneling of axially channeled particles, as shown by a simulation with binary collisions and a Markov chain model of atom vibrations. In the case of e+ or e- at small angle with a crystal axis, the correlated vibrations should give rise to a semi-coherent bremsstrahlung on several consecutive atoms of a row. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Rodrigue N.,Carleton University | Lartillot N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2017

Codon substitution models have traditionally attempted to uncover signatures of adaptation within protein-coding genes by contrasting the rates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions. Another modeling approach, known as the mutation-selection framework, attempts to explicitly account for selective patterns at the amino acid level, with some approaches allowing for heterogeneity in these patterns across codon sites. Under such a model, substitutions at a given position occur at the neutral or nearly neutral rate when they are synonymous, or when they correspond to replacements between amino acids of similar fitness; substitutions from high to low (low to high) fitness amino acids have comparatively low (high) rates. Here, we study the use of such a mutation-selection framework as a null model for the detection of adaptation. Following previous works in this direction, we include a deviation parameter that has the effect of capturing the surplus, or deficit, in non-synonymous rates, relative to what would be expected under a mutation-selection modeling framework that includes a Dirichlet process approach to account for across-codon-site variation in amino acid fitness profiles. We use simulations, along with a few real data sets, to study the behavior of the approach, and find it to have good power with a low false-positive rate. Altogether, we emphasize the potential of recent mutation-selection models in the detection of adaptation, calling for further model refinements as well as large-scale applications.

Tefit M.A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Leulier F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2017

Animals are naturally surrounded by a variety of microorganisms with which they constantly interact. Among these microbes, some live in close association with a host and form its microbiota. These communities are being extensively studied, owing to their contributions to shaping various aspects of animal physiology. One of these commensal species, Lactobacillus plantarum, and in particular the L.p.WJL strain, has been shown to promote the growth of Drosophila larvae upon nutrient scarcity, allowing earlier metamorphosis and adult emergence compared with axenic individuals. As for many insects, conditions surrounding the postembryonic development dictate key adult life history traits in Drosophila, and adjusting developmental timing according to the environment is essential for adult fitness. Thus, we wondered whether the growth acceleration induced by L.p.WJL in a context of poor nutrition could adversely impact the fitness of Drosophila adults. Here, we show that the L.p.WJL-mediated acceleration of growth is not deleterious; adults emerging after an accelerated development are as fit as their axenic siblings. Additionally, the presence of L.p.WJL even leads to a lifespan extension in nutritionally challenged males. These results demonstrate that L.p.WJL is a beneficial partner for Drosophila melanogaster through its entire life cycle. Thus, commensal bacteria allow the earlier emergence and longer survival of fit and fertile individuals and might represent one of the factors contributing to the ecological success of Drosophila. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Sixdenier F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Scorretti R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields | Year: 2017

Some soft magnetic materials are strongly dependent of the temperature, because of their low Curie temperature. To be able to predict their behaviour in electrical devices, hysteresis models able to take into account the temperature are needed. The vector play static hysteresis model is an interesting hysteresis model that can be modified to be able to take into account the thermal behaviour. In this paper, the temperature is taken into account in this last model through its parameters. The variations of some parameters with temperature are mainly issued from numerical interpolation and specific assumptions. Simulation results are compared to measurements and discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Rosa A.,International School for Advanced Studies | Everaers R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2017

While Flory theories [J. Isaacson and T. C. Lubensky, J. Physique Lett. 41, 469 (1980)JPSLBO0302-072X10.1051/jphyslet:019800041019046900; M. Daoud and J. F. Joanny, J. Physique 42, 1359 (1981)JOPQAG0302-073810.1051/jphys:0198100420100135900; A. M. Gutin, Macromolecules 26, 1293 (1993)MAMOBX0024-929710.1021/ma00058a016] provide an extremely useful framework for understanding the behavior of interacting, randomly branching polymers, the approach is inherently limited. Here we use a combination of scaling arguments and computer simulations to go beyond a Gaussian description. We analyze distribution functions for a wide variety of quantities characterizing the tree connectivities and conformations for the four different statistical ensembles, which we have studied numerically in [A. Rosa and R. Everaers, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 49, 345001 (2016)1751-811310.1088/1751-8113/49/34/345001 and J. Chem. Phys. 145, 164906 (2016)JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.4965827]: (a) ideal randomly branching polymers, (b) 2d and 3d melts of interacting randomly branching polymers, (c) 3d self-avoiding trees with annealed connectivity, and (d) 3d self-avoiding trees with quenched ideal connectivity. In particular, we investigate the distributions (i) pN(n) of the weight, n, of branches cut from trees of mass N by severing randomly chosen bonds; (ii) pN(l) of the contour distances, l, between monomers; (iii) pN(r- ) of spatial distances, r- , between monomers, and (iv) pN(r- |l) of the end-to-end distance of paths of length l. Data for different tree sizes superimpose, when expressed as functions of suitably rescaled observables x- =r- /(r2(N)) or x=l/(l(N)). In particular, we observe a generalized Kramers relation for the branch weight distributions (i) and find that all the other distributions (ii-iv) are of Redner-des Cloizeaux type, q(x- )=C|x|θexp-(K|x|)t. We propose a coherent framework, including generalized Fisher-Pincus relations, relating most of the RdC exponents to each other and to the contact and Flory exponents for interacting trees. © 2017 American Physical Society.

LEFEBVRE B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | LEROSEY-AUBRIL R.,University of New South Wales
Geological Magazine | Year: 2017

A new solutan echinoderm, Pahvanticystis utahensis gen. et sp. nov. is described from the upper part of the Weeks Formation (Guzhangian). The Cambrian (Series 3) succession of the central House Range in western Utah documents the early diversification of the class Soluta, which is characterized by a major ecological transition from sessile, ‘pelmatozoan’ primitive taxa (Coleicarpus, Wheeler Formation), to more and more vagile, temporarily attached (Castericystis, Marjum Formation), to mostly unattached, ‘homalozoan’ derived forms (Pahvanticystis, Weeks Formation). The morphology of Pahvanticystis is remarkably intermediate between those of Castericystis and Minervaecystis. Its twisted, flattened dististele possibly represents an adaptation for a more efficient crawling atop soft substrates. This morphological feature also questions the phylogenetic relationships between syringocrinid and dendrocystitid solutans, and the possible evolution of the latter from basal, Pahvanticystis- or Minervaecystis-like syringocrinids by paedomorphosis. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017

Boson B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Denolly S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Turlure F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Chamot C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2017

Background & Aims Daclatasvir is a direct-acting antiviral agent and potent inhibitor of NS5A, which is involved in replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome, presumably via membranous web shaping, and assembly of new virions, likely via transfer of the HCV RNA genome to viral particle assembly sites. Daclatasvir inhibits the formation of new membranous web structures and, ultimately, of replication complex vesicles, but also inhibits an early assembly step. We investigated the relationship between daclatasvir-induced clustering of HCV proteins, intracellular localization of viral RNAs, and inhibition of viral particle assembly. Methods Cell-culture−derived HCV particles were produced from Huh7.5 hepatocarcinoma cells in presence of daclatasvir for short time periods. Infectivity and production of physical particles were quantified and producer cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation. Intracellular colocalization between core, E2, NS5A, NS4B proteins, and viral RNAs was quantitatively analyzed by confocal microscopy and by structured illumination microscopy. Results Short exposure of HCV-infected cells to daclatasvir reduced viral assembly and induced clustering of structural proteins with non-structural HCV proteins, including core, E2, NS4B, and NS5A. These clustered structures appeared to be inactive assembly platforms, likely owing to loss of functional connection with replication complexes. Daclatasvir greatly reduced delivery of viral genomes to these core clusters without altering HCV RNA colocalization with NS5A. In contrast, daclatasvir neither induced clustered structures nor inhibited HCV assembly in cells infected with a daclatasvir-resistant mutant (NS5A-Y93H), indicating that daclatasvir targets a mutual, specific function of NS5A inhibiting both processes. Conclusions In addition to inhibiting replication complex biogenesis, daclatasvir prevents viral assembly by blocking transfer of the viral genome to assembly sites. This leads to clustering of HCV proteins because viral particles and replication complex vesicles cannot form or egress. This dual mode of action of daclatasvir could explain its efficacy in blocking HCV replication in cultured cells and in treatment of patients with HCV infection. © 2017 AGA Institute

Selva M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Morel L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Marquet K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Proceedings - 2016 16th International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling and Simulation, SAMOS 2016 | Year: 2016

The memory subsystem of modern multi-core architectures is becoming more and more complex with the increasing number of cores integrated in a single computer system. This complexity leads to profiling needs to let software developers understand how programs use the memory subsystem. Modern processors come with hardware profiling features to help building tools for these profiling needs. Regarding memory profiling, many processors provide means to monitor memory traffic and to sample read and write memory accesses. Unfortunately, these hardware profiling mechanisms are often very complex to use and are specific to each micro-architecture. In this work, we present numap, a library dedicated to the profiling of the memory sub-system of modern multi-core architectures. numap is portable across many micro-architectures and comes with a clean application programming interface allowing to easily build profiling tools on top of it. © 2016 IEEE.

Panero W.R.,Ohio State University | Caracas R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2017

The newly described hydrous phase H, MgSiO4H2, is stable to the pressures and temperatures of the Earth's lower mantle, suggesting that the Earth's lower mantle may participate in the cycling of water. We present the results of ab initio calculations on the stability of this phase within the phase H–δAlOOH–SiO2 system between 20 and 60 GPa, exploring the wide pressure- and temperature stability field of this mineral. We find that hydrogen in phase H is bonded in a single well at all pressures, and only the pure phase results in pressure-induced symmetrization, while the solid solution maintains asymmetric bonding to high pressure. Substitutions on octahedral sites are locally charge-balanced by H. Furthermore, small amounts of Al + H in SiO2 stabilize the CaCl2-structure of SiO2 to pressures as low as 20 GPa while phase H and δAlOOH form an ideal mixture at all pressures considered. The resulting structure is stable relative to the anhydrous assemblage of the Earth's lower mantle by 16–19 kJ/mol. In alumina-rich phase H this increases the stability of the mineral by ∼800 K relative to the pure substance, making it potentially stable under lower mantle temperatures along typical geotherms. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Enchery F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Enchery F.,Laboratoire dExcellence ECOFECT | Horvat B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Horvat B.,Laboratoire dExcellence ECOFECT
International Reviews of Immunology | Year: 2017

Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses, from henipavirus genus, that have emerged in late 1990s in Australia and South-East Asia, respectively. Since their initial identification, numerous outbreaks have been reported, affecting both domestic animals and humans, and multiple rounds of person-to-person NiV transmission were observed. Widely distributed fruit bats from Pteropodidae family were found to be henipavirus natural reservoir. Numerous studies have reported henipavirus seropositivity in pteropid bats, including bats in Africa, thus expanding notably the geographic distribution of these viruses. Interestingly, henipavirus infection in bats seems to be asymptomatic, in contrast to severe disease induced in numerous other mammals. Unique among the mammals by their ability to fly, these intriguing animals are natural reservoir for many other emerging and remerging viruses highly pathogenic for humans. This feature, combined with absence of clinical symptoms, has attracted the interest of scientific community to virus-bat interactions. Therefore, several bat genomes were sequenced and particularities of the bat immune system have been intensively analyzed during the last decade to understand their coexistence with viruses in the absence of disease. The peculiarities in inflammasome activation, a constitutive expression of interferon alpha, and some differences in adaptive immunity have been recently reported in fruit bats. Studies on virus-bat interactions have thus emerged as an exciting novel area of research that should shed new light on the mechanisms that regulate viral infection and may allow development of novel therapeutic approaches to control this highly lethal emerging infectious disease in humans. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Caillerie N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Comptes Rendus Mathematique | Year: 2017

We study a random process on Rn moving in straight lines and changing randomly its velocity at random exponential times. We focus more precisely on the Kolmogorov equation in the hyperbolic scale (t,x,v)→(tε,xε,v), with ε>0, before proceeding to a Hopf-Cole transform, which gives a kinetic equation on a potential. We show convergence as ε→0 of the potential towards the viscosity solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation ∂tϕ+H(∇xϕ)=0 where the Hamiltonian may lack C1 regularity, which is quite unseen in this type of studies. © 2017 Académie des sciences.

Bella J.,University of Manchester | Hulmes D.J.S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2017

Fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, V, XI, XXIV and XXVII) constitute a sub-group within the collagen family (of which there are 28 types in humans) whose functions are to provide three-dimensional frameworks for tissues and organs. These networks confer mechanical strength as well as signalling and organizing functions through binding to cellular receptors and other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe the structure and assembly of fibrillar collagens, and their procollagen precursors, from the molecular to the tissue level. We show how the structure of the collagen triple-helix is influenced by the amino acid sequence, hydrogen bonding and post-translational modifications, such as prolyl 4-hydroxylation. The numerous steps in the biosynthesis of the fibrillar collagens are reviewed with particular attention to the role of prolyl 3-hydroxylation, collagen chaperones, trimerization of procollagen chains and proteolytic maturation. The multiple steps controlling fibril assembly are then discussed with a focus on the cellular control of this process in vivo. Our current understanding of the molecular packing in collagen fibrils, from different tissues, is then summarized on the basis of data from X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. These results provide structural insights into how collagen fibrils interact with cell receptors, other fibrillar and non-fibrillar collagens and other ECM components, as well as enzymes involved in cross-linking and degradation. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

Gaur A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Menezo C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Giroux-Julien S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Renewable Energy | Year: 2017

A detailed mathematical models is developed for a fully wetted absorber photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector with and without phase change material (PCM) under its absorber channel. Thermal and electrical investigations were carried out using PCM OM37 for typical winter and summer days in Lyon, France. The system is analyzed under energy and exergy performances. PCM incorporation in a water PVT absorber improves the performance of system in terms of electrical and thermal parameters. Enhanced electrical and thermal energy is attributed to dissipation of excess heat of PV module by latent heat absorption mechanism that reduces the PV module temperature and release heat at the night as well, provides better electrical and thermal stabilities to the system. Overall thermal energy and overall exergy of PVT system for a winter day as well as for a typical summer day, are found to be strongly in favor of adding PCM. The effects of mass of PCM on module temperature, outlet water temperature, and PV module electrical efficiency, have also been investigated. During sunshine hours, increment in the PCM mass up to its optimal value decreases temperature resulting in higher electrical efficiency and also allows providing higher water temperature at the nighttime. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Guedra M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Inserra C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gilles B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2017

An asymptotic method is applied to analyze the nonlinear oscillations of a gas bubble driven by a dual-frequency excitation. More specifically, the latter is considered as a combination of two neighboring, incommensurate frequencies and is treated as a nonstationary excitation. This implies that both amplitude and phase of the bubble response are slowly oscillating at the time scale of the frequency difference, thus leading to a regime of aperiodic oscillations. The approximate solution is successfully compared with numerical simulations and reveals the possibility of achieving larger bubble response amplitude compared to the monofrequency excitation for sufficiently high driving pressure and specific values of the frequency difference. The asymptotic theory captures the generation of additional spectral components coming from the nonlinear mixing of both driving frequencies. This mechanism is responsible for a global enhancement of the dual-frequency bubble response as it enables an energy transfer towards more efficient components which are successively tuned with the nonlinearly shifted resonance frequency of the bubble, thus limiting the saturation due to softening. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Chiron G.R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Guiard J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | van den Berg C.,State University of Feira de Santana
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

Phylogenetic relationships for a large number of Brazilian species of Pleurothallis sensi lato (Acianthera, Anathallis, Pabstiella and Specklinia) were inferred in an analysis of ITS nrDNA using both parsimony and Bayesian methods. Our results show that: 1) most Brazilian Pleurothallis species recently transferred into Stelis in fact belong to the genus Pabstiella; 2) groups of species previously generally considered to be part of the genus Specklinia belong to Pabstiella; 3) some infrageneric groups-mostly compatible with Luer's sectional organization of his Pleurothallis subgenus Acianthera-are clearly supported within Acianthera; and 4) two species could represent a new genus. © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2013

Several groups have described a syndrome in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) coexists with pulmonary emphysema. This comes as no surprise since both diseases are associated with a history of exposure to cigarette smoke. The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is characterised by upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Physiological testing of these patients reveals preserved lung volume indices contrasted by markedly impaired diffusion capacity. The incidence of CPFE remains unknown but several case series suggest that this subgroup may comprise up to 35% of patients with IPF. CPFE is a strong determinant of associated pulmonary hypertension (PH). In addition, CPFE has major effects on measures of physiological function, exercise capacity and prognosis, and may affect the results of pulmonary fibrosis trials. Further studies are needed to ascertain the aetiology, morbidity, mortality and management of the CPFE syndrome, with or without PH, and to evaluate novel therapeutic options in CPFE. © ERS 2013.

da Fonseca R.,Institute National Des Science Appliques Of Lyon Insa Lyon | Bideaux E.,Institute National Des Science Appliques Of Lyon Insa Lyon | Gerard M.,CEA Grenoble | Jeanneret B.,Institute Francais des science et Technology des Transports | And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

In this paper, a non linear control strategy is applied to the air supply subsystem of a polymer electrode membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Based on a simplified control model and using the differential flatness control theory, a controller is designed in order to regulate the most important variables in the air supply subsystem: the oxygen stoechiometry and the cathode pressure. Simulations are made using a very detailed model validated experimentally, which allows the evolution of different state variables in the stack to be observed during the power deliver operation. The simulation results show that the controller gives a good response in terms of performance, robustness and durability of the system, despite the dynamics power profiles demanded, the approximations made and the disturbances. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Richeldi L.,University of Southampton
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2014

In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), some facts or concepts based on substantial evidence, whilst implicit for learned subspecialists, have previously been neglected and/or not explicitly formulated or made accessible to a wider audience. IPF is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and is predominantly a disease of ageing. However, its cause(s) remain elusive and, thus, it is one of the most challenging diseases for the development of novel effective and safe therapies. With the approval of pirfenidone for patients with mild-to-moderate IPF, an earlier diagnosis of IPF is a prerequisite for earlier treatment and, potentially, improvement of the long-term clinical outcome of this progressive and ultimately fatal disease. An earlier diagnosis may be achieved in IPF by promoting thin-slice chest high-resolution computed tomography screening of interstitial lung disease as a "by-product" of large-scale lung cancer screening strategies in smokers, but other techniques, which have been neglected in the past, are now available. Lung auscultation and early identification of "velcro" crackles has been proposed as a key component of early diagnosis of IPF. An ongoing study is exploring correlations between lung sounds on auscultation obtained using electronic stethoscopes and high-resolution computed tomography patterns. © ERS 2014.

Arbey A.,University of Lyon | Arbey A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Arbey A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Arbey A.,CERN | And 5 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Updated results on the search of Higgs bosons at the LHC with up to 17 fb-1 of data have just been presented by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations. New constraints are provided by the LHCb and XENON experiments with the observation of the rare decay Bs→μ+μ- and new limits on dark matter direct detection. In this Letter, we update and extend the results on the implications of these data on the phenomenological Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (pMSSM) by using high statistics, flat scans of its 19 parameters. The new LHC data on bb- and ττ decays of the lightest Higgs state and the new CMS limits from the ττ searches for the heavier Higgs states set stronger constraints on the pMSSM parameter space. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2013

This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria.Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear. © ERS 2013.

Azouzi M.E.M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ramboz C.,CNRS Earth Sciences Institute of Orléans | Lenain J.-F.,University of Limoges | Caupin F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Nature Physics | Year: 2013

Liquid water at atmospheric pressure can be supercooled to -41C (ref.) and superheated to +302C (ref.). Experiments involving fluid inclusions of water in quartz suggest that water is capable of sustaining pressures as low as -140 MPa before it breaks by cavitation. Other techniques, for which cavitation occurs consistently at around -30 MPa (ref.), produce results that cast doubt on this claim. Here we reproduce the fluid-inclusion experiment, performing repeated measurements on a single sample - a method used in meteorology, bioprotection and protein crystallization, but not yet in liquid water under large mechanical tension. The resulting cavitation statistics are characteristic of a thermally activated process, and both the free energy and the volume of the critical bubble are well described by classical nucleation theory when the surface tension is reduced by less than 10%, consistent with homogeneous cavitation. The line of density maxima of water at negative pressure is found to reach 922.8 kg m -3 at around 300 K, which further constrains its contested phase diagram. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2014

This review presents the results of the 2013 Advancing IPF Research (AIR) survey, which assessed current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by experienced physicians. A total of 149 physicians, predominantly from European countries, replied to the 28-question survey. The results of the AIR survey were compared with a similar survey of 509 French pulmonologists conducted by the French National Reference Centre and the Network of Regional Competence Centres for Rare Lung Diseases. A number of positive findings emerged from the AIR survey, including the high level of multidisciplinary team involvement in both diagnosis and management. This survey, when taken together with the French survey, suggests that there is still a need to improve earlier diagnosis of IPF. © ERS 2014.

Ledevin R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Quere J.-P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Renaud S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Phenotype variation is a key feature in evolution, being produced by development and the target of the screening by selection. We focus here on a variable morphological feature: the third upper molar (UM3) of the bank vole, aiming at identifying the sources of this variation. Size and shape of the UM3 occlusal surface was quantified in successive samples of a bank vole population. The first source of variation was the season of trapping, due to differences in the age structure of the population in turn affecting the wear of the teeth. The second direction of variation corresponded to the occurrence, or not, of an additional triangle on the tooth. This intra-specific variation was attributed to the space available at the posterior end of the UM3, allowing or not the addition of a further triangle. This size variation triggering the shape polymorphism is not controlled by the developmental cascade along the molar row. This suggests that other sources of size variation, possibly epigenetic, might be involved. They would trigger an important shape variation as side-effect by affecting the termination of the sequential addition of triangles on the tooth. © 2010 Ledevin, et al.

Jayawardhana B.,University of Groningen | Ouyang R.,University of Groningen | Andrieu V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Automatica | Year: 2012

In this paper, we discuss the dissipativity property of the counterclockwise Duhem operator. Sufficient conditions on the functions which define the Duhem operator are given such that the Duhem operator has counterclockwise inputoutput dynamics. In particular, an explicit construction of the storage functions satisfying the counterclockwise dissipation inequality is given. The constructed storage function is also related to the underlying anhysteresis function which is commonly used to describe hysteresis in magnetic materials. The results can thus facilitate analysis of systems with the counterclockwise Duhem operator via the dissipativity approach. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kamenik J.F.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Kamenik J.F.,University of Ljubljana | Smith C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The most general basis of operators parametrizing a low-scale departure from the SM particle content is constructed. The SM gauge invariance is enforced, and operators of lowest dimensions are retained separately for a new light neutral particle of spin 0, 1/2, 1, and 3/2. The basis is further decomposed into couplings to the SM Higgs/gauge fields, to pairs of quark/lepton fields, and to baryon/lepton number violating combinations of fermion fields. This basis is then used to systematically investigate the discovery potential of the rare FCNC decays of the K and B mesons with missing energy in the final state. The most sensitive decay modes in the s → d, b → d, and b → s sectors are identified and compared for each type of couplings to the new invisible state. © 2012 SISSA.

Girona K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Laurencin J.,CEA Grenoble | Fouletier J.,Joseph Fourier University | Lefebvre-Joud F.,CEA Grenoble
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

Due to their high operating temperatures, SOFCs can be directly fed with biogas, mainly composed of CH 4 and CO 2. In this work, experiments was performed with a classical Ni-YSZ cermet//YSZ//LSM cell fed either with a synthetic simulated biogas (CH 4/CO 2 ratio equal to 1 with 6% humidity), or with humidified H 2. In both cases, the performances are found to be very similar, which confirms the ability of SOFCs to operate with internal reforming of biogas. Nevertheless, carbon formation in these operating conditions needs to be considered because of durability concerns. Thermodynamic calculations and modelling are carried out to evaluate the risk of carbon deposition depending on operating parameters. In the ternary diagram CHO, the limits for carbon deposition are plotted, allowing the determination of "safe" operating conditions in terms of CH 4 inlet flow rate and cell voltage. First experiments confirm these modelling results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2013

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can occur in any of the connective tissue diseases (CTD) with varying frequency and severity, and an overall long-term prognosis that is less severe than that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Because ILD may be the presenting manifestation of CTD and/or the dominant manifestation of CTD, clinical extra-thoracic manifestations should be systematically considered in the diagnostic approach of ILD. When present, autoantibodies strongly contribute to the recognition and classification of the CTD. Patients with clinical extrathoracic manifestations of CTD and/or autoantibodies (especially with a high titer and/or the antibody is considered "highly specific" of an autoimmune condition), but who do not fit with established international CTD criteria may be called undifferentiated CTD or "lung-dominant CTD". Although it remains to be determined which combination of symptoms and serologic tests best identify the subset of patients with clinically relevant CTD features, available evidence suggests that such patients may have distinct clinical and imaging presentation and may portend a distinct clinical course. However, autoantibodies alone when present in IPF patients do not seem to impact prognosis or management. Referral to a rheumatologist and multidisciplinary discussion may contribute to management of patients with undifferentiated CTD. © ERS 2013.

Combes-Meynet E.,CNRS Microbial Ecology | Pothier J.F.,CNRS Microbial Ecology | Pothier J.F.,Research Station Agroscope Changins Wadenswil | Moenne-Loccoz Y.,CNRS Microbial Ecology | Prigent-Combaret C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2011

During evolution, plants have become associated with guilds of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which raises the possibility that individual PGPR populations may have developed mechanisms to cointeract with one another on plant roots. We hypothesize that this has resulted in signaling phenomena between different types of PGPR colonizing the same roots. Here, the objective was to determine whether the Pseudomonas secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) can act as a signal on Azospirillum PGPR and enhance the phytostimulation effects of the latter. On roots, the DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 strain but not its pfl-negative mutant enhanced the phytostimulatory effect of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245-Rif on wheat. Accordingly, DAPG enhanced Sp245-Rif traits involved in root colonization (cell motility, biofilm formation, and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production) and phytostimulation (auxin production). A differential fluorescence induction promoter-trapping approach based on flow cytometry was then used to identify Sp245-Rif genes upregulated by DAPG. DAPG enhanced expression of a wide range of Sp245-Rif genes, including genes involved in phytostimulation. Four of them (i.e., ppdC, flgE, nirK, and nifX-nifB) tended to be upregulated on roots in the presence of P. fluorescens F113 compared with its pfel-negative mutant. Our results indicate that DAPG can act as a signal by which some beneficial pseudomonads may stimulate plant-beneficial activities of Azospirillum PGPR. © 2011 The American Phytopathoiogicai Society.

Auvergne R.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | Caillol S.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | David G.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | Boutevin B.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

The works undertaken to obtain either partially or fully biobased epoxide materials are studied. The reaction between the phenate ion and ECH 2 reveals two competitive mechanisms, one-step nucleophilic substitution with cleavage of the C-Cl bond and a two-step mechanism based on ring opening of ECH (2) with ArO- (1') followed by intramolecular cyclization (SNi) of the corresponding alcoholate, containing one atom of chlorine in the β-position, formed in situ. Depending on the substituent position or nature in the phenol, it takes 6-20 h at reflux or 24-26 h at room temperature to complete the reaction. The reaction of ECH with an alcohol is more difficult, with many side reactions, since this reaction generates new alcohol groups with similar pKa values which are able to react with the epoxy group of ECH, thus leading to its homopolymerization. Epoxies are able to react with (meth)acrylic acid to give formulations for coating applications or vinyl ester monomers and networks after radical polymerization.

Van Der Schaft A.J.,University of Groningen | Maschke B.M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2010

Directed graphs are shown to be endowed with a canonical Dirac structure, which is used for formulating standard consensus and coordination control algorithms as port-Hamiltonian systems. © 2010 IFAC.

Hogaasen H.,University of Oslo | Kou E.,University Paris - Sud | Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sorba P.,University of Savoy
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The isovector partners of the X(3872), recently found at BES III, Belle and CLEO-c were predicted in a simple model based on the chromomagnetic interaction among quarks. The extension to the hidden-beauty sector is discussed. © 2014.

Jadeau F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Grangeasse C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Shi L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mijakovic I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Bacterial tyrosine-kinases share no resemblance with their eukaryotic counterparts and they have been unified in a new protein family named BY-kinases. These enzymes have been shown to control several biological functions in the bacterial cells. In recent years biochemical studies, sequence analyses and structure resolutions allowed the deciphering of a common signature. However, BY-kinase sequence annotations in primary data-bases remain incomplete. This prompted us to develop a specialized database of computer-annotated BY-kinase sequences: the Bacterial protein tyrosine-kinase database (BYKdb). BY-kinase sequences are first identified, thanks to a workflow developed in a previous work. A second workflow annotates the UniProtKB entries in order to provide the BYKdb entries. The database can be accessed through a web interface that allows static and dynamic queries and offers integrated sequence analysis tools. BYKdb can be found at http://bykdb.ibcp.fr. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

Hohenegger S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Iqbal A.,Harvard University | Rey S.-J.,Seoul National University | Rey S.-J.,Korea Basic Science Institute
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study relations between M-strings (one-dimensional intersections of M2-branes and M5-branes) in six dimensions and m-strings (magnetically charged monopole strings) in five dimensions. For specific configurations, we propose that the counting functions of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) bound states of M-strings capture the elliptic genus of the moduli space of m-strings. We check this proposal for the known cases, the Taub-NUT and Atiyah-Hitchin spaces, for which we find complete agreement. We further analyze the modular properties of the M-string free energies and find that they do not transform covariantly under SL(2,Z). However, for a given number of M-strings, we show that there exists a unique combination of unrefined genus-zero free energies that transforms as a Jacobi form under a congruence subgroup of SL(2,Z). These combinations correspond to summing over different numbers of M5-branes and make sense only if the distances between them are all equal. We explain that this is a necessary condition for the m-string moduli space to be factorizable into relative and center-of-mass parts. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Fritz H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Loreau M.,McGill University | Chamaille-Jammes S.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Valeix M.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Clobert J.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory
Ecography | Year: 2011

The exceptional diversity of large mammals in African savannas provides an ideal opportunity to explore the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up controls of large terrestrial herbivore communities. Recent work has emphasized the role of herbivore and carnivore body size in shaping these trophic relationships. However, the lack of across-ecosystem comparisons using a common methodology prohibits general conclusions. Here we used published data on primary production, herbivore and carnivore densities and diets to estimate the consumption fluxes between three trophic levels in four African savanna ecosystems. Our food web approach suggests that the body size distribution within and across trophic levels has a strong influence on the strength of top-down control of herbivores by carnivores and on consumption fluxes within ecosystems, as predicted by theoretical food web models. We generalize findings from the Serengeti ecosystem that suggest herbivore species below 150 kg are more likely to be limited by predation. We also emphasize the key functional role played by the largest species at each trophic level. The abundance of the largest herbivore species largely governs the consumption of primary production in resident communities. Similarly, predator guilds in which the largest carnivore species represent a larger share of carnivore biomass are likely to exert a stronger top-down impact on herbivores. Our study shows how a food web approach allows integrating current knowledge and offers a powerful framework to better understand the functioning of ecosystems. © 2011 The Authors. Ecography © 2011 Ecography.

Merceron G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Escarguel G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Angibault J.-M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Verheyden-Tixier H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Dental microwear analyses are commonly used to deduce the diet of extinct mammals. Conventional methods rely on the user identifying features within a 2D image. However, recent interdisciplinary research has lead to the development of an advanced methodology that is free of observer error, based on the automated quantification of 3D surfaces by combining confocal microscopy with scale-sensitive fractal analysis. This method has already proved to be very efficient in detecting dietary differences between species. Focusing on a finer, intra-specific scale of analysis, the aim of this study is to test this method's ability to track such differences between individuals from a single population. Methodology/Principal Findings: For the purposes of this study, the 3D molar microwear of 78 individuals from a wellknown population of extant roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) is quantified. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate significant seasonal and sexual differences in individual dental microwear design. These are probably the consequence of seasonal variations in fruit, seed and leaf availability, as well as differences in feeding preference between males and females due to distinct energy requirements during periods of rutting, gestation or giving birth. Nevertheless, further investigations using two-block Partial Least-Squares analysis show no strong relationship between individual stomach contents and microwear texture. This is an expected result, assuming that stomach contents are composed of food items ingested during the last few hours whereas dental microwear texture records the physical properties of items eaten over periods of days or weeks. Conclusions/Significance: Microwear 3D scale-sensitive fractal analysis does detect differences in diet ranging from the inter-feeding styles scale to the intra-population between-season and between-sex scales. It is therefore a possible tool, to be used with caution, in the further exploration of the feeding biology and ecology of extinct mammals. © 2010 Merceron et al.

Melinon P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Begin-Colin S.,IPCMS et OMNT | Duvail J.L.,Jean Rouxel Institute | Gauffre F.,CNRS Chemistry Institute of Rennes | And 6 more authors.
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Boudabbous Y.,University of Sfax | Pouzet M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2010

A tournament is acyclically indecomposable if no acyclic autonomous set of vertices has more than one element. We identify twelve infinite acyclically indecomposable tournaments and prove that every infinite acyclically indecomposable tournament contains a subtournament isomorphic to one of these tournaments. The profile of a tournament T is the function φT which counts for each integer n the number φT (n) of tournaments induced by T on the n-element subsets of T, isomorphic tournaments being identified. As a corollary of the result above we deduce that the growth of φT is either polynomial, in which case φT (n) ≃ a nk, for some positive real a, and some non-negative integer k, or as fast as some exponential. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kamenik J.F.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Kamenik J.F.,University of Ljubljana | Smith C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The impact a new neutral light particle of spin 0, 1/2, 1, or 3/2 could have on the tiny width of a light Higgs boson is systematically analyzed. To this end, we include all the relevant effective interactions, whether renormalizable or not, and review the possible signatures in the Higgs decay modes with missing energy. This includes the fully invisible Higgs boson decay, as well as modes with standard model gauge bosons or fermions in the final state. In many cases, simply preventing these modes from being dominant suffices to set tight model-independent constraints on the masses and couplings of the new light states. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Ma W.-J.,University of Groningen | Vavre F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Beukeboom L.W.,University of Groningen
Sexual Development | Year: 2014

Arthropods exhibit a large variety of sex determination systems both at the chromosomal and molecular level. Male heterogamety, female heterogamety, and haplodiploidy occur frequently, but partially different genes are involved. Endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium,Rickettsia, and Spiroplasma, can manipulate host reproduction and sex determination. Four major reproductive manipulation types are distinguished: cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male killing, and feminization. In this review, the effects of these manipulation types and how they interfere with arthropod sex determination in terms of host developmental timing, alteration of sex determination, and modification of sexual differentiation pathways are summarized. Transitions between different manipulation types occur frequently which suggests that they are based on similar molecular processes. It is also discussed how mechanisms of reproductive manipulation and host sex determination can be informative on each other, with a special focus on haplodiploidy. Future directions on how the study of endosymbiotic manipulation of host reproduction can be key to further studies of arthropod sex determination are shown. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Nicolas J.,Laboratoire Of Physico Chimie | Brusseau S.,CNRS Chemistry Laboratory | Charleux B.,CNRS Chemistry Laboratory | Charleux B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2010

Nitroxide-mediated controlled/living free-radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by the SG1-based alkoxyamine BlocBuilder was successfully performed In bulk at 80-99 °C with the help of a very small amount of acrylonitrile (AN, 2.2-8.8 mol %) as a comonomer. Well-defined PMMA-rich P(MMA-co-AN) copolymers were prepared with the numberaverage molar mass, M n, in the 6.1-32 kg mor-1 range and polydispersity indexes as low as 1.24. Incorporation of AN in the copolymers was demonstrated by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and its effect on the chain thermal properties was evaluated by DSC and TGA analyses. Investigation of chain-end functionalization by an alkoxyamine group was performed by means of 31P NMR spectroscopy and chain extensions from a P(MMA-co-AN)-SG1 macroinitiator. It demonstrated the very high proportion of SG 1-terminated polymer chains, which opened the door to block copolymer synthesis with a high quality of control. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals,.

Delebecq E.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | Pascault J.-P.,INSA Lyon | Pascault J.-P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Boutevin B.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

The approach of the reversibility of isocyanate-based bond to all products of isocyanate chemistry, namely, urethane, urea, uretdione, biuret, allophanate, and isocyanurate, is reviewed. The high reactivity of the isocyanate group toward any nucleophilic compound promotes its reaction with both the reactant and the formed product from isocyanate/nucleophile reaction, if it is sufficiently nucleophilic. To obtain TP or cast PU elastomers, one or two diols can be reacted with the isocyanate. Phase separation is the essential parameter for controlling the final thermomechanical behavior for linear segmented TPU. These polymers offer unique possibilities for tailor-made materials through the variation of the block lengths and composition. Because isocyanate/alcohol and isocyanate/amine reactions are very fast, give no byproduct, and attain high degree of conversion, they are well suited for direct polymerization of two reactive liquids, A and B, in a mold.

Thazar-Poulot N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Miquel M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fobis-Loisy I.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gaude T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Lipid droplets/oil bodies (OBs) are lipid-storage organelles that play a crucial role as an energy resource in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Lipid stores are mobilized in the case of food deprivation or high energy demands-for example, during certain developmental processes in animals and plants. OB degradation is achieved by lipases that hydrolyze triacylglycerols (TAGs) into free fatty acids and glycerol. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, Sugar-Dependent 1 (SDP1) was identified as the major TAG lipase involved in lipid reserve mobilization during seedling establishment. Although the enzymatic activity of SDP1 is associated with the membrane of OBs, its targeting to the OB surface remains uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that the core retromer, a complex involved in protein trafficking, participates in OB biogenesis, lipid store degradation, and SDP1 localization to OBs. We also report an as-yet-undescribed mechanism for lipase transport in eukaryotic cells, with SDP1 being first localized to the peroxisome membrane at early stages of seedling growth and then possibly moving to the OB surface through peroxisome tubulations. Finally, we show that the timely transfer of SDP1 to the OB membrane requires a functional core retromer. In addition to revealing previously unidentified functions of the retromer complex in plant cells, our work provides unanticipated evidence for the role of peroxisome dynamics in interorganelle communication and protein transport.

Lievre M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

We updated the 2002 Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of antiplatelet therapy to assess the effects of aspirin alone in the secondary prevention of different types of thrombotic arterial disease. Results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of aspirin in patients with confirmed cardiovascular disease were abstracted and synthesized by the Mantel-Haenszel method. We defined three cardiovascular disease groups according to the qualifying disease at entry: coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease (CRVD), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Results are given as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Compared with placebo, aspirin decreased significantly the risk of all-cause death in CAD and CRVD (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86 and 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.98, respectively), and of vascular events in CAD, CRVD, and PAD (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.76, 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93, and 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.88, respectively). The risk of non-fatal stroke was decreased in the CAD, CRVD, and PAD (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.50-0.83, 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.89, and 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.94, respectively). The risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was decreased significantly in the CAD and CRVD (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.53-0.67, and 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.84, respectively), but not in the PAD (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.15-1.25). Aspirin nearly doubled the risk of major bleeds (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.51-2.32 for all clinical conditions). This meta-analysis confirms that aspirin decreases the risk of thrombotic events in patients with confirmed disease of the coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral artery beds. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation.

Lahyani A.,University of Carthage | Venet P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Guermazi A.,University of Sfax | Troudi A.,University of Sfax
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2013

This study presents a study of the reduction in battery stresses by using supercapacitors (SCs) in a 500-kVA rated UPS. We aim at investigating the optimal supercapacitors-battery combination versus the SCs cost. This investigation is threefold; first, supercapacitors and battery models developed using MATLAB/ Simulink are presented and validated. Second, the architecture and the simulation of the designed system that combines the SCs and the battery are shown. The supercapacitors are used as high-power storage devices to smooth the peak power applied to the battery during backup time and to deliver full power during short grid outages. By charging the SCs through the battery at a suitable rate, all impulse power demands would be satisfied by the supercapacitors. Third, extensive simulations are carried out to determine the gain in batteryRMS current, the gain in energy losses, the energy efficiency and the elimination rate of surge load power. These four performance parameters are determined by simulation and then analyzed. The influence of the SCs recharge on the performance indicators is highlighted. A thorough analysis involving optimal study proposes to draw the optimal SCs number and filter constant from the variation of the aforementioned parameters versus the cost of the SCs. © 2012 IEEE.

Wartenberg N.,CEA Grenoble | Raccurt O.,CEA Grenoble | Raccurt O.,French National Solar Energy Institute | Bourgeat-Lami E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

The bis-tetrazolate-pyridine ligand H2pytz sensitises efficiently the visible and/or near-IR luminescence emission of ten lanthanide cations (Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb). The LnIII complexes present sizeable quantum yields in both domains with a single excitation source. The wide range of possible colour combinations in water, organic solvents and the solid state makes the complexes very attractive for labelling and encoding. Colour codes: The bis-tetrazolate-pyridine ligand sensitises the visible and/or near-IR luminescence emission of ten lanthanide cations (see figure). The LnIII complexes present sizeable quantum yields in both domains with a single excitation source. The range of possible colour combinations in water, organic solvents and the solid state makes the complexes attractive for labelling and encoding. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Boudaoud A.,CNRS Laboratory of Plant Reproduction and Development | Boudaoud A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Burian A.,University of Silesia | Borowska-Wykret D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 6 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2014

Cell biology heavily relies on the behavior of fibrillar structures, such as the cytoskeleton, yet the analysis of their behavior in tissues often remains qualitative. Image analysis tools have been developed to quantify this behavior, but they often involve an image pre-processing stage that may bias the output and/or they require specific software. Here we describe FibrilTool, an ImageJ plug-in based on the concept of nematic tensor, which can provide a quantitative description of the anisotropy of fiber arrays and their average orientation in cells, directly from raw images obtained by any form of microscopy. FibrilTool has been validated on microtubules, actin and cellulose microfibrils, but it may also help analyze other fibrillar structures, such as collagen, or the texture of various materials. The tool is ImageJ-based, and it is therefore freely accessible to the scientific community and does not require specific computational setup. The tool provides the average orientation and anisotropy of fiber arrays in a given region of interest (ROI) in a few seconds. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gaillard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Mark Hewison A.J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Klein F.,Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage | Plard F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 3 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

How populations respond to climate change depends on the interplay between life history, resource availability, and the intensity of the change. Roe deer are income breeders, with high levels of allocation to reproduction, and are hence strongly constrained by the availability of high quality resources during spring. We investigated how recent climate change has influenced demographic processes in two populations of this widespread species. Spring began increasingly earlier over the study, allowing us to identify 2 periods with contrasting onset of spring. Both populations grew more slowly when spring was early. As expected for a long-lived and iteroparous species, adult survival had the greatest potential impact on population growth. Using perturbation analyses, we measured the relative contribution of the demographic parameters to observed variation in population growth, both within and between periods and populations. Within periods, the identity of the critical parameter depended on the variance in growth rate, but variation in recruitment was the main driver of observed demographic change between periods of contrasting spring earliness. Our results indicate that roe deer in forest habitats cannot currently cope with increasingly early springs. We hypothesise that they should shift their distribution to richer, more heterogeneous landscapes to offset energetic requirements during the critical rearing stage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

Radford J.,University of Manchester | Davies A.,University of Southampton | Cartron G.,Montpellier University | Morschhauser F.,Lille University Hospital Center | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

The safety and activity of obinutuzumab (GA101) plus chemotherapy in relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma was explored in 56 patients. Participants received obinutuzumab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (G-CHOP; every 3 weeks for 6 to 8 cycles) or obinutuzumab plus fludarabine and cyclophospha-mide (G-FC; every 4 weeks for 4 to 6 cycles). Patients were randomly assigned to either obinutuzumab 1600 mg on days 1 and 8 of cycle 1 followed by 800 mg on day 1 of subsequent cycles or 400 mg for all doses. Treatment responders were eligible for obinutuzumab maintenance every 3 months for up to 2 years. Grade 1/2 infusion-related reactions (IRRs) were the most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) (all grades: G-CHOP, 68%; G-FC, 82%). Grade 3/4 IRRs were rare (7%) and restricted to the first infusion. All patients received the planned obinutuzumab dose. Neutropenia was the most common treatment-related hematologic AE for G-CHOP (43%) and G-FC (50%). At induction end, 96% (27/28) of patients receiving G-CHOP (complete response [CR], 39% [11/28]) and 93% (26/28) receiving G-FC (CR, 50% [14 of 28]) achieved responses. G-CHOP and G-FC had an acceptable safety profile with no new or unexpected AEs, but G-FC was associated with more AEs than G-CHOP. Obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy resulted in 93% to 96% response rates, supporting phase 3 investigation. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.

Hartmann W.K.,Planetary Science Institute | Quantin C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Werner S.C.,University of Oslo | Popova O.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Icarus | Year: 2010

McEwen et al. (McEwen, A.S., Preblich, B.S., Turtle, E.P., Artemieva, N.A., Golombek, M.P., Hurst, M., Kirk, R.L., Burr, D.M., Christensen, P. [2005]. Icarus 176, 351-381) developed a useful test for the internal consistency of crater-count chronometry systems. They argued that certain multi-kilometer, fresh-looking martian craters with prominent rays should be the youngest or near-youngest craters in their size range. The "McEwen et al. test" is that the ages determined from crater densities of the smallest superimposed craters (typically diameter D∼. 5-20. m) should thus be comparable to the expected formation intervals of the host primary. McEwen et al. concluded from MOC data that crater chronometry failed this test by factors of 700-2000. We apply HiRISE and other imagery to eight different young craters in order to re-evaluate their arguments. We use existing crater chronology systems as well as the reported observed production rate of 16. m craters (Malin, M.C., Edgett, K., Posiolova, L., McColley, S., Noe Dobrea, E. [2006]. Science 314, 1573-1557; Hartmann, W.K., Quantin, C., Mangold, N. [2007]. Icarus 186, 11-23; Kreslavsky [2007]. Seventh International Conference on Mars, 3325). Every case passes the McEwen et al. test. We conclude that the huge inconsistencies suggested by McEwen et al. are spurious. Many of these craters show evidence of impact into ice-rich material, and appear to have ice-flow features and sublimation pits on their floors. As production rate data improve, decameter-scale craters will provide a valuable way of dating these young martian geological formations and the processes that modify them. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Schindler S.,University of Oxford | Gaillard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gruning A.,University of Surrey | Neuhaus P.,University of Calgary | And 3 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

The Trivers-Willard theory1 proposes that the sex ratio of offspring should vary with maternal condition when it has sex-specific influences on offspring fitness. In particular, mothers in good condition in polygynous and dimorphic species are predicted to produce an excess of sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should do the opposite. Despite the elegance of the theory, support for it has been limited2,3. Here we extend and generalize the Trivers-Willard theory to explain the disparity between predictions and observations of offspring sex ratio. In polygynous species, males typically have higher mortality rates4, different age-specific reproductive schedules and more risk-prone life history tactics than females; however, these differences are not currently incorporated into the Trivers-Willard theory. Using two-sex models parameterized with data from free-living mammal populations with contrasting levels of sex differences in demography, we demonstrate how sex differences in life history traits over the entire lifespan can lead to a wide range of sex allocation tactics, and show that correlations between maternal condition and offspring sex ratio alone are insufficient to conclude that mothers adaptively adjust offspring sex ratio.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2007.1.2 | Award Amount: 11.05M | Year: 2008

S-Cube, the Software Services and Systems Network (www.s-cube-network.eu) will establish a unified, multidisciplinary, vibrant research community which will enable Europe to lead the software-services revolution.\n\nBy integrating diverse research communities, S-Cube intends to achieve world-wide scientific excellence in a field that is critical for European competitiveness. S-Cube will accomplish its aims by meeting the following objectives:\n- Re-aligning, re-shaping and integrating research agendas of key European players from diverse research areas and by synthesizing and integrating diversified knowledge, thereby establishing a long-lasting foundation for steering research and for achieving innovation at the highest level.\n- Inaugurating a Europe-wide common program of education and training for researchers and industry thereby creating a common culture that will have a profound impact on the future of the field.\n- Establishing a pro-active mobility plan to enable cross-fertilisation and thereby fostering the integration of research communities and the establishment of a common software services research culture.\n- Establishing trust relationships with industry via European Technology Platforms (specifically NESSI) to achieve a catalytic effect in shaping European research, strengthening industrial competitiveness and addressing main societal challenges.\n\nS-Cube will produce an integrated research community of international reputation and acclaim that will help define the future shape of the field of software services. S-Cube will provide service engineering methodologies which facilitate the development, deployment and adjustment of sophisticated hybrid service-based systems. S-Cube will further introduce an advanced training program for researchers and practitioners. Finally, S-Cube intends to bring strategic added value to European industry by using industry best-practice models and by implementing research results into pilot business cases

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.8.1 | Award Amount: 3.60M | Year: 2013

The M C Squared project will design and develop an intelligent digital environment to support stakeholders from creative industries involved in the production of media content for educational purposes to engage in collective forms of creative thinking and working to co-design appropriate digital media. The focus will be on social creativity in the design of digital media intended to enhance creativity in mathematical thinking (CMT). The project will develop the c-book (c for creative) extending e-book technologies to include diverse dynamic widgets, interoperability, collective design and an authorable data analytics engine. It will employ a range of creative industries involved in CMT (publishers, developers, researchers, school educators) and unite them in four distinct Communities of Interest with the shared goal to creatively think and design c-book resources reflecting 21st century pedagogy for CMT in schools and the workplace. The partnership includes four creative SMEs, the coordinator blending technological, academic, systemic and publishing expertise and five academic partners holding a unique combination of expertise and experience integrating a) CMT theory and practice; b) design for CMT activities; c) development of dynamic constructionist widgets for authorable e-book tools; d) design and development of AI infrastructures for collective creative activities. The emergence of creativity in digital content design is perceived as a system involving collectives with tools. It will advance our knowledge by integrating two constructs for professional design, the documentational approach and the boundary crossing with the use of digital media approach. The results intend to have economic, societal, scientific and technological impact. The project will help re-steer recent economy of scale initiatives in digital resources for mathematical thinking from traditional paradigms to 21st-century engagement and creativity in school and the workplace.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2010-6.1 | Award Amount: 600.70K | Year: 2010

The 36-months SUCCESS project is based on a twinning approach between one of the leading Ukrainian scientific and educational organisations, the Institute for Scintillation Materials of Academy of Science of Ukraine (ISMA), with their long term partner University Claude Bernard of Lyon (UCBL). The project gives Ukraine the possibility to improve the research activities of their highest quality in the FP7 thematic priority Nanosciences, nanotechnologies, materials & new production technologies (NMP), and in particular in the field of Material Sciences. SUCCESS include several main types of activities, thus forming a coherent plan for improving the ISMA capacities in a number of fields relevant to the FP7 Thematic Priority NMP: (1) Preparatory and analytical activities: preparation of ISMA Strategic Development Plan based on ISMA SWOT analysis and socio-economic analysis on Ukraine, Eastern Europe and EU level; (2) Twinning activities, based on the twinning and joint research plan to be prepared and implemented jointly by ISMA and UCBL, and linked to the Strategic Development Plan of ISMA. This activity includes, for example, exchange of researchers and young specialists, organisation of joint scientific workshops, set up of joint research experiments in EU, feasibility study of a joint virtual laboratory ISMA-UCBL and first implementation steps. Sustainability plan will be designed and implemented. (3) International cooperation activities, such as networking & brokerage, ETP and FP7 consortia integration etc, which will be implemented on wide European and regional level, involving other European organisations, thus extending the project impact. (4) Training and coaching activities, that will aim to increase the ISMA understanding of FP7, build competences and enhance the Institutes participation in FP7. Four peer reviews will be organised by the high level S&T specialists, selected according to a transparent procedure.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.8.0 | Award Amount: 3.61M | Year: 2009

Recent advances in experimental techniques such as detectors, sensors, and scanners have opened up new windows into physical and biological processes on many levels of detail. The complete cascade from the individual components to the fully integrated multi-science systems crosses many orders of magnitude in temporal and spatial scales. The challenge is to study not only the fundamental processes on all these separate scales, but also their mutual coupling through the scales in the overall system, and the resulting emergent properties. These complex systems display endless signatures of order, disorder, self-organization and self-annihilation. Understanding, quantifying and handling this information complexity is one of the biggest scientific challenges of our time. Amazingly nature seems to be able to process information on many spatial scales simultaneously. DynaNets will study and develop a new paradigm of computing through Dynamically Changing Complex Networks reproducing the way nature processes information. It will develop theory and methods of dynamical networks providing us with new insights into the underlying processes of nature, economy, and society. As a pilot study we will investigate the dynamics of the HIV and influenza epidemics from the molecule all the way up to the population.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2012-2 | Award Amount: 2.98M | Year: 2014

Steel is the most used metal in construction and the costs of protecting Europes structural steel installations and assets from corrosion is thought to be 3% of GDP (or about 375BN). However, there are two factors that will increasingly affect future protective coatings developments: VOC emissions and health/safety issues. Firstly there is a strong mandate to apply VOC emissions legislation to protective coatings (and in particular extend the Paint Products Directive to include them). Secondly REACH, together with increasing effects of chemicals on humans supported through medical literature, may prevent the use of some coating materials. Our vision for BARRIER-PLUS is to develop one component waterborne barrier coatings that are competitive in performance to two component coatings. One component waterborne coatings have a number of advantages over two component coatings and solventborne systems: low VOC emissions; low fire risk; lower insurance issues; no exposure to isocyanates, epoxy resins or amines; no waste or poor film performance arising from pot life problems. Our approach is to build upon recent research in the organic/inorganic nanocomposites field to create enhanced film barrier properties. Although this project is focused on the protection of steel, the technology developed will have application in the protection of other substrates, eg concrete, brickwork and stonework.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-1.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.39M | Year: 2009

Recently, the use of smell in different fields has been rediscovered due to major advances in odour sensing technology and artificial intelligence. However, current electronic noses, based on electronic sensors, have significant limitations concerning sensitivity, reliability and selectivity, amongst others. These limitations are at the basis of recurrent troubles of this technology to reach essential applications in different areas, such as food safety, diagnosis, security, environment The present project proposes a new bioelectronic nose based on olfactory receptors in order to mimic the animal nose. For this aim, micro/nano, bio and information technologies will converge to develop an integrated bioelectronic analytical nanoplatform based on olfactory receptors for odour detection. Briefly, the basis of the nanobioplatform will be the olfactory receptors, prepared in the form of nanosomes immobilized onto the nanotransducers (NANO and BIO). An array of smart nanotransducers will acquire and process electronically the detected odour (NANO and INFORMATION). Such an easy-to-use nanobioplatform, with user-friendly interface and odorant identification algorithm, will detect and discriminate the odorants (NANO and INFORMATION). The scientific and technological challenges of the BOND project can only be solved by integrating a multidisciplinary consortium at European level with expertise in areas such as biotechnology, surface chemistry, nanofabrication, electronics and theoretical modelling. The partners involved in the BOND project are experienced partners used to work in large consortia with distributed laboratories all over the European Union and offer competences and resources to build a complementary partnership for the successful implementation of the nanobioplatform. Six of the eight partners have already successfully worked together in the European SPOT-NOSED project to produce a proof of concept of a bioelectronic sensor based on olfactory receptors

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.3.1 | Award Amount: 5.12M | Year: 2012

Europe is a world leader in innovative automotive systems with competencies covering the full supply chain from the main OEMs (Audi, BMW, Daimler, Fiat, PSA, RSA, VW) to Tier1 suppliers (Bosch, Continental, Magneti Marelli) to leading semiconductor companies (Infineon, ST). The vision for electronic automotive control units in 2020 is that the battery will supply multi-core Controllers via multiple power supplies using an on-chip, granular power management system architecture, known as PowerSoC (Power Supply on Chip). The PowerSwipe proposal will address a key roadblock for PowerSoC by, for the first time, miniaturising and integrating state-of-the-art, high density trench capacitor substrate technology with novel thin film magnetics on silicon to deliver a multi-component LC (inductor-capacitor) interposer which will be combined, in a 3D heterogeneous stack, using eWLB technology, with the Controller chip. To achieve this miniaturisation of the power passives, the switching frequency of the switched mode dc-dc converter needs to be increased from the traditional 1 to 5 MHz space (with 90%\ converter efficiency) into the 20MHz to 100MHz\ range, at which point the footprint of the power passives is comparable to the footprint of the individual on-chip DC-DC converter blocks (i.e. 1 to 2mm2). PowerSwipe will deliver a European supply chain for PowerSoC by addressing the challenges of system design, engineering, technology and manufacturability of integrated power management systems or PowerSoC (Power Supply on Chip) for nanoCMOS System on Chip (SOC).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP-2009-4.0-5 | Award Amount: 3.95M | Year: 2011

The constant demand for diversified/personalised consumers goods leads to decrease time-to-market, and to plastic injection molds with smaller batch production, with no stock acceptable for cost and quality reasons. This generates huge productivity losses in the molding industry: - Tool Tuning is too long for tool makers before delivery of a turn key mold. - New production run set-up time is too long and generate too much scraps, due to different operator and machine parameters. Many approaches are currently adopted to reduce mold design and production time, but none of them addresses directly the parts productivity enhancement, where trial & error is still the most employed engineering approach. The innovative approach of Mold4ProdE is to develop and assess a methodology to tool makers, for them to propose and deliver quicker turn key intelligent molds, to clients with a reasonable extra cost, and offering them significant productivity enhancement. Technically, it aims at applying modern data mining techniques for modelling polymer injection molding process, based on virtual data coming from virtual sensors implemented in a CAD model of the mold. The purpose is to: - optimize the number and position of sensors in the mold - implement and assess the concept Virtual Mold Signature by using the data driven models, built from experimental data collected during production runs with sensors embedded in process equipments. Mold4ProdE shall also provide dedicated and optimised components for tool instrumentation, data collection and treatment. The project results will deliver the basis to efficiently use the intelligent moulds. This will move the European mold makers to the knowledge based service industry, identified as the key factor to increase their competitiveness. Project duration is 3 years and involves 12 mold makers, 4 end users, 7 RTD and 2 equipment suppliers, spanning the whole supply chain in more than 5 different application areas with 14 SMEs

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.82M | Year: 2011

The vision on a future high-precision radiation therapy utilizing either particle or photon beams is a treatment on a technological level which allows for: (1) obtaining information on relevant tumour parameters (volume, position, topology, density - also of the surrounding tissue) during every moment of therapeutic irradiation; (2) adapting the treatment plan in real time; and (3) initiating the appropriate control of the irradiation device to compensate for any deviations from the original treatment plan that compromise a tumour conformal dose delivery. The European training network in digital medical imaging for radiotherapy (ENTERVISION) will be established in response to the critical need for reinforcing research in online 3D digital imaging and the training of professionals in order to deliver some of the key elements and building blocks for realizing the vision for early detection and more precise treatment of tumours. This is an interdisciplinary (physics, medicine, electronics, informatics, radiobiology, engineering) multinational initiative, which has the primary goal of training researchers who will help technical developments at a pan-European level, for the benefit of all of Europe. ENTERVISION brings together ten academic institutes and research centres of excellence and the two leading European companies in particle therapy, IBA and Siemens. All partners are known worldwide in the diverse but complementary fields associated with technological development for improving health. Thus the network covers a unique set of competencies, expertise, infrastructures and training possibilities. The network will train 12 ESR and 4 ER during a 48 month period. The context of a new technique and a dynamic research program in an area of great societal demand offers outstanding training opportunities for future careers of the young researchers.

Kallistem, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, French National Center for Scientific Research, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Date: 2015-06-24

The present invention relates to a process for in vitro spermatogenesis from male germinal tissue comprising conducting maturation of testicular tissue comprising germ cells in a bioreactor which is made of a biomaterial and comprises at least one cavity wherein the germinal tissue is placed, and recovering elongated spermatids and/or spermatozoa.

French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Hospices Civils De Lyon and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Date: 2014-04-22

The present invention provides methods and compositions (such as pharmaceutical compositions) comprising PAR4 antagonists for treating or preventing influenza virus type A infections, in particular H1N1 infection. PAR4 antagonists may be combined with a PAR2 agonist or a PAR1 antagonist.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-11-2015 | Award Amount: 6.44M | Year: 2016

The objective of the SPCCT project is to develop and validate a widely accessible, new quantitative and analytical in vivo imaging technology combining Spectral Photon Counting CT and contrast agents, to accurately and early detect, characterize and monitor neurovascular and cardiovascular disease. Spectral Photon Counting Computed Tomography (SPCCT) is a new imaging modality, currently in development, with a totally new type of detection chain designed to provide high count-rate capabilities while offering energy discrimination with high spatial resolution of 200m. Based on this discrimination, SPCCT can detect and quantify accurately a large variety of atoms (including Gadolinium, Gold, Bismuth) by using the K-edge technique. SPCCT, by a more accurate, less invasive (in comparison with IVUS and coronary angiography) and reliable evaluation of vascular inflammation will allow earlier disease diagnosis such as plaque inflammation before rupture, leading to improved clinical decisions and outcomes. This will be achievable with a high spatial resolution combined to the newly developed vascular inflammation specific contrast agent detected with high quality K-edge technique that can only be provided by a multi-spectral X-ray system. The project will therefore provide a complete tool (acquisition system and specific probes) dedicated to CV imaging. It will finally contribute to: Improved early diagnosis of atherosclerosis, prevention of acute event (MI, stroke) and personalized preventive treatment; Improved management of patient presenting with an acute CV event and clinical validation of treatment efficiency; Sustainability and harmonization of healthcare systems, as costly disorders of heart failure and stroke-related disability would be better prevented and efficiently treated; Economic growth in the EU diagnostics sector, through the development of new targeted contrast materials for SPCCT by SMEs.

The invention relates to novel biocompatible hybrid nanoparticles of very small size, useful in particular for diagnostics and/or therapy. The purpose of the invention is to offer novel nanoparticles which are useful in particular as contrast agents in imaging (e.g. MRI) and/or in other diagnostic techniques and/or as therapeutic agents, which give better performance than the known nanoparticles of the same type and which combine both a small size (for example less than 20 nm) and a high loading with metals (e.g. rare earths), in particular so as to have, in imaging (e.g. MRI), strong intensification and a correct response (increased relaxivity) at high frequencies. Thus, the nanoparticles according to the invention, with diameter d_(1 )between 1 and 20 nm, each comprise a polyorganosiloxane (POS) matrix including gadolinium cations optionally associated with doping cations; a chelating graft C^(1 )DTPABA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid bisanhydride) bound to the POS matrix by an SiC covalent bond, and present in sufficient quantity to be able to complex all the gadolinium cations; and optionally another functionalizing graft Gf* bound to the POS matrix by an SiC covalent bond (where Gf* can be derived from a hydrophilic compound (PEG); from a compound having an active ingredient PA1; from a targeting compound; from a luminescent compound (fluorescein). The method for the production of these nanoparticles and the applications thereof in imaging and in therapy also form part of the invention.

Plard F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gaillard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Coulson T.,University of Oxford | Hewison A.J.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2014

Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition. © 2014 Plard et al.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.2-4 | Award Amount: 9.31M | Year: 2010

Following the pioneering experiences which lasted several decades, particle therapy has become a recognized way of curing cancer. 2 new European dual-ion facilities (Heidelberg, Pavia) will soon become operational, followed by several others which are today at different stages of planning and construction. Hadron therapy faces the challenge of improving treatment outcomes with tools able to provide on-line a 4 dimensional feedback of the irradiation to enhance the dose conformation to the cancer volume and improve the treatment of moving organs. ENVISION is set up by 15 leading European research organisations, and 1 leading industrial partner IBA , to respond to these challenges. CERN is project coordinator and the majority of the key European experts in this field are involved, as well as the Hadron Research Facilities (Heidelberg, Pavia) who will immediately benefit from the developments foreseen in this project. A valorisation committee with members of the industrial partners has been established to maximally exploit the results. ENVISION tackles the problems of on-line Dose Monitoring and of performing accurate Quality Assurance tests by developing novel imaging modalities related to dose deposition and allow assessing the treated volume and deriving reliable indicators of the delivered dose. It concentrates on the detection of nuclear reaction products produced by the interaction of the beam with atomic nuclei of the tissue (positron emitting nuclides for ibPET, photons or light charged particles for ibSPAT). The methods are applicable to all therapy relevant ion species. The application of TOF techniques with superior time resolution to beam delivery integrated double head ibPET scanners has the potential for improving ibPET image quality. Furthermore, the real-time observation of the dose delivery process will become feasible for the 1st time, substantially reducing intervention times in case of treatment mistakes or incidents.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-3.2-2 | Award Amount: 1.39M | Year: 2010

ECHOUTCOME is an interdisciplinary European research platform with the aim of assessing methodological properties of Healthcare Outcome and Cost-Benefit studies. The ECHOUTCOME consortium is composed by eight partners from 4 countries including three academic international experts in Outcome Research from, the French Scientific Society in Health Economics, the European office of one Multinational BioPharma industry, two research organisations (SME) specialized in advanced statistics and modelling and one organization specialized in international research administration. The general objective of this consortium is to study European health systems in order to assess decision making criteria in the frame of national needs and expectations across member states concerning healthcare outcomes and cost-benefit analyses Using both the descriptive and the experimental approaches, the ECHOUTCOME consortium will be able to investigate the relationship between quality of care with costs, efficiency and accessibility by indentifying and assessing existing approaches, but with the capability to develop new approaches for Decision Making purpose. Considering the fact that some Health agencies in Europe such as the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in the UK has published a guidance recommending one specific outcome (Quality Adjusted Life Years) and one specific Cost Benefit approach (Cost per Quality Adjusted Life Years) as a requirement for population access to innovative health technologies, it is urgent that the European Union considers the properties and consequences to use one reference case, before spreading or recommending any specific approach in other member states. ECHOUTCOME will allow to make major advancements to improve the knowledge about Health Systems organizations and expectations, existing Health Outcomes and Cost-Benefit approaches and to develop new approaches for Health decision making.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: ICT-2013.9.9 | Award Amount: 72.73M | Year: 2013

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain profound insights into what makes us human, develop new treatments for brain diseases and build revolutionary new computing technologies. Today, for the first time, modern ICT has brought these goals within sight. The goal of the Human Brain Project, part of the FET Flagship Programme, is to translate this vision into reality, using ICT as a catalyst for a global collaborative effort to understand the human brain and its diseases and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The Human Brain Project will last ten years and will consist of a ramp-up phase (from month 1 to month 36) and subsequent operational phases.\nThis Grant Agreement covers the ramp-up phase. During this phase the strategic goals of the project will be to design, develop and deploy the first versions of six ICT platforms dedicated to Neuroinformatics, Brain Simulation, High Performance Computing, Medical Informatics, Neuromorphic Computing and Neurorobotics, and create a user community of research groups from within and outside the HBP, set up a European Institute for Theoretical Neuroscience, complete a set of pilot projects providing a first demonstration of the scientific value of the platforms and the Institute, develop the scientific and technological capabilities required by future versions of the platforms, implement a policy of Responsible Innovation, and a programme of transdisciplinary education, and develop a framework for collaboration that links the partners under strong scientific leadership and professional project management, providing a coherent European approach and ensuring effective alignment of regional, national and European research and programmes. The project work plan is organized in the form of thirteen subprojects, each dedicated to a specific area of activity.\nA significant part of the budget will be used for competitive calls to complement the collective skills of the Consortium with additional expertise.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.88M | Year: 2011

Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors, with an overall incidence of 6/105/year. Bone and soft tissue connective tissue tumours encompass more than 50 different rare histotypes and more than 150 different molecular subtypes. The incidence of individual rare sarcomas subtypes is often less than 0.5/105/year. Given sarcoma rarity as a group, but even more as individual entities, few prospective clinical trials testing local or systemic treatments have been performed in specific subtypes of sarcomas. Clinical trials in specific histological and molecular subtypes of sarcoma can only be performed through integrated clinical networks, centres of clinical excellence, supported by translational analysis. The drive for EUROSARC comes from the fact that sarcomas should now receive treatment adapted to histological and molecular subtypes and are ideal models to develop rational oncogene-targeted therapies. Trials based on selected molecular subtypes should now represent the standard approach to delineate novel treatments in individual disease subsets. They are also potential proof of concepts for first-in-class targeted treatment. EUROSARC aims at validating 1) novel local and systemic treatment strategies in localized phase, and 2) innovative targeted therapies in advanced phase based on the scientific understanding of molecular alterations driving the tumours thereby developing paradigm changing clinical research. The consortium builds on the successful co-ordination of scientific excellence of Conticanet and EuroBoNeT FP6 NoEs, where most partners were involved. The objective will be achieved through the development and conduct of 9 (2Soft tissues \ 7Bones, 9 phase I/II and III) investigator-driven clinical trials in rare histological and molecular subtypes of sarcoma, through the establishment of an integrated consortium, gathering representatives of most European sarcoma groups, SME, all with proven track records of scientific and clinical excellence.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-3-09 | Award Amount: 7.62M | Year: 2009

This project aims at Improving Human Health and Animal Production in developing countries through Integrated Control of Neglected Zoonoses in animals, based on Scientific Innovation and Public Engagement. Neglected zoonoses, such as anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, bovine TB, zoonotic trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis and leishmaniasis, are major causes of ill-health in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Production animals and companion animals of significant societal value act as reservoirs for transmission to man, and the burden of these diseases on affected communities is compounded by the adverse effects many diseases have on the productivity of livestock and hence the livelihoods of the poor. Control of these diseases in animals represents an opportunity to address the constraints they pose to both human health and animal productivity, thereby contributing to poverty reduction and the MDGs. Effective control in animals will require scientific innovation to identify and (where necessary) develop tools for diagnosis, for quantification of disease burdens, and for control. Public engagement at all stakeholder levels will be needed to ensure that strategies are appropriate for use in affected communities and are adopted within the policy framework of affected countries. The project will: (i) map and review research activities at a global level, (ii) survey and assess the burden of zoonoses in communities, (iii) improve or develop disease control tools as appropriate for conditions in affected countries, with private sector inputs where appropriate, (iv) develop cost-effective control and prevention strategies taking into account economic, sociological and cultural factors as well as traditional knowledge, (v) build capacity in ICPCs through technology transfer and training and (vi) empower communities and policy makers to utilise control and prevention strategies appropriately and effectively.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.1-4 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2009

Until recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were confined to hospitals (HA-MRSA). However, community- and farm-associated MRSA (CA-and FA-MRSA) has developed as an important cause of infections. No strategies exist to combat these MRSA. CONCORD is aimed at explaining the ecological success in the community and the farm environment of CA- and FA-MRSA in contrast to HA-MRSA in order to facilitate the rationale and development of effective strategies against CA- and FA-MRSA. Epidemiology of CA-MRSA is complex and incomplete. To obtain both a more complete description of the epidemiology of CA-MRSA and recent isolates small scale surveillance will be performed among patients in the 20 most populous EU countries, pig farms in major pig exporting countries and important veal calve raising countries. Genomics data for CA-MRSA are limited and non-existent for FA-MRSA. Successful adaptation of MRSA to a new environment supposes either the acquisition of novel properties or the differential expression of genes already present. Only 2 CA-MRSA have been fully sequenced and the UMCU has sequenced a FA-MRSA. Whole genome sequencing, comparative genome hybridization and transcriptomics will be used to understand the genetic adaptations of MRSA in the community. The contribution of putative virulence factors to pathogenicity will be studied by knock-outs and complemented strains of these knock-outs. The strains will be tested in in vitro and ex vivo models to establish their physiological role. Mathematical modelling is an important tool to manage infection control. A few models exist that evaluate measures to reduce transmission of HA-MRSA or CA-MRSA in jails. No models are available for FA-MRSA. Modelling will provide both fundamental insights on MRSA epidemiology as well as specific recommendations or testable hypotheses for human and veterinary clinical practice. The potential of intervention strategies to combat CA- and FA-MRSA will be determined.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.2-02 | Award Amount: 2.25M | Year: 2012

Europe is facing major challenges in promoting health and reducing the disease burden of age- and diet-related NCDs by means of lifestyle, food and nutrition. Research collaboration, innovation, and capacity building are essential to efficiently benefit from the mainly public research resources. To realise this, EU-wide Research Infrastructures (RIs) are essential. The aim of EURO-DISH is to provide advanced and feasible recommendations on the needs for RIs to ESFRI and other stakeholders. EURO-DISH will focus on needs for integration of existing and the development of new food and health RIs that are relevant for innovations in mechanistic research and public health nutrition strategies across Europe. Building upon available projects and mappings, we will systematically map existing RIs and needs for integration of existing and new RIs, and supporting governance structures throughout Europe. Food and health research comprises multiple disciplines and a broad research area. To assure a balanced attention for the area as a whole, the mapping will be organised around the DISH model: Determinants, Intake, Status, and Health, which represents four key building blocks of the research area as well as different stages of RI development. To go beyond existing mappings, we will synthesize the results by integrating the needs for hard & soft RIs as well as governance; moreover as this may identify newly emerging gaps and needs, it will define larger entities of required RIs. We will develop a conceptual design and roadmap for implementing the most important RIs. It will include links with basic and human science infrastructures, as well as integration and collaboration with industry, third countries and feasibility. Two case studies on RIs, identified as highly relevant by the JPI HDHL for 2012-2015, will enrich the project by designing and testing of pilot RIs that feed the overall conceptual design and roadmap, which will be aligned with on-going activities.

Ouyang R.,University of Groningen | Andrieu V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Jayawardhana B.,University of Groningen
Systems and Control Letters | Year: 2013

In this paper we investigate the dissipativity property of a certain class of Duhem hysteresis operator, which has clockwise (CW) input-output (I/O) behavior. In particular, we provide sufficient conditions on the Duhem operator such that it is CW and propose an explicit construction of the corresponding function satisfying dissipation inequality of CW systems. The result is used to analyze the stability of a second order system with hysteretic friction which is described by a Dahl model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-22-2016 | Award Amount: 15.59M | Year: 2016

ZIKAlliance is a multidisciplinary project with a global One Health approach, built: on a multi-centric network of clinical cohorts in the Caribbean, Central & South America; research sites in countries where the virus has been or is currently circulating (Africa, Asia, Polynesia) or at risk for emergence (Reunion Island); a strong network of European and Brazilian clinical & basic research institutions; and multiple interfaces with other scientific and public health programmes. ZIKAlliance will addrees three key objectives relating to (i) impact of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and short & medium term effects on newborns, (ii) associated natural history of ZIKV infection in humans and their environment in the context of other circulating arboviruses and (iii) building the overall capacity for preparedness research for future epidemic threats in Latin America & the Caribbean. The project will take advantage of large standardised clinical cohorts of pregnant women and febrile patients in regions of Latin America and the Caribbean were the virus is circulating, expanding a preexisting network established by the IDAMS EU project. I will also benefit of a very strong expertise in basic and environmental sciences, with access to both field work and sophisticated technological infrastructures to characterise virus replication and physiopathology mechanisms. To meet its 3 key objectives, the scientific project has been organised in 9 work packages, with WP2/3 dedicated to clinical research (cohorts, clinical biology, epidemiology & modeling), WP3/4 to basic research (virology & antivirals, pathophysiology & animal models), WP5/6 to environmental research (animal reservoirs, vectors & vector control) , WP7/8 to social sciences & communication, and WP9 to management. The broad consortium set-up allow gathering the necessary expertise for an actual interdisciplinary approach, and operating in a range of countries with contrasting ZIKV epidemiological status.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 8.12M | Year: 2009

Scientists and water managers have collected a vast amount of data on freshwater organisms, and yet it is rarely possible to describe the geographic range of an organism. Why is this? It is because the data are dispersed in many locally-managed databases, many of which are not publically available. The bits of the puzzle are scattered, and it is difficult even to find them. What story might they tell if they were combined and easily accessible to scientists, policy makers and planners? Such an integrated and accessible dataset could be used not only to help to protect and take better advantage of the services provided by aquatic ecosystems, but also to make it possible to establish effective regional plans for conservation. BioFresh, a major new FP7 project, will design and provide a single point of access to the extensive information on freshwater organisms that is currently stored in the databases. The BioFresh information portal for freshwater biodiversity will allow scientists and planners to complement, integrate, and analyse quantitative data to discover, evaluate and examine patterns that will shed new light on how freshwater biodiversity responds to global, European, and local environmental pressures. The spatially-explicit data will help to reveal the status and trends of freshwater biodiversity, and the services that it provides. Scientists in the BioFresh consortium will take advantage of the information in the databases that the project links, by using the data to examine how various stressors interact to impact freshwater biodiversity. This work will help to shed light on how future climate and socioeconomic pressures will give rise to global, continental and local responses in freshwater biodiversity. Until now, it has not always been easy to incorporate understanding of freshwater biodiversity explicitly into environmental agreements (EU WFD, for example) or in related policy instruments (for example the Habitats Directive). BioFresh aims to change that, by providing both the access to valuable data and an appropriate and coherent scientific foundation. The products and findings of the project will be used on the one hand to make people more aware of the importance and beauty of freshwater biodiversity, and on the other to help policy makers take decisions based on the best available evidence.

Roquette Freres, French National Center for Scientific Research and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Date: 2013-08-05

A method for preparing a dialkyloxydianhyrohexitol (dimethylisosorbide) composition by etherification of dianhydrohexitol (isosorbide). The aim is to achieve a clean method that avoids the use of a methylation agent such as dimethyl sulfate or methyl chloride, which generates stoechiometric quantities of salts, or expensive dialkyl-carbonates, wherein only one of the two methyl groups participates in the preparation of mixed isosorbide ethers. The method involves using at least one O-alkylation agent and a catalyst including an acid or an acid salt, preferably a catalyst having Lewis or Brnsted acid properties. A device for carrying out the method wherein the device includes a vaporization oven and a reaction oven is also described.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.4.2-2 | Award Amount: 4.07M | Year: 2011

Background: The efficacy of long-acting -agonists (LABAs) in asthma has been demonstrated but their safety remains an issue, particularly in children. Co-therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) is recommended in persistent asthma. However, drug-use studies suggest frequently inadequate IC adherence, possibly explaining the occurrence of exacerbations. There is a need for detailed analyses of patterns of use of LABAs and ICs to describe asthma outcomes related to LABAs in monotherapy and at different levels of concomitant ICs, to explore the role of adherence in LABA safety, and to identify populations possibly at risk of adverse LABA-related asthma outcomes. Methods: Summarise available evidence on the risks of LABAs in asthma; develop questionnaires and instruments for the study; identify, in the UK and France, paediatric (6-15) and adult (16-40) patients with persistent asthma treated by LABAs; and link distinct datasets for this group using past and ongoing prescriptions provided by GPs and identified from electronic health records, dispensed therapy identified from claims data, information collected from prescribers, and details on exposures and outcomes collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews with patients over a prospective 24-month period. Analyze the linked datasets to characterise individual asthma care in detail and with high validity, describe patterns of use of LABAs and ICs, and relate these patterns to asthma outcomes. Disseminate results to the scientific community, patients associations, physicians associations, and regulators. Deliverables: Ranking of observed patterns of LABA and IC use according to risk of adverse outcomes due to LABAs. Identification from prescriber and patient data of predictors of patterns of use which put patients at risk. Results for regulators to use regarding recommendations to prescribers and patients on the use of LABAs. Assessment of the potential impact of these recommendations on public health.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.2.3-2 | Award Amount: 2.88M | Year: 2011

This proposal aims to answer the FP7 Security research call SPA-2010-2.3.02 and the need to protect space assets from orbit collision. The number of debris in Low Earth Orbit is exponentially increasing with, in the short term, potential inter debris collisions. For medium size debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) no effective and affordable protecting solution is available. This project also intends to protect the environment from chain reaction of debris production. Overall CLEANSPACE objective is to define a global architecture (including surveillance, identification and tracking) for an innovative ground-based laser solution which can remove hazardous medium debris around selected space assets. This approach is divided into three steps: To propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture by taking up survey, tracking, identification and debris treatment by laser system fully in complement with Space Situational Awareness (SSA) ESA programme, To tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, To develop affordable technological bricks and to establish roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. The study approach is built to be fully complementary to SSA programme. This study is fully part of FP7, SPACE Theme because it will allow Europe to be a key actor for laser debris removal system able to discuss the subject with the USA and Russia and able to guide future ESA work and regulations. The main driver of the project will be to reduce the cost of such a system focusing on the Laser technology brick which is the key to propose an affordable system. Scalable laser architecture, ceramic laser active material, laser coherent coupling, alternative narrowband pump sources and laser matter interaction will be the technology fingers of the CLEAN-SPACE innovations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 11.23M | Year: 2009

ULICE is a 4-year project set up by 20 leading European research organisations, including 2 leading European industrial partners (Siemens and IBA), to respond to the need for greater access to hadron therapy facilities for particle therapy research. Project coordinator is the Italian Research Infrastructure Facility CNAO (Milan). Both existing European Hadron Research Facilities in Heidelberg and Milan are partner and together with the next operational centre (Philipps-Universitt Marburg; yr4) they will provide 624 hours of beam-time (141 users, 52 projects) to external researchers. Future facilities like MedAustron, Etoile and Archade also participate in ULICE, which will result in a strong integrated network. Full exploitation of all different resources, unrestricted spread of information and the improvement of existing and upcoming facilities are provided by using grid-based data sharing. The project is built around 3 pillars with measurable outputs. These outputs will be exploited by the (future) facilities and (partly by) the industrial partners: 1. JRA - focus on development of instruments and protocols: new gantry design, improvement of four-dimensional particle beam delivery, adaptive treatment planning, mechanisms for patient selection to the whole European Community and database development for specific tumours which can best be treated using carbon ion. 2. Networking - increasing cooperation between facilities and research communities wanting to work with the research infrastructure. Outputs will be (among others): a report on recommendations for strategically optimal locations for future RIs throughout Europe, training to new users 3. Transnational access: 2-step approach, using a combination of pre-defined (within ULICE) clinical trial programmes to allow researchers with patients to visit the facility, and radiobiological and physics experiments to take place.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.3-01 | Award Amount: 12.38M | Year: 2011

Livestock production efficiency is impaired by helminth infection which is ubiquitous in cattle, sheep and goats world-wide. It causes severely debilitating gastro-intestinal, respiratory and hepatic disorders, dependent on the infecting species. The treatment and prevention of helminth parasitism in livestock continues to rely almost exclusively on the use of anthelmintic drugs, an approach threatened by the global emergence of anthelmintic resistance. An alternative approach is vaccination. Members of the present consortium (from the EU and Switzerland, North and South America, North and South Africa, Australia, 2 SMEs and 1 major animal health company) have developed prototype vaccines with the predicted required efficacy to control major gastro-intestinal nematode infections of livestock, notably Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle and Haemonchus contortus in sheep, the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in sheep and cattle with leading positions in subunit vaccine development against Cooperia onchophora, Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle and the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in dogs. This proposal aims to deliver at least one prototype vaccine to the point of uptake by the commercial sector or through government/philanthropic agencies and this will be addressed by 1) Developing effective native or synthetic vaccines, the latter using novel, molecular expression systems. 2) Defining the protective immune responses induced by these vaccines to order to optimise the structure of the antigens and the method of their delivery. 3) Defining vaccine efficacy with trials in both housed and grazing livestock 4) Providing a platform for training and knowledge exchange which includes participation in training programmes, short exchanges of staff, workshops,and web site provision. 5) Interacting closely with computer modellers, the animal health industry, farmer organisations and other stakeholders to define required vaccine characteristics. 6) Knowledge exchange/dissemination to policy makers, scientists, government departments and the general public.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.45M | Year: 2013

In vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging (MRS(I)) are unique, indispensable techniques for non-invasive metabolic imaging. Important areas where MRS(I) can make a difference are oncology and neurology, where metabolic changes due to, e.g., tumour formation, can be detected earlier and more sensitively than with morphological imaging modalities alone. Despite its huge proven potential, MRS(I) is not yet a routine clinical tool operated solely by clinicians. This requires reliable automation of complex procedures, strengthening standardisation and quality control. This in turn requires significant research progress and training of a new generation of scientists. Specifically, TRANSACT aims at: - Training 13 young scientists as future leaders in the field of MRS(I), capable of contributing with essential new developments such as spectral quality assurance criteria and standards, and optimal exploitation of complementarities between multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging modalities. - Pursuing research advances in theoretical and practical aspects of MRS, in particular experimental design by quantum mechanical simulation, data acquisition, data processing, data fusion and biomedical applications in oncology and neurology. - Establishing Europe as leader in the field within three sectors: academia, industry, clinic. TRANSACT links 10 academic and 4 industrial partners with complementary expertise in basic science, clinical research and information technology. Through a detailed training programme consisting of individual research projects, well-targeted secondments, scientific network-wide workshops, transferable skills courses, and individualized progress follow-up, TRANSACT will ensure a successful outcome in terms of career perspectives for the recruited researchers, continued collaboration between the partners and a more structured doctoral training in this field.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-26-2014 | Award Amount: 4.59M | Year: 2015

HEARTEN will design, develop and validate an ICT co-operative environment that will enable the HF patients to achieve sustainable behavior change regarding their adherence and compliance, and the ecosystem actors to be engaged and improve the patients HF management. HEARTEN targets all actors related to the management of patients suffering from HF, including healthcare professionals, caregivers (formal/informal), healthcare providers nutritionists, fitness experts and health insurance experts, towards developing a multi-stakeholder patient centered mHealth ecosystem. The target population of HEARTEN are patients with chronic and acute HF, either post-ischemic or with dilated cardiomyopathy, requiring occasionally re-admittance into hospitals. The idea is to develop biosensors that detect and quantify novel breath and saliva HF biomarkers, being identified through analytical techniques. These biomarkers reflect the health status of the patient and identify whether the patient adheres to the administered drugs. The breath biosensor will be integrated into the smartphone while the saliva biosensor will be integrated into the patients cup. Additional sensors for monitoring the ECG, the blood pressure and the physical activity constitute the sensor kit of the patient. The input data are complemented with nutrition information from the patients smartphone, weight monitoring through wireless weight scales as well as the patients profile and information directly added by the caregivers and the healthcare professionals. The multiparametric data are transmitted to the HEARTEN cloud architecture, where a knowledge management system analyses them and delivers critical information at hand. HF patients are empowered in self-management, by using their smartphones and tracking their medical vital signs, while the healthcare professionals and the caregivers can issue warnings, coordinate therapies, improve adherence and intervene before frailty incidences occur.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2010-6.2 | Award Amount: 579.74K | Year: 2010

On the way to a more knowledge based economy and in accordance with scientific and technological agreements with the European Union, Tunisia launched necessary policies and measures to set up and improve the efficiency of research centres such as the Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax (CBS). As a key element of the Tunisian Biotechnology Plan the CBS focuses on applied research particularly in terms of use, development, transfer and application of bioprocesses. BioProtech aims to support the CBS in the improvement of its capacities in bioprocesses development such as fermentation and microarrays technologies as well as all related fields such as technology transfer mechanisms, know-how about the EU research framework program and biosafety competencies to be better integrated in the European Research Area. This support will be organized in 6 work packages covering the technological aspect of bioprocesses (fermentation, microarray and biosafety), the incubation and transfer of bioprocesses especially to the local industry, training and coaching in EU-FP7, dissimination of scientific results, strategy and evaluation regarding the focus of CBS and the further integration in the ERA, and the project management. To achieve the objectives 5 European partners have been selected who are highly qualified and specialized in each of the topics. The results will support local economic development through the creation of new or support of existing high-tech companies and more scientific collaborations with the EU. In the field of bioprocesses this means identifying promising results and supporting their path through cooperation, licensing or start-up creation. Comparison and matching between what exist in Tunisia and in the EU will help updating and adjusting the local competencies and shaping the research agenda and priorities for the following years. This will also benefit the European actors as know how and capacities will be better integrated and available in the ERA.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2013.4-3. | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2013

In passive safety, human variability is currently difficult to account for using crash test dummies and regulatory procedures. However, vulnerable populations such as children and elderly need to be considered in the design of safety systems in order to further reduce the fatalities by protecting all users and not only so called averages. Based on the finite element method, advanced Human Body Models for injury prediction have the potential to represent the population variability and to provide more accurate injurypredictionsthan alternatives using global injury criteria. However, these advanced HBM are underutilized in industrial R&D. Reasons include difficulties to position the models which are typically only available in one posture in actual vehicle environments, and the lack of model families to represent the population variability (which reduces their interestwhen compared to dummies). The main objective of the project will be to develop new tools to position and personalize these advanced HBM. Specifications will be agreed upon with future industrial users, and an extensive evaluation in actual applications will take place during the project. The tools will be made available by using an Open Source exploitation strategy and extensive dissemination driven by the industrial partners.Proven approaches will be combined with innovative solutions transferred from computer graphics, statistical shape and ergonomicsmodeling. The consortium will be balanced between industrial users (with seven European car manufacturers represented), academic users involved ininjury biomechanics, and partners with different expertise with strong potential for transfer of knowledge. By facilitating the generation of population and subject-specific HBM and their usage in production environments, the tools will enable new applications in industrial R&D for the design of restraint systems as well as new research applications.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: OCEAN 2013.1 | Award Amount: 7.59M | Year: 2013

Early warning systems that can provide extreme sensitivity with exquisite selectivity are required to assess chemical contamination of estuarine and coastal areas. SEA-on-a-CHIP aims to develop a miniaturized, autonomous, remote and flexible immuno-sensor platform based on a fully integrated array of micro/nano-electrodes and a microfluidic system in a lab-on-a-chip configuration combined with electrochemical detection for real time analysis of marine waters in multi-stressor conditions. This system will be developed for a concrete application in aquaculture facilities, including the rapid assessment of 8 selected contaminants from 5 groups of compounds that affect aquaculture production (compounds which are toxic, bioaccumulative, endocrine disruptors) and also those produced by this industry that affect environment and human health (antibiotics and pesticides), but it is easy adaptable to other target compounds or other situations like coastal waters contamination analysis. Each device will be able to perform 8 simultaneous measures in duplicates and it will be build in order to work with one-month autonomy and measuring in real time at least once per hour. As many devices as needed could be connected simultaneously to the same platform resulting in a very flexible and inexpensive system. Sensitivity for Sea-Water analysis is guaranteed thanks to the use of gold microelectrodes arrays with metalocarborane doped functional polypyrrol. Thank to the use of MEMS and microlectrodes in flexible polymeric substrates the costs of production will be reduced. The units will be tested throughout the lifetime of the project and calibrated to state-of-the-art of chemical analytics: first in laboratory studies, second under artificial ecosystems and finally during 3 field experiments in the installation of 2 aquaculture SME facilities. The last test phase will be performed in a way that will include dissemination of the findings with a clear view of commercializing the devices.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-10-2014 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2015

The emergence of highly diverse resistance mechanisms among pathogens requires their detailed analysis to guarantee an efficient medical treatment. The gold standard in clinical diagnostics is based on the cultivation of bacteria and their phenotypical characterisation. However, these methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming lasting in some cases up to a few weeks. Thus, faster diagnostic techniques are necessary to ensure an immediate and targeted treatment of the patient. DNA-based diagnostics can provide the relevant results within a few hours. The requirements for a clinical DNA-based characterisation method are high; more than 1000 clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes, a few hundred phylogenetic marker genes and virulence factors have to be targeted (including SNP detection). The limit of detection has to be low because a few 100 bacterial cells in the blood system can lead to the death of the patient. It should be possible to analyse a wide range of clinical sample origins such as stool, blood, urine and saliva using the same test. In addition, the results have to be obtained within a single working day. In our project, we will develop two diagnostic systems that can be with direct sample material from patients. Thus, the time-consuming cultivation of pathogens will be avoided. Additionally, the test will be more sensitive, specific and faster than any other test on the market using an innovative DNA probe concept.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.04M | Year: 2010

The lung is probably one of the most difficult organs to study by MRI because of its low proton density. Still, MRI is very interesting as not exposure of ionizing radiation to patients and its important role for translatability studies. Moreover, assessment of regional pulmonary perfusion and ventilation with clinical value as an indicator of lung function by MRI has been demonstrated using MRI based techniques both with hyperpolarized and fluorinated gases, oxygen and contrast agent free methods. The -net ITN will undertake successful efforts (funded under the fifth and six framework program) and previous bilateral collaborative and complementary work of different European research teams to contribute to the field of lung functional MRI. -net proposes very complementary and strongly interlinked research and training activities for these functional studies. The main research activity line aims at applying MRI based techniques for diagnosis (human and preclinical activities) and treatment (only preclinical) monitoring of lung diseases (COPD, lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, asthma), without excluding the possibilities that other imaging techniques (nuclear, CT and optical imaging) and molecular approaches (including molecular imaging and metabolomic analysis) may bring to the field. -net plans a training program to provide new ESR high level multidisciplinary scientific education and complementary skills for animal studies, MRI and other imaging techniques, and on translational aspects of research. The network is formed by 9 groups, located in 5 different countries (Spain, France, UK, Germany and Sweden). The centres hold researchers with previous experience in the network work and with researchers with high quality scientific production rate, and with experience in MRI physics, therapy, clinical, physiopathological and molecular aspects of respiratory diseases.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 4.10M | Year: 2015

Cement production for the construction industry contributes up to 5% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Developing more environmentally friendly concrete requires the assessment of strength for a diverse range of new cement materials. Similar issues arise during the development of biocompatible cements for medical applications. Properties of naturally cemented materials of organic origin are of key importance in the oil industry, with carbonate reservoirs prone to creep, particularly during the injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery or permanent storage. However, despite the importance of cement materials to our infrastructure, health and environment, we still lack the fundamental basis for understanding the strength of cemented aggregates. Granular pastes and sediments transform to strong solids through reactions at nano-confined mineral interfaces, where nucleation and growth at the adjacent solid surfaces are affected in a manner not yet understood. There is a need for improved concepts, theories and models. NanoHeal targets this issue by bringing six industrial and six academic groups together in a European Training Network (ETN), in an emerging interdisciplinary field spanning from basic sciences to the corresponding engineering disciplines. NanoHeal will deliver an outstanding environment for training and career development of young researchers. The aims of NanoHeal are to: develop innovative probes and models for nanoscale processes that open novel perspectives in design and control of organo-mineral materials. measure and improve the strength and durability of 1) new man-made cemented materials like green concrete, speciality cements in construction and oil and gas recovery, and biocompatible implants and 2) natural sedimentary rocks inside reservoirs and as construction materials educate young interdisciplinary researchers at the interface between fundamental science and European industry.

Seeger W.,Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research | Barbera J.A.,University of Barcelona | Champion H.,Montefiore Hospital | Coghlan J.G.,Royal Free Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis, are associated with a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is linked with exercise limitation and a worse prognosis. Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are particularly prone to the development of PH. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal modalities for the diagnosis of COPD and DPLD. For discrimination between group 1 PH patients with concomitant respiratory abnormalities and group 3 PH patients (PH caused by lung disease), patients should be transferred to a center with expertise in both PH and lung diseases for comprehensive evaluation. The task force encompassing the authors of this article provided criteria for this discrimination and suggested using the following definitions for group 3 patients, as exemplified for COPD, IPF, and CPFE: COPD/IPF/CPFE without PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP] <25 mm Hg); COPD/IPF/CPFE with PH (mPAP ≥25 mm Hg); PH-COPD, PH-IPF, and PH-CPFE); COPD/IPF/CPFE with severe PH (mPAP ≥35 mm Hg or mPAP ≥25 mm Hg with low cardiac index [CI <2.0 l/min/m2]; severe PH-COPD, severe PH-IPF, and severe PH-CPFE). The "severe PH group" includes only a minority of chronic lung disease patients who are suspected of having strong general vascular abnormalities (remodeling) accompanying the parenchymal disease and with evidence of an exhausted circulatory reserve rather than an exhausted ventilatory reserve underlying the limitation of exercise capacity. Exertional dyspnea disproportionate to pulmonary function tests, low carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and rapid decline of arterial oxygenation upon exercise are typical clinical features of this subgroup with poor prognosis. Studies evaluating the effect of pulmonary arterial hypertension drugs currently not approved for group 3 PH patients should focus on this severe PH group, and for the time being, these patients should be transferred to expert centers for individualized patient care. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 49.02M | Year: 2008

A globally distributed computing Grid now plays an essential role for large-scale, data intensive science in many fields of research. The concept has been proven viable through the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE and EGEE-II, 2004-2008) and its related projects. EGEE-II is consolidating the operations and middleware of this Grid for use by a wide range of scientific communities, such as astrophysics, computational chemistry, earth and life sciences, fusion and particle physics. Strong quality assurance, training and outreach programmes contribute to the success of this production Grid infrastructure. \nBuilt on the pan-European network GANT2, EGEE has become a unique and powerful resource for European science, allowing researchers in all regions to collaborate on common challenges. Worldwide collaborations have extended its reach to the benefit of European science.\nThe proposed EGEE-III project has two clear objectives that are essential for European research infrastructures: to expand, optimize and simplify the use of Europes largest production Grid by continuous operation of the infrastructure, support for more user communities, and addition of further computational and data resources; to prepare the migration of the existing Grid from a project-based model to a sustainable federated infrastructure based on National Grid Initiatives. \nBy strengthening interoperable, open source middleware, EGEE-III will actively contribute to Grid standards, and work closely with businesses to ensure commercial uptake of the Grid, which is a key to sustainability. \nFederating its partners on a national or regional basis, EGEE-III will have a structuring effect on the European Research Area. In particular, EGEE-III will ensure that the European Grid does not fragment into incompatible infrastructures of varying maturity. EGEE-III will provide a world class, coherent and reliable European Grid, ensuring Europe remains at the forefront of scientific excellence.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 70.14M | Year: 2010

Scientific research is no longer conducted within national boundaries and is becoming increasing dependent on the large-scale analysis of data, generated from instruments or computer simulations housed in trans-national facilities, by using e Infrastructure (distributed computing and storage resources linked by high-performance networks).\nThe 48 month EGI-InSPIRE project will continue the transition to a sustainable pan-European e-Infrastructure started in EGEE-III. It will sustain support for Grids of high-performance and high-throughput computing resources, while seeking to integrate new Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs), i.e. Clouds, SuperComputing, Desktop Grids, etc., as they are required by the European user community. It will establish a central coordinating organisation, EGI.eu, and support the staff throughout Europe necessary to integrate and interoperate individual national grid infrastructures. EGI.eu will provide a coordinating hub for European DCIs, working to bring existing technologies into a single integrated persistent production infrastructure for researchers within the European Research Area.\nEGI-InSPIRE will collect requirements and provide user-support for the current and new (e.g. ESFRI) users. Support will also be given for the current heavy users as they move their critical services and tools from a central support model to ones driven by their own individual communities. The project will define, verify and integrate within the Unified Middleware Distribution, the middleware from external providers needed to access the e-Infrastructure. The operational tools will be extended by the project to support a national operational deployment model, include new DCI technologies in the production infrastructure and the associated accounting information to help define EGIs future revenue model.

Li J.J.,Lanzhou University | Li J.J.,University Paris - Sud | Long W.H.,Lanzhou University | Margueron J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Van Giai N.,University Paris - Sud
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We have explored the occurrence of the spherical shell closures for superheavy nuclei in the framework of the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (RHFB) theory. Shell effects are characterized in terms of two-nucleon gaps δ2n(p). Although the results depend slightly on the effective Lagrangians used, the general set of magic numbers beyond 208Pb are predicted to be Z = 120, 138 for protons and N = 172, 184, 228 and 258 for neutrons, respectively. Specifically the RHFB calculations favor the nuclide 120304 as the next spherical doubly magic one beyond 208Pb. Shell effects are sensitive to various terms of the mean-field, such as the spin-orbit coupling, the scalar and effective masses. © 2014 The Authors.

Goubet N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Portales H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Yan C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Arfaoui I.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Natural systems give the route to design periodic arrangements with mesoscopic architecture using individual nanocrystals as building blocks forming colloidal crystals or supracrystals. The collective properties of such supracrystals are one of the main driving forces in materials research for the 21st century with potential applications in electronics or biomedical environments. Here we describe two simultaneous supracrystal growth processes from gold nanocrystal suspension, taking place in solution and at the air-liquid interface. Furthermore, the growth processes involve the crystallinity selection of nanocrystals and induce marked changes in the supracrystal mechanical properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Ryerson C.J.,University of British Columbia | Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Brown K.K.,National Jewish Health | Collard H.R.,University of California at San Francisco
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2015

The goal of this review is to summarise the clinical features, management, and prognosis of acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF). AE-IPF has previously been defined based on clinical and radiological features that include the subacute onset of dyspnoea, bilateral ground glass changes on chest high-resolution computed tomography, and the absence of an identifiable aetiology. The annual incidence of AE-IPF is typically reported at 5-15%, but is less common in mild disease. Features of diffuse alveolar damage are present when a biopsy is performed. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients with acute respiratory worsening are often initially treated with high dose corticosteroids and antimicrobials; however, there are no clear data to support these therapies, and the short-term mortality of AE-IPF is ∼50%. Recent studies have shown that the features and prognosis of AE-IPF are similar to other causes of acute respiratory worsening, including infection, aspiration, air pollution and mechanical injury to the alveolar epithelium. Based on this emerging evidence, we propose a novel approach to the classification of acute respiratory worsening events in patients with IPF that focuses on clinical and radiological findings consistent with an underlying pathobiology of diffuse alveolar damage. © ERS 2015.

Andrieu V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Andrieu V.,CNRS Automation and Process Engineering Laboratory | Prieur C.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems | Prieur C.,CNRS GIPSA Laboratory
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

The problem of piecing together two control Lyapunov functions (CLFs) is addressed. The first CLF characterizes a local asymptotic controllability property toward the origin, whereas the second CLF is related to a global asymptotic controllability property with respect to a compact set. A sufficient condition is expressed to obtain an explicit solution. This sufficient condition is shown to be always satisfied for a linear second order controllable system. In a second part, it is shown how this uniting CLF problem can be used to solve the problem of piecing together two stabilizing control laws. Finally, this framework is applied on a numerical example to improve local performance of a globally stabilizing state feedback. © 2010 IEEE.

Rio E.,University Paris - Sud | Biance A.-L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2014

Recent advances in the coalescence in liquid foams are reviewed, with a special focus on the multiscale structure of foams. Studies concerning the stability of isolated foam films, on the one hand, and the coalescence process in macroscopic foams, on the other hand, are not always in good agreement. This discrepancy reveals that two routes can induce coalescence in a foam. The first route is thermodynamic and shows that coalescence is governed by a stochastic rupture of foam films. The second route relies on a mechanically induced rupture of the films, due to the spontaneous evolution of foams. From a literature review, the evaluation of the different timescales involved in these mechanisms allows defining the limiting parameters of foam coalescence. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fernandez-Torre D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Albaret T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | De Vita A.,King's College London
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The (111) cleavage in crystalline silicon was investigated by hybrid quantum/classical atomistic simulations showing that its remarkable stability is largely due to asymmetric π-bonded reconstructions of the cleavage surfaces created by the advancing crack front. Further simulations show that the same reconstructions can induce an asymmetric dynamical response to added shear stress components. This explains why [21̄1̄] upward steps are much more common than [2̄11] downward steps on (111) cleavage surfaces, while "zigzag" cleavage with alternated (111) and (111̄) facets will still occur in crystal samples fractured under [110] uniaxial loading.© 2010 The American Physical Society.

Lewandowski J.R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lewandowski J.R.,University of Warwick | Sass H.J.,University of Basel | Grzesiek S.,University of Basel | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

We demonstrate that a quantitative measure of slow molecular motions in solid proteins can be accessed by measuring site-specific 15N rotating-frame relaxation rates at high magic-angle-spinning frequencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Pantel P.-A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Davesne D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Urban M.,University Paris - Sud
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We consider a polarized Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region above the critical temperature within a T-matrix formalism. By treating the mean-field-like shift of the quasiparticle energies in a self-consistent manner, we avoid the known pathological behavior of the standard Nozières-Schmitt-Rink approach in the polarized case, i.e., the polarization has the right sign and the spin polarizability is positive. The momentum distributions of the correlated system are computed and it is shown that, in the zero-temperature limit, they satisfy the Luttinger theorem. Results for the phase diagram, the spin susceptibility, and the compressibility are discussed. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Jaillais Y.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Vert G.,University Paris - Sud
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroid molecules perceived at the cell surface and that act as plant hormones. Since their discovery as crucial growth substances, BRs were mainly studied for their action in above ground organs and the BR signaling pathway was largely uncovered in the context of hypocotyl elongation. However, for the past two years, most of the exciting findings on BR signaling have been made using roots as a model. The Arabidopsis root is a system of choice for cell biology and allowed detailed characterization of BR perception at the cell membrane. In addition, a series of elegant articles dissected how BRs act in tissue specific manners to control root growth and development. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Ruta B.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Chushkin Y.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Monaco G.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Cipelletti L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We use x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to investigate the structural relaxation process in a metallic glass on the atomic length scale. We report evidence for a dynamical crossover between the supercooled liquid phase and the metastable glassy state, suggesting different origins of the relaxation process across the transition. Furthermore, using different cooling rates, we observe a complex hierarchy of dynamic processes characterized by distinct aging regimes. Strong analogies with the aging dynamics of soft glassy materials, such as gels and concentrated colloidal suspensions, point at stress relaxation as a universal mechanism driving the relaxation dynamics of out-of-equilibrium systems. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Petitjean C.,University Paris - Sud | Deschamps P.,University Paris - Sud | Lopez-Garcia P.,University Paris - Sud | Moreira D.,University Paris - Sud | Brochier-Armanet C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Initial studies of the archaeal phylogeny relied mainly on the analysis of the RNA component of the small subunit of the ribosome (SSU rRNA). The resulting phylogenies have provided interesting but partial information on the evolutionary history of the third domain of life because SSU rRNA sequences do not contain enough phylogenetic signal to resolve all nodes of the archaeal tree. Thus, many relationships, and especially the most ancient ones, remained elusive. Moreover, SSU rRNA phylogenies can be heavily biased by tree reconstruction artifacts. The sequencing of complete genomes allows using a variety of protein markers as an alternative to SSU rRNA. Taking advantage of the recent burst of archaeal complete genome sequences, we have carried out an in-depth phylogenomic analysis of this domain. We have identified 200 new protein families that, in addition to the ribosomal proteins and the subunits of the RNA polymerase, form a conserved phylogenetic core of archaeal genes. The accurate analysis of these markers combined with desaturation approaches shed new light on the evolutionary history of Archaea and reveals that several relationships recovered in recent analyses are likely the consequence of tree reconstruction artifacts. Among others, we resolve a number of important relationships, such as those among methanogens Class I, and we propose the definition of two new superclasses within the Euryarchaeota: Methanomada and Diaforarchaea. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Journet C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Picher M.,CNRS Optic of Semiconductor nanoStructures Group | Jourdain V.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Nanotechnology | Year: 2012

The extraordinary electronic, thermal and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) closely relate to their structure. They can be seen as rolled-up graphene sheets with their electronic properties depending on how this rolling up is achieved. However, this is not the way they actually grow. Various methods are used to produce carbon nanotubes. They all have in common three ingredients: (i)a carbon source, (ii)catalyst nanoparticles and (iii)an energy input. In the case where the carbon source is provided in solid form, one speaks about high temperature methods because they involve the sublimation of graphite which does not occur below 3200°C. The first CNTs were synthesized by these techniques. For liquid or gaseous phases, the generic term of medium or low temperature methods is used. CNTs are now commonly produced by these latter techniques at temperatures ranging between 350 and 1000°C, using metal nanoparticles that catalyze the decomposition of the gaseous carbon precursor and make the growth of nanotubes possible. The aim of this review article is to give a general overview of all these methods and an understanding of the CNT growth process. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Cacciapaglia G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cacciapaglia G.,King's College London | Deandrea A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Panizzi L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Precise tests of Lorentz invariance in neutrinos can be performed using long baseline experiments such as MINOS and OPERA or neutrinos from astrophysical sources. The MINOS collaboration reported a measurement of the muonic neutrino velocities that hints to super-luminal propagation, very recently confirmed at 6σ by OPERA. We consider a general parametrisation which goes beyond the usual linear or quadratic violation considered in quantum-gravitational models. We also propose a toy model showing why Lorentz violation can be specific to the neutrino sector and give rise to a generic energy behaviour Eα, where α is not necessarily an integer number. Supernova bounds and the preferred MINOS and OPERA regions show a tension, due to the absence of shape distortion in the neutrino bunch in the far detector of MINOS. The energy independence of the effect has also been pointed out by the OPERA results. © SISSA 2011.

Ramos O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cortet P.-P.,University Paris - Sud | Ciliberto S.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Vanel L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The growth dynamics of a single crack in a heterogeneous material under subcritical loading is an intermittent process, and many features of this dynamics have been shown to agree with simple models of thermally activated rupture. In order to better understand the role of material heterogeneities in this process, we study the subcritical propagation of a crack in a sheet of paper in the presence of a distribution of small defects such as holes. The experimental data obtained for two different distributions of holes are discussed in the light of models that predict the slowing down of crack growth when the disorder in the material is increased; however, in contradiction with these theoretical predictions, the experiments result in longer lasting cracks in a more ordered scenario. We argue that this effect is specific to subcritical crack dynamics and that the weakest zones between holes at close distance to each other are responsible for both the acceleration of the crack dynamics and the slightly different roughness of the crack path. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Khan E.,University Paris - Sud | Margueron J.,University Paris - Sud | Margueron J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Background: The determination of the density dependence of the nuclear incompressibility can be investigated using the isoscalar giant monopole resonance. Purpose: The importance of the so-called crossing density at subsaturation density is underlined. Methods: The measurements of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR), also called the breathing mode, are analyzed with respect to their constraints on the quantity Mc, e.g., the density dependence of the nuclear incompressibility around the so-called crossing density ρc=0.1 fm-3. Results: The correlation between the centroid of the GMR, EGMR, and Mc is shown to be more accurate than the one between EGMR and the incompressibility modulus at saturation density, K∞, giving rise to an improved determination on the nuclear equation of state. The relationship between M c and K∞ is given as a function of the skewness parameter Q∞ associated with the density dependence of the equation of state. The large variation of Q∞ among different energy density functionals directly impacts the knowledge of K ∞: A better knowledge of Q∞ is required to deduce more accurately K∞. Using the local density approximation, a simple and accurate expression relating EGMR and the quantity Mc is derived and successfully compared to the fully microscopic predictions. Conclusions: The measurement of the GMR constrains the slope of the incompressibility Mc at the crossing density rather than the incompressibility modulus at the saturation density. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Aubrun F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Mazoit J.-X.,University Paris - Sud | Riou B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2012

Relief of acute pain during the immediate postoperative period is an important task for anaesthetists. Morphine is widely used to control moderate-to-severe postoperative pain and the use of small i.v. boluses of morphine in the post-anaesthesia care unit allows a rapid titration of the dose needed for adequate pain relief. The essential principle of a titration regimen must be to adapt the morphine dose to the pain level. Although morphine would not appear to be the most appropriate choice for achieving rapid pain relief, this is the sole opioid assessed in many studies of immediate postoperative pain management using titration. More than 90 of the patients have pain relief using a protocol of morphine titration and the mean dose required to obtain pain relief is 12 (7) mg, after a median of four boluses. Sedation is frequent during i.v. morphine titration and should be considered as a morphine-related adverse event and not evidence of pain relief. The incidence of ventilatory depression is very low when the criteria to limit the dose of i.v. morphine are enforced. Morphine titration can be used with caution in elderly patients, in children, or in obese patients. In practice, i.v. morphine titration allows the physician to meet the needs of individual patients rapidly and limits the risk of overdose making this method the first step in postoperative pain management. © The Author [2012]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.

Gribaldo S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Poole A.M.,University of Stockholm | Poole A.M.,University of Canterbury | Daubin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 4 more authors.
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2010

The origin of eukaryotes and their evolutionary relationship with the Archaea is a major biological question and the subject of intense debate. In the context of the classical view of the universal tree of life, the Archaea and the Eukarya have a common ancestor, the nature of which remains undetermined. Alternative views propose instead that the Eukarya evolved directly from a bona fide archaeal lineage. Several recent large-scale phylogenomic studies using an array of approaches are divided in supporting either one or the other scenario, despite analysing largely overlapping data sets of universal genes. We examine the reasons for such a lack of consensus and consider how alternative approaches may enable progress in answering this fascinating and as-yet-unresolved question. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Baias M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Dumez J.-N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Svensson P.H.,SP Process Development | Svensson P.H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

The crystal structure of form 4 of the drug 4-[4-(2-adamantylcarbamoyl)-5- tert-butyl-pyrazol-1-yl]benzoic acid is determined using a protocol for NMR powder crystallography at natural isotopic abundance combining solid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy, crystal structure prediction, and density functional theory chemical shift calculations. This is the first example of NMR crystal structure determination for a molecular compound of previously unknown structure, and at 422 g/mol this is the largest compound to which this method has been applied so far. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Pantel P.-A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Davesne D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Urban M.,University Paris - Sud
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

Using the test-particle method, we solve numerically the Boltzmann equation for an ultracold gas of trapped fermions with realistic particle number and trap geometry in the normal phase. We include a mean-field potential and in-medium modifications of the cross section obtained within a T-matrix formalism. After some tests showing the reliability of our procedure, we apply the method to realistic cases of practical interest, namely the anisotropic expansion of the cloud and the radial quadrupole mode oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data. Although the in-medium effects significantly increase the collision rate, we find that they have only a moderate effect on the anisotropic expansion and on frequency and damping rate of the quadrupole mode. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Krimm I.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lancelin J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Praly J.-P.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Fragment-based drug discovery has become a powerful method for the generation of drug leads against therapeutic targets. Beyond the identification of novel and effective starting points for drug design, fragments have emerged as reliable tools for assessing protein druggability and identifying protein hot spots. Here, we have examined fragments resulting from the deconstruction of known inhibitors from the glycogen phosphorylase enzyme, a therapeutic target against type 2 diabetes, with two motivations. First, we have analyzed the fragment binding to the multiple binding sites of the glycogen phosphorylase, and then we have investigated the use of fragments to study allosteric enzymes. The work we report illustrates the power of fragmentlike ligands not only for probing the various binding pockets of proteins, but also for uncovering cooperativity between these various binding sites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Falkowski A.,University Paris - Sud | Gonzalez-Alonso M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Greljo A.,University of Zürich | Greljo A.,University of Sarajevo | Marzocca D.,University of Zürich
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2016

We present a combined analysis of LHC Higgs data (signal strengths) together with LEP-2 WW production measurements. To characterize possible deviations from the standard model (SM) predictions, we employ the framework of an effective field theory (EFT) where the SM is extended by higher-dimensional operators suppressed by the mass scale of new physics Λ. The analysis is performed consistently at the order Λ-2 in the EFT expansion keeping all the relevant operators. While the two data sets suffer from flat directions, together they impose stringent model-independent constraints on the anomalous triple gauge couplings. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Bizot N.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Davidson S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Frigerio M.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Kneur J.-L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2016

Abstract: The two Higgs doublet model emerges as a minimal scenario in which to address, at the same time, the γγ excess at 750 GeV and the lepton flavour violating decay into τ±μ∓ of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. The price to pay is additional matter to enhance the γγ rate, and a peculiar pattern for the lepton Yukawa couplings. We add TeV scale vector-like fermions and find parameter space consistent with both excesses, as well as with Higgs and electroweak precision observables. © 2016, The Author(s).

Symonds C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lheureux G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Hugonin J.P.,University Paris - Sud | Greffet J.J.,University Paris - Sud | And 5 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

We demonstrate that confined Tamm plasmon modes can be advantageously exploited for the realization of new kind of metal/semiconductor lasers. Laser emission is demonstrated for Tamm structures with various diameters of the metallic disks which provide the confinement. A reduction of the threshold with the size is observed. The competition between the acceleration of the spontaneous emission and the increase of the losses leads to an optimal size, which is in good agreement with calculations. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Descotes-Genon S.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Scalar leptoquarks, with baryon and lepton number conserving interactions, could have TeV scale masses, and be produced at colliders or contribute to a wide variety of rare decays. In pursuit of some insight as to the most sensitive search channels, we assume that the leptoquark-lepton-quark coupling can be constructed from the known mass matrices. We estimate the rates for selected rare processes in three cases: leptoquarks carrying lepton and quark flavour, leptoquarks with quark flavour only, and unflavoured leptoquarks. We find that leptoquark decay to top quarks is an interesting search channel. © 2010 SISSA.

Marques M.A.L.,University of Lyon | Marques M.A.L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Oliveira M.J.T.,University of Coimbra | Burnus T.,Jülich Research Center
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2012

The central quantity of density functional theory is the so-called exchange-correlation functional. This quantity encompasses all non-trivial many-body effects of the ground-state and has to be approximated in any practical application of the theory. For the past 50 years, hundreds of such approximations have appeared, with many successfully persisting in the electronic structure community and literature. Here, we present a library that contains routines to evaluate many of these functionals (around 180) and their derivatives. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Perret F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Duffour M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Chevalier Y.,CNRS Automation and Process Engineering Laboratory | Parrot-Lopez H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2013

Acyclovir possesses low solubility in water and in lipid bilayers, so that its dosage forms do not allow suitable drug levels at target sites following oral, local, or parenteral administration. In order to improve this lack of solubility, new cyclodextrin-based amphiphilic derivatives have been designed to form nanoparticles, allowing the efficient encapsulation of this hydrophobic antiviral agent. The present work first describes the synthesis and characterization of five new O-2,O-3 permethylated O-6 alkylthio- and perfluoroalkyl-propanethio-amphiphilic β-cyclodextrins. These derivatives have been obtained with good overall yields. The capacity of these molecules to form nanoparticles in water and to encapsulate acyclovir has then been studied. The nanoparticles prepared from the new β-cyclodextrin derivatives have been characterized by dynamic light scattering and have an average size of 120 nm for the fluorinated derivatives and 220 nm for the hydrogenated analogs. They all allowed high loading and sustained release of acyclovir. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Wang Q.,Jülich Research Center | Zhao Q.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

Our current knowledge of the baryon-baryon interaction suggests that the dineutron (n,n) and its strange analog (n,Λ) are unstable. In contrast, the situation is more favorable for the strange three-body system (n,n,Λ), and even better for the four-body system T≡(n,n,Λ,Λ) with strangeness -2, which is likely to be stable under spontaneous dissociation. The recent models of the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions suggest that the stability of the (n,n,Λ) and T is possible within the uncertainties of our knowledge of the baryon-baryon interactions. This new nucleus T could be produced and identified in central deuteron-deuteron collisions viathe reaction d+d→T+K++K+, and the tetrabaryon T could play an important role in catalyzing the formation of a strange core in neutron stars. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Okada Y.,High Energy Accelerator Research Organization | Okada Y.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Panizzi L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

This work provides an overview on the current status of phenomenology and searches for heavy vector-like quarks, which are predicted in many models of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Searches at Tevatron and at the LHC, here listed and shortly described, have not found any evidence for new heavy fermionic states (either chiral or vector-like) and have therefore posed strong bounds on their masses: depending on specific assumptions on the interactions and on the observed final state, vector-like quarks with masses up to roughly 400-600 GeV have been excluded by all experiments. In order to be as simple and model independent as possible, the chosen framework for the phenomenological analysis is an effective model with the addition of a vector-like quark representation (singlet, doublet, or triplet under S U (2) L) which couples through Yukawa interactions with all SM families. The relevance of different observables for the determination of bounds on mixing parameters is then discussed and a complete overview of possible two body final states for every vector-like quark is provided, including their subsequent decay into SM particles. A list and short description of phenomenological analyses present in the literature are also provided for reference purposes. © 2013 Yasuhiro Okada and Luca Panizzi.

Grinenval E.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry | Basset J.-M.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry | Lefebvre F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010

Anhydrous tungstic heteropolyacids react with alkylsilanes in the absence of solvent, leading to the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of a new kind of species where silicon is only weakly interacting with the polyoxometalate. The resulting material was characterized by various physicochemical methods including NMR, IR, and Raman spectroscopy. The most interesting feature is the unusual chemical shift of the 29Si nuclei (ca. +50 ppm), which confirms the formation of a quasi-ionic bond between the organic and inorganic moieties. The weakness of this bond was also evidenced by chemical reactivity with nBu4NCl (leading to the formation of R3SiCl species) and oxygen. This new kind of structure can be of great interest in the field of microelectronics. Indeed the reactivity described in this article can be used and transferred easily in heterogeneous conditions to introduce defects in semiconductors. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Hansen P.R.,Gentofte University Hospital | Thibault H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Abdulla J.,Glostrup University Hospital
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Background: Myocardial postconditioning (POC), defined as intermittent interruptions of blood flow at the onset of reperfusion after sustained ischemia, may attenuate reperfusion injury. In order to weigh the current evidence linking POC to reduction of myocardial infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available data from small randomised trials. Methods: A Web-based search was performed for relevant studies, and retrieved data were subjected to systematic review and meta-analysis. Results: Six studies were identified and the meta-analysis included a total of 244 patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI with or without POC. Pooled analysis of all studies demonstrated a significant reduction of peak creatine kinase with POC relative to standard care (weighted mean peak creatine kinase difference - 609.59IU/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 1030 to - 189; p = 0.005). A secondary analysis of 4 of the studies also showed an improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction with POC (weighted mean ejection fraction difference 4.2%, 95% CI 2.1% to 6.2%; p = 0.0001). Conclusion: This first systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials of POC in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, demonstrated a significant benefit of POC over standard care for reduction of myocardial infarct size as determined by peak creatine kinase release and left ventricular ejection fraction. The effects of POC on clinical outcomes remain to be determined. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Moulla R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lefevre L.,CNRS System Conception and Integration Laboratory | Maschke B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2012

A reduction method is presented for systems of conservation laws with boundary energy flow. It is stated as a generalized pseudo-spectral method which performs exact differentiation by using simultaneously several approximation spaces generated by polynomials bases and suitable choices of port-variables. The symplecticity of this spatial reduction method is proved when used for the reduction of both closed and open systems of conservation laws, for any choice of collocation points (i.e. for any polynomial bases). The symplecticity of some more usual collocation schemes is discussed and finally their accuracy on approximation of the spectrum, on the example of the ideal transmission line, is discussed in comparison with the suggested reduction scheme. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Martinent G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Nicolas M.,University of Burgundy | Gaudreau P.,University of Ottawa | Campo M.,University of Rouen
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology | Year: 2013

The purposes of the current study were to identify affective profiles of athletes both before and during the competition and to examine differences between these profiles on coping and attainment of sport goals among a sample of 306 athletes. The results of hierarchical (Ward's method) and nonhierarchical (k means) cluster analyses revealed four different clusters both before and during the competition. The four clusters were very similar at the two measurement occasions: high positive affect facilitators (n = 88 and 81), facilitators (n = 75 and 25), low affect debilitators (n = 83 and 127), and high negative affect debilitators (n = 60 and 73). Results of MANOVAs revealed that coping and attainment of sport achievement goal significantly differed across the affective profiles. Results are discussed in terms of current research on positive and negative affective states. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Nakada H.,Chiba University | Sugiura K.,Chiba University | Margueron J.,University Paris - Sud | Margueron J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Applying the semirealistic NN interactions that include a realistic tensor force to the Hartree-Fock calculations, we investigate tensor-force effects on the single-particle levels in Ca isotopes. The semirealistic interactions successfully describe the experimental difference between É(p1s 1/2) and É(p0d3/2) (denoted by ΔÉ 13) both at 40Ca and 48Ca, confirming the importance of the tensor force. The tensor force plays a role in the N dependence of ΔÉ 13 also in neutron-rich Ca nuclei. While the p1s1/2- p0d3/2 inversion is predicted in heavier Ca nuclei as in 48Ca, it takes place only for N≥46, delayed by the tensor force. We further investigate the possibility of proton bubble structure in Ar, which is suggested by the p1s1/2-p0d3/2 inversion in 48Ca and more neutron rich Ca nuclei, by using spherical Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov calculations. Even with the inversion at 48Ca the pair correlation prohibits prominent bubble distribution in 46Ar. Bubble structure in Ar is unlikely also near the neutron drip line because of either unboundness or deformation. However, 34Si remains a candidate for proton bubble structure, owing to the large shell gap between p1s1/2 and p0d5/2. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Chaudhuri P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Bocquet L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

We perform molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the occurrence of inhomogeneous shear flows in soft jammed materials. We use rough walls to impose a simple shear flow and study the athermal motion of jammed assemblies of soft particles in two spatial dimensions, both for purely repulsive interactions and in the presence of an additional short-range attraction of varying strength. In steady state, pronounced flow inhomogeneities emerge for all systems when the shear rate becomes small. Deviations from linear flow are stronger in magnitude and become very long lived when the strength of the attraction increases, but differ from permanent shear bands. Flow inhomogeneities occur in a stress window bounded by the dynamic and static yield stress values. Attractive forces enhance the flow heterogeneities because they accelerate stress relaxation, thus effectively moving the system closer to the yield stress regime where inhomogeneities are most pronounced. The present scenario for understanding the effect of particle adhesion on shear localization, which is based on detailed molecular dynamics simulations with realistic particle interactions, differs qualitatively from previous qualitative explanations and ad hoc theoretical modeling. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Cacciapaglia G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sakellariadou M.,King's College London
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2014

We examine whether F-term supersymmetric hybrid inflation can in a natural way be embedded within the minimal SO(10) model. We show that none of the singlets of the Standard Model symmetries in the minimal set of SO(10) representations can satisfy the conditions which are necessary for a scalar field to play the rôle of the inflaton. As a consequence, one has to introduce an extra scalar field, which, however, may spoil the naturalness of inflation within the context of SO(10). Nevertheless, if we add an extra scalar field, we are then able to construct a model that can accommodate flat directions, while it preserves the stability of the inflationary valley. © 2014 The Author(s).

Mirarab S.,University of Texas at Austin | Bayzid M.S.,University of Texas at Austin | Boussau B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Warnow T.,University of Texas at Austin | Warnow T.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Science | Year: 2014

Gene tree incongruence arising from incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can reduce the accuracy of concatenation-based estimations of species trees. Although coalescent-based species tree estimation methods can have good accuracy in the presence of ILS, they are sensitive to gene tree estimation error.We propose a pipeline that uses bootstrapping to evaluate whether two genes are likely to have the same tree, then it groups genes into sets using a graph-theoretic optimization and estimates a tree on each subset using concatenation, and finally produces an estimated species tree from these trees using the preferred coalescent-based method. Statistical binning improves the accuracy of MP-EST, a popular coalescent-based method, and we use it to produce the first genome-scale coalescent-based avian tree of life.

Tillmann B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Poulin-Charronnat B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Poulin-Charronnat B.,CNRS Laboratory for the Study of Learning and Development
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2010

Our study investigated whether newly acquired auditory structure knowledge allows listeners to develop perceptual expectations for future events. For that aim, we introduced a new experimental approach that combines implicit learning and priming paradigms. Participants were first exposed to structured tone sequences without being told about the underlying artificial grammar. They then made speeded judgements on a perceptual feature of target tones in new sequences (i.e., in-tune/ out-of-tune judgements). The target tones respected or violated the structure of the artificial grammar and were thus supposed to be expected or unexpected. In this priming task, grammatical tones were processed faster and more accurately than ungrammatical ones. This processing advantage was observed for an experimental group performing a memory task during the exposure phase, but was not observed for a control group, which was lacking the exposure phase (Experiment 1). It persisted when participants realized an in-tune/out-of-tune detection task during exposure (Experiment 2). This finding suggests that the acquisition of new structure knowledge not only influences grammaticality judgements on entire sequences (as previously shown in implicit learning research), but allows developing perceptual expectations that influence single event processing. It further promotes the priming paradigm as an implicit access to acquired artificial structure knowledge. © 2010 The Experimental Psychology Society.

Morier-Genoud S.,University Paris - Sud | Ovsienko V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2013

Orthogonal designs are fundamental mathematical notions used in the construction of space time block codes for wireless transmissions. Designs have two important parameters, the rate and the decoding delay; the main problem of the theory is to construct designs maximizing the rate and minimizing the decoding delay. All known constructions of CODs are inductive or algorithmic. In this paper, we present an explicit construction of optimal CODs. We do not apply recurrent procedures and do calculate the matrix elements directly. Our formula is based on a cubic function in two binary n-vectors. In our previous work (Comm. Math. Phys., 2010, and J. Pure and Appl. Algebra, 2011), we used this function to define a series of non-associative algebras generalizing the classical algebra of octonions and to obtain sum of squares identities of Hurwitz-Radon type. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 277.40K | Year: 2014

Quantum semiconductor microcavities are structures in which photons can be confined within an area whose size is comparable to the wavelength of light. In this scenario, light-matter interactions can be substantially enhanced. A traditional microcavity is composed of two dielectric or semiconductor Bragg reflectors confining an active area which contains a quantum object such as a quantum well. From the initial observation of strong coupling between photons and excitons in such microcavities, the physics of polaritons has developed very quickly demonstrating such fascinating effects as stimulated scattering and Bose-condensation of polariton; room-temperature polariton lasing, superfluidity, bistability and multistability, soliton formation and many others. Recently it was shown that a localized state of light (Tamm Plasmon) can be formed at the interface between a specially designed Bragg mirror and metallic layer. For decades it was assumed that metallic elements are detrimental to optical coherence and lasing, however the intrinsic properties of the spatial distribution of the electric field of the Tamm Plasmon facilitate optical coherence and lasing in a microcavity with an embedded metallic layer. By coupling a microcavity polariton to a Tamm Plasmon, lateral localization can be achieved, opening the way for polaritonic logic elements and polaritonic circuits. This project is aimed at the design, fabrication and investigation of novel optoelectronic structures: hybrid metallic microcavities. These structures will be used for fabrication of lasers and sources of single photons and entangled photon pairs, polaritonic logic circuits as well as for fundamental studies of microcavity polaritons.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.1.2-2 | Award Amount: 15.68M | Year: 2013

The overall goal with INFECT is to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, prognosis, and diagnosis of the multifactorial highly lethal NSTIs. The fulminant course of NSTIs (in the order of hours) demands immediate diagnosis and adequate interventions in order to salvage lives and limbs. However, diagnosis and management are difficult due to heterogeneity in clinical presentation, in co-morbidities and in microbiological aetiology. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in order to improve outcome of NSTIs. To achieve this, a comprehensive and integrated knowledge of diagnostic features, causative microbial agent, treatment strategies, and pathogenic mechanisms (host and bacterial disease traits and their underlying interaction network) is required. INFECT is designed to obtain such insights through an integrated systems biology approach in patients and different clinically relevant experimental models. Specific objectives of INFECT are to: 1. Unravel specific mechanisms underlying diseases signatures though a bottom-up systems approach applied to clinically relevant experimental settings 2. Apply a top-down systems biology approach to NSTI patient samples to pin-point key host and pathogen factors involved in the onset and development of infection 3. Identify and quantify disease signatures and underlying networks that contribute to disease outcome 4. Exploit identified disease traits for the innovation of optimized diagnostic tools 5. Translate the advanced knowledge generated into evidence-based guidelines for classification and management, and novel therapeutic strategies We have gathered a team of multidisciplinary researchers, clinicians, SMEs and a patient organization, each with a unique expertise, technical platform and/or model systems that together provide the means to successfully conduct the multifaceted research proposed and efficiently disseminate/exploit the knowledge obtained.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2012

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) are important health challenges in Europe and beyond, afflicting an estimated 5-8% of the total population. IMID with an onset during childhood such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) cause particular concern as pediatric patients form an especially vulnerable group. Currently there is no safe and cost-effective cure for JIA and related juvenile IMID. Thus, these children face lifelong treatment with serious consequences both for the patient (high risks of long-term side effects) and for society as a whole (high costs). Translating the progress in molecular medicine into new therapies for JIA has also met with limited success. The route from idea to drug has many hurdles and is a very fragmented process. Translational medicine encompasses the continuum of activities that extend from the conception of an idea to advanced clinical testing and, ultimately, to the development of a new medical technology or drug. This itinerary includes many components that require very different skills such as biomedical research skills, design of pre-clinical and clinical trials, regulatory issues, legal issues, intellectual property rights, communicational skills and more. Such skills are often compartmentalized within three separate domainsacademia, government and industry. Each of these domains has its own set of challenges. If we are to really change the way in which we are thinking and working in the drug development process it will be essential that we start with changing the education process of our students. EUTRAIN brings together leading scientists and institutes in the field of IMID. Its goal is to provide the next generation of researchers with insights, tools and knowledge necessary to bridge the gap between bench and bedside in IMID. In doing this EUTRAIN addresses two specific needs: the need for novel therapeutic approaches for IMID and the need for novel approaches in translational medicine.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: H2020-TWINN-2015 | Award Amount: 999.99K | Year: 2016

The overall aim of the ASCIMAT project is to boost the scientific excellence and technology-transfer capacity in advanced scintillating materials of the Institute of Physics from the Czech Academy of Sciences (FZU) by creating a network with the high-quality Twinning partners: European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Institut Lumire Matire - Universit Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (ILM-Universit Lyon 1), Universit degli Studi di Milano - Bicocca (UNIMIB), and Intelligentsia Consultants (Intelligentsia). To achieve this aim, the 3 year project will build upon the existing strong research and innovation base of FZU and its Twinning partners. To boost their scientific excellence and technology transfer capacity in advanced scintillating materials, the partners will implement a research and innovation strategy focused on three sub-topics: 1. Radiation damage and timing characteristics of scintillation materials, 2. Material dimensionality influence and characteristics under different excitation modes, and 3. Defect influence on the transfer stage of scintillation mechanisms. The research and innovation strategy takes into account the recent SWOT analysis of FFZU and has the following objectives: Objective 1: Strengthen FZUs research excellence in advanced scintillating materials Objective 2: Enhance the research and innovation capacity of FZU and the Twinning partners Objective 3: Raise the research profile of FZU and the Twinning Partners Objective 4: Contribute to the SMART Specialisation Strategy of the Czech Republic Objective 5: Support research and innovation on a European level In order to achieve these objectives, the consortium partners will implement a comprehensive set of measures via the projects work packages: Short term staff exchanges (WP1); Training workshops, conferences and summer schools (WP2); Dissemination and outreach (WP3).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: FCT-05-2014 | Award Amount: 5.45M | Year: 2015

The threat of synthetic drugs is one of the most significant current drug problems worldwide. Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) are the second most widely used drugs. Since 1990, ATS manufacturing has been reported from more than 70 countries worldwide and the figure keeps rising. In 2008, 80 % of the amphetamine production facilities dismantled worldwide were located in Europe (UNODC, 2010) (EMCCDA, 2011). Organised Crime Groups are involved in ATS large-scale production (Europol, 2007) (EMCDDA, 2009). Since 2011, the wide availability of pre-precursors (like APAAN) significantly lowered the price of the controlled precursor BMK and caused severe environmental problems, taking the problem to a greater dimension. The aim of this project is to design, develop and test a prototype of a system for legal recording, retrieving and monitoring operations of ATS and ATS precursor laboratories in urban areas. The sensor system will be installed within the sewage system and will track waste associated to ATS production. Criminal investigators and forensic specialists will use the system in case of: 1. initial general suspicion of ATS production in a certain area, for locating laboratories by monitoring the sewage system for long time periods; 2. strong suspicions that in a well confined area ATS is being produced, for collecting material for forensic analysis and potential use in court, and for aiding in the planning of LEA raid operations. The Mole prototype will contain the following features: a) miniaturized system for 200mm sewage pipes, b) robust housing taking into account sewage system environment, c) minimized power consumption, d) enhanced operation time supported by energy harvesting, e) high-specificity electro-chemical sensors, f) integrated micro-tanks for sample storage, and g) secure GSM and radio communications for remote monitoring. Analysis of privacy law, data protection and social acceptance will be carried on at different stages.

French Institute of Health, Medical Research, Institute Jean Paoli & Irene Calmettes, Aix - Marseille University, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and Center Leon Berard | Date: 2016-05-26

The present invention provides antibodies directed against ICOS or a derivative thereof which neutralize ICOS engagement on Treg by inhibiting the fixation between ICOS and ICOS-L and abrogate proliferation of Treg induced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The present invention further provides antibodies directed against ICOS or a derivative thereof which induce IL-10 and IFN production, induce CD4+ T cells proliferation, reduce Tconv proliferation, and increase the immunosuppressive function of Treg.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 4.31M | Year: 2009

The MULTIMOD Training Network will have duration of 48 months and will bring together 8 academic research groups with 5 industrial partners from 8 European countries to undertake innovative research and scientific research training in Multi-Scale Computational Modeling of Chemical and Biochemical Systems. The network will provide unique cross- and multi-disciplinary training opportunities for 19 ESRs (each for 3 years) with background in chemistry, chemical engineering, physics, biology and applied mathematics. The MULTIMOD training network will address the objectives of a) equipping young researchers at the start of their careers with the knowledge and skills required for Europes knowledge-based economy and society and b) overcoming the fragmentation that exists across the European chemical/biochemical research sector. MULTIMOD will intend to raise the efficiency of the chemical/biochemical research sector and improve Europes attractiveness for researchers by (a) concentrating on advances in process modeling and simulation and (b) offering decisive training and transfer of knowledge opportunities. The operation and scope of the training network will be in accordance with the objective identified in the SusChem report Vision for 2025 and Beyond as the urgent need to train the next generation of individuals able to work across the boundaries of chemistry, biology, chemical and biochemical engineering.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST-2007-4.1-01;SST-2007-4.1-07 | Award Amount: 4.77M | Year: 2009

Computer aided engineering is a routinely used technology for the design and testing of road vehicles, including the simulation of their response to an impact and the prediction of the risk of injuries sustained by the potential victims. But, so far, the release of a vehicle on the market still depends on the verification of the product compliance with safety standards through a series of type approval physical tests. To increase car industry competitiveness by reducing the burden of this type approval test system and to improve road safety by raising the quality level of protection measures, recent initiatives have been taken by both industry and public authorities, to promote the use of alternative ways (e.g. virtual test through numerical simulation) to check vehicle compliance with safety standards. The main objective of this project is the implementation of virtual (VT) procedures in existing safety standards by consolidation of advanced VT technologies, analyzing the ensuing costs and benefits and looking for the improvement of homologation procedures as well as setting the base for improvement of integrative safety. The achievement of this objective implies among others, that the accuracy of the simulation models and procedures can be assured and rated independently of the modelling process, software tools, computing platform and the performing organization (end user). Procedures that consider uncertainties due to different real tests results (depending on the lab performing), input parameters dispersion, etc. will be taken into account in these processes. In this project, the future potential of Virtual Testing will be investigated not only to fully substitute real testing (RT) in regulations but also to define procedures for fully virtual testing including biomechanics validation of real and virtual test devices and to evaluate transferring the process of VT to new advanced safety systems (active and pre-crash safety systems).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.3-4 | Award Amount: 4.32M | Year: 2012

MEDIGENE project will study genetic and environmental (G x E) determinants of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent immigrants in Europe by a novel approach integrating ancestry of Mediterranean populations in epidemiology, locus refining and Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). West Mediterranean shores are place of pre-historical termini of population expansion from Southern Europe and North Africa. Archaeogenetic studies in Europe indicated that Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA patterns or Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) revealed a close relationship between genetic and geographic distances able to locate an individual DNA within few hundred kilometers. The project will use this information in mapping the genetic basis of insulin resistance, cardiovascular and metabolic complications in immigrants (Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Tunisians, Algerians and Morocco) in host countries France, Spain, Italy and Greece. Ancestry markers and studies on ancient DNA from Roman historical migration in Catalonia will help to give a better picture of the genetic landscape of Europe and North Africa. Genes for MetS will be studied in existing samples from host and home countries by GWAS, locus refining by next-generation sequencing and haplotype mapping. Informative filtered SNPs will be then used in epidemiology and novel DNA samples to reveal G x E interactions and specificities of the pathogenesis of MetS. Genetic findings will be replicated in home countries (Anatolia and North Africa) in the goal to develop markers ethnic specific and significant at a clinical scale. Major impact is expected from dissemination of our findings to prevent the occurrence of MetS and obesity in children and adolescents or in descendants of modern immigration, understanding variability clinical manifestations of MetS in the context of malnutrition and from the novel approach of GWAS strategies by ameliorating the association signal and bursting R&D activities of SMEs.

Mansard V.,CNRS Laboratory of Future | Colin A.,CNRS Laboratory of Future | Chaudhuri P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bocquet L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Soft Matter | Year: 2013

In this paper, we used numerical simulations to investigate the flow properties of soft glassy materials. These systems display a mixed fluid-solid behavior whose theoretical description remains a challenging task. The molecular dynamic simulations exhibit non-local rheological behavior, in direct line with previous experimental results. The inverse viscosity of the material at a given point, denoted as fluidity, is not a local function of the local stress, but also depends on the state of the system in the neighborhood, with a spatial correlation length typically equal to a few particles. The fluidity is furthermore related directly to the velocity fluctuations and rate of plastic events in the form of a scaling function. Correlations are the signature of a cooperative process at the origin of the flow and of the non-local effects. We compare the obtained results with a scalar fluidity model and emphasize the similarities between the two approaches. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Doumler T.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Doumler T.,Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam | Knebe A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

Despite greatly improved observational methods, the presence of magnetic fields at cosmological scales and their role in the process of large-scale structure formation still remain unclear. In this paper, we want to address the question how the presence of a hypothetical primordial magnetic field on large scales influences the cosmic structure formation in numerical simulations. As a tool for carrying out such simulations, we present our new numerical code AMIGA. It combines an N-body code with an Eulerian grid-based solver for the full set of magneto- hydrodynamics (MHD) equations in order to conduct simulations of dark matter, baryons and magnetic fields in a self-consistent way in a fully cosmological setting. Our numerical scheme includes effective methods to ensure proper capturing of shocks and highly supersonic flows and a divergence-free magnetic field. The high accuracy of the code is demonstrated by a number of numerical tests. We then present a series of cosmological MHD simulations and confirm that, in order to have a significant effect on the distribution of matter on large scales, the primordial magnetic field strength would have to be significantly higher than the current observational and theoretical constraints. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 4.09M | Year: 2015

The ModLife project is a European Training Network initiative that brings together 5 leading European universities, 4 global industrial players and 2 SMEs to undertake research and training in the area of product-process innovation, optimization monitoring and control for life sciences and biotechnology industries. Modlife aims to develop Advanced Model-Based Optimization, Monitoring and Control as Enabling Technologies for bioprocess-product development and innovation tailored for the needs in life science industries. ModLife ETN will address excellence in research and training of next generation biochemical and process engineers in life sciences industries through: (1) Offering comprehensive training and knowledge transfer opportunities in multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral fields for training early stage researchers with multidisciplinary knowledge and competences bridging engineering and life sciences (2) Integrating and creating synergies among individually excellent but otherwise fragmented bioprocess engineering research centers across the European union in life sciences and biotechnology industries, (3) Building on advances in modeling and simulation, to develop cutting edge model-based enabling technologies and applications for optimization, monitoring and control for bioprocess and product development and innovation. The ModLife ETN aims at next generation of high performance computing tools and in-situ measurements for increasing efficiency, innovation and competitiveness of Europes life sciences and processing industries. Ultimately Modlife aims to help Europe realize the promising potential of life sciences and biotechnology- considered the next frontier technologies with profound impacts to knowledge based economy, by building the capacity to translate lab-scale life science discoveries to large scale new products and processes to match the human needs for health, nutrition and wellbeing.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2012

The RADIOMI Initial Training Network (ITN) has the goal of providing training in a superbly suited academic and industrial environment uniquely equipped to conduct a scientific research program that addresses one of the key aspects of functional imaging, the underpinning radiochemistry essential for preparation of radiotracers currently difficult or not possible to access. This will be exploited for biomarkers development inclusive of preclinical investigation to maximise research and training output. The network will enhance the European knowledge economy via the provision of trained and mobile researchers equipped with the skills necessary to pursue successful careers across a wide range of employment sectors in the face of increasing global competition. Molecular imaging is a booming research field of critical importance to facilitate diagnosis of disease states, to monitor response to therapy and to streamline the process of pharmaceutical drug development. Upon completion of this ITN, a group of highly skilled radiochemists will be available to carry out cutting edge research in the field of radiotracer development and naturally enhance the global standing of European culture. From a research output point of view, a series of innovative and new concepts for radiolabeling will emerge, thereby facilitating tremendously the production of probes for molecular imaging. Novel biomarkers with preclinical evaluation will be made available upon completion of the project.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.2.3-03 | Award Amount: 4.04M | Year: 2012

SUCCIPACK aims to support European industry efforts to introduce biobased polybutylene succinate (PBS) as a new material on the food packaging market. Its main advantage is that it has complementary properties compared to other biobased polymers like polylactic acid. PBS is synthesized by polycondensation of succinic acid and butanediol, both identified as key building blocks from renewable resources which will be produced on a large scale in the coming years. The aim of SUCCIPACK is to develop sustainable, active, and intelligent food packaging materials based on green PBS that can be flexibly used by packaging and food industries. A first aspect is the optimization of the synthesis and compounding of polymer and copolymer grades for industrial plastic transformation processes to obtain films, trays and pouches. Tailored packaging functionalities will be obtained by flexible in-line surface treatments to control gas barrier properties and to introduce antimicrobial activity. The performance and safety of the novel packaging materials will be assessed for selected food products, representative of different food categories and preservation technologies. Special efforts will be put to explore PBS recycling routes, including chemical recycling by monomerization. An original intelligent labeling function will be added to monitor material degradation and recondensation, during shelf life and recycling. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCC) will be applied to guide the material development and to assess the sustainability of the whole packaging concept. SUCCIPACK will help European industry, especially SMEs, to strengthen their competitive advantage over the currently fast growing green PBS developments in the US and Asia. The cooperation between 7 research organizations, 1 large industrial player and 10 SMEs will facilitate an effective uptake of the results by the food and packaging industry.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2010.1.3-3 | Award Amount: 4.97M | Year: 2011

The aim of BONAS is to design, develop and test a novel wireless sensors network for increasing citizen protection and homeland security against terrorist attacks, in particular against the threat posed by IED devices. The sensor network will focus on the detection of traces of precursors used in IED production (particulates, gases and/or waterborne) present in the environment surrounding the vicinity of a bomb factory. The different sensors are specifically designed to be deployed in sensitive locations and easily camouflaged. This network will support the factorys location, allowing an early threat thwart. A feasibility study will assess the usefulness and potential advantages that the BONAS concept will bring about in the future and the costs of mass production of sensor networks integrating COTS components. BONAS intends also to investigate and prepare the potential future deployment of key sensors aboard a flying platform with a view towards increasing the BONAS network detection capabilities. The wireless sensor network will feature a variety of sensing devices (in-situ and remote), that will jointly provide broad chemical spread and low false alarm rates through an expert system management of the data collected. In particular, BONAS will develop: Lidar/Dial system; QEPAS sensor; SERS sensor; an Immunosensor. BONAS includes a multidisciplinary team of leading European research groups (ENEA, QUB, CSEM, ONE, UCBL, UNIL, KCL) together with industrial organizations (CREO, LDI, SAB, TEK, EADS) and end-users (NBI) with previous experience and activity in the field of specific local and remote sensors development and with experience on Security projects. The consortium represents the complete supply chain of the proposed product, which sets good perspectives for exploitation and commercialization of the generated innovations. The consortium will be supported by an already established Advisory Board formed by experts from the main European and Israeli police corps.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-06-2015 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2015

PeptiCaps aims at producing and validating a new family of stimuli-responsive nanocapsules able to encapsulate efficiently and protect specific active ingredients for skin care application. Those nanocapsules will be assembled by nanoemulsion technique using amphiphilic and biocompatible polypeptides diblock copolymers with one hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block and one hydrophobic polypeptide block. Adjustment of the length of each block to finely tune the hydrophilic/Lipophilic balance of the macroemulsifier will allow the encapsulation of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic active ingredients. In addition, polypeptides block will be specifically designed to respond to changes in pH and the presence of enzyme occurring for the skin conditions targeted to allow a triggered release of the active ingredient. After scaling-up selected macroemulsifiers under GMP-like process, two manufacturing processes will be used for the production of the nanocapsules, i.e. high-pressure homogenizer and tubular flow contactor. The most promising process will be selected to produce selected nanocapsules. Physico-chemical properties and (eco)toxicity of the nanocapsules will be extensively characterised using techniques and protocols recommended by the EU Cosmetic regulation to establish their risk and safety assessment. The advantages of safe nanocapsules from PeptiCaps will be demonstrated on validated relevant skin models for each application. All results obtained will be gathered to constitute a Dossier for the validation of the nanocapsules as cosmetic product by the authorities. In addition, PeptiCaps will actively participate to the standardization for nano-safety by developing software to predict the toxicity of nanomaterials (CORAL). Finally, a business plan will be elaborated for the commercialization of PeptiCaps nanocapsules for all cosmetic applications as well as other markets (dermatology and food) to ensure full exploitation of the PeptiCaps technology.

Hernandez-Rojas J.,University of La Laguna | Calvo F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Breton J.,University of La Laguna | Gomez Llorente J.M.,University of La Laguna
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

The effects of confinement on water clusters inside nonmetallic carbon nanotubes with radii ranging between 4 and 7.5 Å have been computationally investigated by means of global optimization and finite temperature simulations. The water-water interaction is described by the TIP4P rigid body potential, and a Lennard-Jones potential is used for the water-carbon interaction. Water clusters containing up to 20 molecules are found to form 1D chainlike configurations for the narrow (7, 5) nanotube and 2D ladderlike structures in the (7, 6) tube. In wider tubes, 3D configurations are then formed showing helical motifs, ringlike or closed cage structures, before the most stable structure on flat graphene is eventually found. The same results are obtained by replacing the fully atomistic water-nanotube potential by its continuous approximation [Bretón, J.; González-Platas, J.; Giradet, C. J. Chem. Phys.1994, 101, 3334], indicating a negligible effect of corrugation. The effects of additional nanotubes were also considered with the adsorption energies being found to converge rather quickly already for the triple-wall tube. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations of the water octamer reveal a counterintuitive decrease in the melting point relative to the free-standing case. Molecular dynamics simulations show that melting is concomitant with some axial diffusion of the water molecules, and with radial diffusion perpendicular to the tube axis remaining limited. In accordance with previous studies concerned with bulk water, the weakening of the cluster thermal stability is interpreted as being caused by the hydrophobic character of the carbon-water interaction. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

French Atomic Energy Commission, Cpe Lyon, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2012-04-20

The invention relates to a composition for synthesizing bimetallic nanoparticles, wherein the composition contains a first organometallic precursor and a second organometallic precursor having different decomposition rates and contained within an ionic liquid solution. The invention also relates to a method for synthesizing bimetallic nanoparticles, in which the composition is transformed under a hydrogen gas pressure between 0.1 and 10 MPa at a temperature between 0 and 150 C. until a suspension of bimetallic nanoparticles is obtained. The resulting nanoparticles are useful in diverse fields including the fields of catalysis and microelectronics.

French Atomic Energy Commission, French National Center for Scientific Research, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and Cpe Lyon | Date: 2014-02-10

The present invention relates to a method for synthesizing ionic liquids comprising a carbonate functional group characterized in that it comprises a step of reaction A without addition of lithium between a first reactant selected among an imidazolium, a pyrrolidinium or an ammonium and a second reactant being a methyl formate imidazolium. The first reactant is an imidazolium alcohol, a pyrrolidinium alcohol or an ammonium alcohol salt, the anion of which is NTf2. The second reactant is a chloromethyl formate imidazolium. The application of this method will be found in the field of green chemistry and more specifically in the production of ionic liquids which can be used in lithium batteries with a graphite electrode.

Institute Jean Paoli & Irene Calmettes, Aix - Marseille University, French Institute of Health, Medical Research, Center Leon Berard and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Date: 2012-03-29

The present invention provides antibodies directed against ICOS or a derivative thereof which neutralize ICOS engagement on Treg by inhibiting the fixation between ICOS and ICOS-L and abrogate proliferation of Treg induced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The present invention further provides antibodies directed against ICOS or a derivative thereof which induce IL-10 and IFN production, induce CD4+ T cells proliferation, reduce Tconv proliferation, and increase the immunosuppressive function of Treg.

Basf, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2012-04-25

The disclosed substance restores normal co-expression and interaction between the LOX and NRAGE proteins. Particularly, an effective amount of the substance that modulates the expression and/or activity of LOX of SEQ ID NO: 1 and/or that modulates the expression and/or activity of NRAGE of SEQ ID NO: 2, may be used for the manufacture of a composition for modulating the interaction between the LOX and NRAGE proteins to regulate the balance between the cellular phenomena of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, particularly in cases where the balance between these phenomena is disturbed, and especially in cases where the interaction between LOX and NRAGE is absent or altered. The invention makes it possible especially to treat and/or prevent skin ageing, lichen planus, graft-versus-host reaction (GVH), eczema, psoriasis and a cancer, particularly an epithelial cancer and more particularly a cutaneous epithelial cancer of basocellular or spinocellular type.

Polaar and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Date: 2014-08-13

An aqueous suspension of nanocapsules encapsulating at least one UV filter which is likely to be obtained by a preparation process in which are mixed: (a) a first phase, called oily phase, which includes: at least one hydrophobic polymer, at least one oil, at least one UV filter, and at least a first surfactant; (b) a second phase, called aqueous phase, which includes water and/or at least one polar solvent, and optionally at least one second surfactant. The object is also a sunscreen composition including this suspension.

Vachiery J.-L.,Free University of Colombia | Barbera J.A.,University of Barcelona | Champion H.,University of Pittsburgh | Coghlan J.G.,Royal Free Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

A well-preserved large limulid trackway related to Kouphichnium lithographicum is described from the Upper Kimmeridgian Lithographic Limestones of Cerin (Ain, France). It is three meters long and exhibits ten successive sets of imprints characterized by a pair of well-preserved tetradactyl external imprints of legs VI (named pushers) and a variable number (mostly three pairs) of straight thin intermediate imprints (legs III-V). The trackway is unusually wide and was probably made by a very large adult approximately 38 cm wide and 80 cm long when related to the proportions of the modern Limulus polyphemus. The straightness of the trackway, the great repeat distance (stride), the length of series of leg imprints, their slight angle to the mid-line, the well-marked pusher (= leg VI) imprints and the absence of groove made by the telson all indicate fast progression of a vigorous animal on the sea-floor. This walking trackway can be easily differentiated from other limulid crawling, ploughing, and dying trackways usually found in lithographic limestones or other deposits of the geological record. Main characteristics of these different limulid trackways are evidenced. The occurrence of a living adult in the Cerin restricted lagoon is probably related to a brief period of connection with the open sea. This occurrence indicates either a passive introduction of the animal into the lagoon or a spawning behaviour. © 2010 Swiss Geological Society.

New and rare Jurassic ammonites have been found in Oman. Alatest Bajocian Arabian Platform-type species was discovered in the Haushi-Huqf Massif autochthon of southwestern Oman, and Bajocian species typical of the Mediterranean Tethys and northwestern Europe were found in the Kawr-Misfah exotic unit of the Hawasina Nappes in the Oman Mountains. The dates provided by the new fauna have resulted in a reinterpretarion of the geologic history of the containing rocks, and of their paleoecology and paleobiogeography. It is significant that ammonites from shallow-marine environments of the Arabian Platform are in close proximity to species from open-sea environments of the Mediterranean Tethys and northwestern Europe. This shows that endemism of the Arabian Province resulted from ecological isolation, whereas open-marine environments on the Oman margin, especially the pelagic seamounts off the margin, form part of a migration route between western and eastern Tethys (or Indo-Southwest Pacific), and perhaps far beyond. The occurrences among the Tethyan and pandemic components of ammonite faunas in the Canadian Pacific Cordillera of most of the taxa of the open-marine environments on the Oman margin reopens the question of Pacific biogeography during the Early Jurassic before the Hispanic oceanic corridor was completely open. Among the proposed models, the Pantropic Distribution Model of Newton is examined in the light of the Cretaceous paleobiogeography, with particular reference to rudists.

Pessia E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Engelstadter J.,University of Queensland | Marais G.A.B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Marais G.A.B.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Ciencia
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Ohno's hypothesis states that dosage compensation in mammals evolved in two steps: a twofold hyperactivation of the X chromosome in both sexes to compensate for gene losses on the Y chromosome, and silencing of one X (X-chromosome inactivation, XCI) in females to restore optimal dosage. Recent tests of this hypothesis have returned contradictory results. In this review, we explain this ongoing controversy and argue that a novel view on dosage compensation evolution in mammals is starting to emerge. Ohno's hypothesis may be true for a few, dosage-sensitive genes only. If so few genes are compensated, then why has XCI evolved as a chromosome-wide mechanism? This and several other questions raised by the new data in mammals are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. © 2013 Springer.

Pachon-Rodriguez E.A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Colombani J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
AIChE Journal | Year: 2013

In the context of the study of the wet creep of plasterboards, digital holographic interferometry measurements have been performed of the dissolution of gypsum of various quarries in water and in aqueous solutions of salts inhibiting dissolution and of the dissolution of anhydrite in water. This technique is carried out in still water and permits to observe directly the reacting solid-liquid interface. Therefore, contrary to standard bulk measurements, the pure dissolution rate constants, free from any mass transport contribution, have been measured. These rate constants are similar for the cleavage face of the various gypsums. Thanks to their faculty of complexing the surface calcium ions, the investigated phosphate and phosphonate salts inhibit dissolution and reduce the dissolution rate constant of up to more than one order of magnitude. This strong influence may explain their anticreep role in plasterboards. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Mermillod-Blondin F.,University of Lyon | Mermillod-Blondin F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Mermillod-Blondin F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Journal of the North American Benthological Society | Year: 2011

Benthic invertebrates have important ecosystem engineering functions (bioturbation and biodeposition) in freshwater and marine benthic systems. Bioturbation and biodeposition affect the metabolism of the water-sediment interface through modification of water-sediment fluxes or organic-matter enrichment of sediments by biodeposits. The functional significance of these processes depends strongly on the type of invertebrate activities (the functional traits of the invertebrates) and on the modulation of this activity by environmental conditions. The aim of my article is to propose a common framework for the role of bioturbation/biodeposition in benthic habitats of both marine and freshwater environments. In these ecosystems, hydrological exchanges between the water and sediments (interstitial flow rates) control the microbial activity inside sediments. The ability of ecosystem engineers to influence benthic microbial processes differs strongly between diffusion-dominated (low interstitial flow rates) and advection-dominated (high interstitial flow rates) habitats. Bioturbation/biodeposition may play a role in diffusion-dominated habitats where invertebrates can significantly modify water and particle fluxes at the water-sediment interface, whereas a slight influence of ecosystem engineers is expected in advection-dominated habitats where fluxes are predominantly controlled by hydrological processes. A future challenge will be to test this general framework in marine and freshwater habitats by quantifying the interactions between the functional traits of species and the water-sediment exchanges. © 2011 by The North American Benthological Society.

Doledec S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Phillips N.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Townsend C.,University of Otago
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2011

Large-scale comparative studies of ecological responses to anthropological stressors in rivers require measures that are consistent across a range of spatial scales. The biological trait profile of communities offers an alternative approach to traditional measures of macroinvertebrate taxonomic identity and is less constrained by biogeographic influences. We compared the capacities of taxonomic composition and biological trait composition to discriminate the effects of land use (measured as percentage of the catchment in pasture) across a large geographic zone (the whole of New Zealand) in 30 sub-catchments grouped into five ecoregions throughout the North and South Islands of New Zealand. In addition, we investigated trait consistency (i.e. whether similar traits had similar trait responses to land use at local (catchment) and broad scales). The analysis of taxonomic composition showed that community structure was indeed influenced by land-use intensity, but that relationships differed among ecoregions. In contrast, traditional assessment metrics (Macroinvertebrate Community Index, richness in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera taxa) and trait composition were uninfluenced by region. Trait responses were consistent at the broad and catchment scales, with similar traits responding to pastoral land use at both scales. We used general linear modelling to investigate individual trait responses to land-use intensity, catchment area and region, focussing on 15 trait categories known to be influenced by land-use intensity at the catchment scale. Several trait categories varied with land-use intensity and demonstrated consistency at both catchment and broad scales. Of these, the representation of shorter generation time, asexual reproduction and hermaphroditism, ability to lay eggs beneath the water surface, egg protection and respiration types tolerant of oxygen depletion generally increased in assemblages exposed to more intense pastoral land use. At the same time, the representation of short life duration of adults, prevalence of laying eggs at the water surface, sexual reproduction and low body flexibility decreased in assemblages exposed to land-use intensification. Our results highlight the value of developing predictive response measures that are relevant at multiple scales and provide the basis for new measures of river condition that are as effective as taxonomic identity in terms of response reliability. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Leloup P.H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Boutonnet E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Davis W.J.,Geological Survey of Canada | Hattori K.,University of Ottawa
Terra Nova | Year: 2011

Zircon crystallization ages for a syntectonic granite and an associated dyke along the Tangtse strand of the Karakorum fault are 18.5±0.2 and 18.6±0.2Ma, respectively. A dyke cross-cutting the foliation in the Karakorum shear zone (Ksz) yielded an age of 16.0±0.6Ma. These data show that the Ksz was associated with significant granitic magmatism and was active before 16Ma, since at least c. 18.5Ma. Consideration of other data along the Karakorum fault suggests that the fault has most likely been active since c. 22.7-25Ma at a rate of 8-13mma-1. This study conducted in the frontal part of the Himalayan orogen shows that large continental strike-slip faults can be linked with magmatism and be stable for more than 20Ma, even in the hottest part of the orogen where strain localization is supposed to be at a minimum. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Philippe M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2011

Fossil wood, similar to that of modern Araucariaceae, has been known for a long time, and is usually called Araucarioxylon. More than 400 morphospecies have been described, whereas this wood type displays few characteristic features. This taxonomical profusion is compounded by nomenclatural problems, Araucarioxylon being an illegitimate name. The status of the wood morphogenus, the infrageneric structure and the names that apply to the taxa designated for fossil woods of the Araucarioxylon-type are discussed. A database with 428 morphospecies designated for Araucarioxylon-type of wood is analyzed. The name Agathoxylon Hartig seems to be the most appropriate for the corresponding morphogenus. Albeit theoretically several hundred morphospecies could be recognized within this group, it is at least as probable that only one should be retained. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

Blichert-Toft J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Zanda B.,French Natural History Museum | Ebel D.S.,American Museum of Natural History | Albarade F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2010

Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB-IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan (pallasite). Lead abundances and isotopic compositions typically vary from one troilite inclusion to another, even within the same meteorite. The most primitive Pb was found in three leach fractions of two exceptionally Pb-rich Nantan troilite nodules. Its 204Pb/206Pb is identical to that of Canyon Diablo troilite as measured by Tatsumoto et al. [M. Tatsumoto, R.J. Knight, C.J. Allàgre, Time differences in the formation of meteorites as determined from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, Science 180(1973) 1279-1283]. However, our measurements of 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb are significantly higher than theirs, as well as other older literature data obtained by TIMS, while consistent with the recent data of Connelly et al. [J.N. Connelly, M. Bizzarro, K. Thrane, J.A. Baker, The Pb-Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(2008) 4813-4824], a result we ascribe to instrumental mass fractionation having biased the older data. Our current best estimate of the Solar System primordial Pb is that of Nantan troilite, which has the following isotopic composition: 204Pb/206Pb=0.107459(16), 207Pb/206Pb=1.10759(10), and 208Pb/206Pb=3.17347(28). This is slightly less radiogenic than the intercept of the bundle of isotopic arrays formed in 207Pb/206Pb-204Pb/206Pb space by our measurements of Canyon Diablo, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Cape York, and Mundrabilla, as well as literature data, which, in spite of rather large uncertainties, suggests a common primordial Pb component for all of these meteorites. The radiogenic Pb present in most of these irons is dominantly asteroidal and indicates evolution in a high-U/Pb environment. The apparent age of the radiogenic Pb component is consistent with the 39Ar-40Ar ages of silicate inclusions found in the same meteorites. We propose that the radiogenic Pb was introduced more recently into troilite, from the surface rubble of the parent asteroid, possibly during the impacts that generated the IAB iron meteorites. The excellent correlation between 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb translates into a Th/U ratio of 3.876±0.016 for the asteroid, which is the most precise estimate for the solar nebula to date. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Keck F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lepori F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2012

Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) affect natural ecosystems worldwide. Modelling is required to predict where and when these key nutrients limit primary production in freshwaters. We reviewed 382 nutrient-enrichment experiments to examine which factors promote limitation of microphytobenthos biomass by N or P in streams and rivers. Using regression models, we examined whether the response of microphytobenthos biomass to N and P additions could be predicted by the absolute N and P concentrations in the water, the water N:P ratio or a combination of the two. The absolute N concentration in the water was the best predictor of the magnitude of the response of microphytobenthos biomass to N additions. In comparison, the N:P ratio was the best predictor of whether or not N was limiting. However, predictions were uncertain except at extreme N:P ratios <1:1 and >100:1. The absolute P concentration in the water was the best predictor of the magnitude of the response of microphytobenthos biomass to P additions. Neither the absolute nor the relative N and P concentrations predicted whether or not P was limiting. The absolute and the relative N and P water concentrations contribute significant and complementary insights into the responses of microphytobenthos biomass to nutrient enrichment in running waters. However, ability to predict nutrient limitation from these concentrations is constrained by substantial error in the models. In the future, the prediction ability of models of nutrient limitation might be improved by focussing on regional scales and accounting for additional factors such as light and disturbance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Picazo F.,University of Murcia | Millan A.,University of Murcia | Doledec S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2012

1.Coleoptera species show considerable diversity in life histories and ecological strategies, which makes possible their wide distribution in freshwater habitats, including highly stressed ones such as saline or temporary waterbodies. Explaining how particular combinations of traits allow species to occupy distinctive habitats is a central question in ecology. 2.A total of 212 sites, sampled over a wide range of inland aquatic habitats in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula, yielded 272 species belonging to 68 genera and 11 families. The affinities of genera for 11 biological and 11 ecological traits, gathered from literature and the authors' own expertise, were used to assess the degree of congruence between taxonomic, biological and ecological traits. 3.Taxonomic richness was significantly related to the number of both biological and ecological trait categories, with the richest families also showing the highest functional and ecological diversity. A fuzzy correspondence analysis performed on the abundance-weighed array of biological traits separated genera according to categories of diet, feeding habits, respiration, reproduction and locomotion. A similar analysis of ecological traits revealed that preferences related to longitudinal distribution (headwater to mouth), local habitat and current velocity best discriminated genera. At the family level, there was a distinctive functional grouping of genera based on biological traits. Only Elmidae showed noticeable homogeneity across genera for both biological and ecological traits. 4.Co-inertia analysis demonstrated a significant match between biological and ecological traits (Rv-correlation=0.35, P<0.001). Elmidae genera displayed the highest concordance, whereas Hydraenidae demonstrated the lowest. 5.These results indicate that the predominance of habitat filtering processes in headwater streams yields biological trait conservatism (as shown by Elmidae genera), as well as trait convergence for some specific traits (for instance, respiration) among certain Dytiscidae genera and other typical rheophilic taxa, whereas other biotic factors, such as competition among species, appear more prominent in less stressed habitats. Further knowledge of traits, especially regarding physiological capabilities, is needed to better understand water beetle life history strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Dubourg J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Messerer M.,University of Lausanne
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2011

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as a cause of hypopituitarism even after mild TBI. Although over the past decade, a growing body of research has detailed neuroendocrine changes induced by TBI, the mechanisms and risk factors responsible for this pituitary dysfunction are still unclear. Around the world, sports-especially combative sports-are very popular. However, sports are not generally considered as a cause of TBI in most epidemiological studies, and the link between sports-related head trauma and hypopituitarism has not been investigated until recently. Thus, there is a paucity of data regarding this important concern. Because of the large number of young sports participants with near-normal life expectancy, the implications of undiagnosed or untreated postconcussion pituitary dysfunction can be dramatic. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of hypopituitarism caused by sports injuries is thus an important issue that concerns both medical staff and sponsors of sports. The aim of this paper was to summarize the best evidence for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms and to discuss the current data and recommendations on sports-related head trauma as a cause of hypopituitarism.

Wang Y.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Wang Y.,CNRS Inter-university Material Research and Engineering | Connetable D.,CNRS Inter-university Material Research and Engineering | Tanguy D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Acta Materialia | Year: 2016

A model is given for the effective diffusion of interstitial solutes in the presence of traps. It goes beyond Oriani's by taking into account, in a simple way, the connectivity between interstitial trap sites. It shows, in particular, that the typical dimension of a network of trap sites, connected by low barriers, appears squared in the diffusion coefficient. Therefore, a large precipitate can be inefficient if it offers a fast diffusion path, even if each individual trap site is deep. The model is illustrated in the case of hydrogen trapping at vacancies in Ni, using ab initio calculations for migration barriers and Kinetic Monte Carlo for validation. Trapping/detrapping kinetic parameters for "Thermal Desorption Spectra" analysis are also given. © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc.

Pouillot R.,7403 Wyndale lane | Delignette-Muller M.L.,University of Lyon | Delignette-Muller M.L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Delignette-Muller M.L.,VetAgro Sup
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Quantitative risk assessment has emerged as a valuable tool to enhance the scientific basis of regulatory decisions in the food safety domain. This article introduces the use of two new computing resources (R packages) specifically developed to help risk assessors in their projects. The first package, "fitdistrplus", gathers tools for choosing and fitting a parametric univariate distribution to a given dataset. The data may be continuous or discrete. Continuous data may be right-, left- or interval-censored as is frequently obtained with analytical methods, with the possibility of various censoring thresholds within the dataset. Bootstrap procedures then allow the assessor to evaluate and model the uncertainty around the parameters and to transfer this information into a quantitative risk assessment model. The second package, "mc2d", helps to build and study two dimensional (or second-order) Monte-Carlo simulations in which the estimation of variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is separated. This package easily allows the transfer of separated variability and uncertainty along a chain of conditional mathematical and probabilistic models. The usefulness of these packages is illustrated through a risk assessment of hemolytic and uremic syndrome in children linked to the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef. These R packages are freely available at the Comprehensive R Archive Network (cran.r-project.org). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Oger B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2013

Weighted hypertrees have been used by C. Jensen, J. McCammond, and J. Meier to compute some Euler characteristics in group theory. We link them to decorated hypertrees and 2-coloured rooted trees. After the enumeration of pointed and non-pointed types of decorated hypertrees, we compute the character for the action of the symmetric group on these hypertrees. © 2013 Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DMTCS).

De Vadder F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | De Vadder F.,University of Lyon | De Vadder F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Kovatcheva-Datchary P.,Gothenburg University | And 17 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

Soluble dietary fibers promote metabolic benefits on body weight and glucose control, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Recent evidence indicates that intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) has beneficial effects on glucose and energy homeostasis. Here, we show that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) propionate and butyrate, which are generated by fermentation of soluble fiber by the gut microbiota, activate IGN via complementary mechanisms. Butyrate activates IGN gene expression through a cAMP-dependent mechanism, while propionate, itself a substrate of IGN, activates IGN gene expression via a gut-brain neural circuit involving the fatty acid receptor FFAR3. The metabolic benefits on body weight and glucose control induced by SCFAs or dietary fiber in normal mice are absent in mice deficient for IGN, despite similar modifications in gut microbiota composition. Thus, the regulation of IGN is necessary for the metabolic benefits associated with SCFAs and soluble fiber. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Dumez J.-N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Emsley L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

Measurements of proton-driven carbon-13 spin diffusion (PDSD) by NMR spectroscopy are a central component of structural analyses of biomolecules in the solid-state. However, the quantitative link between experimental PDSD data and structural information is difficult to make. Here we observe that a master-equation approach can be used to model full PDSD dynamics accurately in polycrystalline 13C-labelled l-histidine·HCl·H 2O under magic-angle spinning. In the master-equation approach, PDSD rates and effective dipolar couplings are related by a function of the carbon-carbon zero-quantum lineshapes; we find that numerical simulations of the zero-quantum lineshapes are sufficiently accurate so as to allow the calculation of PDSD rates that are in good agreement with the measured rates, directly from crystal geometry and with no adjustable parameters. Finally, using carbon-carbon internuclear distances we illustrate the potential of the master-equation approach for structural studies. Generalisation of these results to proton-driven carbon-13 spin diffusion in more complex molecular systems is readily envisaged. © the Owner Societies.

Zhang W.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | D'Agosto F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Boyron O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Rieger J.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Charleux B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Macromolecules | Year: 2011

The RAFT-mediated emulsion polymerization of styrene was carried out in a one-pot, two-step procedure using two poly(methacrylic acid-co-poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate) macroRAFT agents of different compositions carrying a reactive trithiocarbonate end-group. The latter were prepared in situ, directly in aqueous solution at acid pH. In all cases, the synthesis was fast and efficient, leading to very high conversions and very good control over the polymer features. It was moreover particularly reproducible, which is an important outcome for the robustness of the method. Then, styrene was added and directly polymerized in the formed emulsion system until very high conversion in short reaction time. The method led to amphiphilic block copolymers, self-assembled into stable spherical particles. The diameter of the latter was directly governed by the initial concentration of macroRAFT agent, which also controlled the molar mass of the polystyrene block at constant styrene initial concentration. The emulsion polymerization step was studied in detail to provide information on the overall mechanism: nucleation, conversion rate, and chain growth. Because of the reduction of the number of synthesis and purification steps and of the overall reaction time, and due to the use of water as the sole reaction medium, the proposed method is of high interest in terms of both respect of environmental constraints and energy saving. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Chevalier Y.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bolzinger M.-A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2013

Pickering emulsions are attractive formulations because they are simple and bear strong similarities with the well-known surfactant-based emulsions. Pickering emulsions have been largely ignored since their early disclosure in 1907 and arouse a renewed interest quite recently. Since this unintelligible time gap raises suspicion, the first aim of the present review is giving the simple fundamental rules as an introduction for newcomers in the topic. The basic physical chemistry of Pickering emulsions is explained and the ways to control the parameters of higher relevance with respect to development of applications are given. This first part covers the choice of the solid nanoparticles used as stabilizers and their surface properties, the control of emulsion type, droplet size, and rheology. A second part gives examples of some applications in drug delivery and manufacturing of porous nanomaterials as illustrations of the potential of such emulsions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Pays O.,University of Angers | Sirot E.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Fritz H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Ethology | Year: 2012

Collective detection of predators is one of the main advantages of living in groups in prey species. However, the mechanisms linking individual and collective vigilance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated individual and collective vigilance in a natural population of greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a gregarious ruminant living under high predation risk. Controlling for environmental, individual and group factors, we show that the proportion of time during which at least one individual was vigilant increased with group size, whereas individual investment in vigilance decreased. We also show that individuals tended to synchronize both vigilance and feeding activities. More generally, and whatever the considered group size, we demonstrate how the independent scanning assumption underestimated both the proportion of time during which no individual was vigilant and the proportion of time during which all individuals were simultaneously vigilant, but overestimated the proportion of time during which one vigilant individual only was present. Our results thus contrast with the point of view that the alternative to independent vigilance is coordinated vigilance and plead for a better description of the processes whereby reciprocal influences between individuals shape collective patterns of vigilance. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Daniel M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Loridant S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detecting peroxo (O2) 2- and superoxo (O2) - species adsorbed on defect sites of ceria. These sites are probed by reducing CeO 2 at high temperature and then chemisorbing oxygen species at low temperature. In the present study, it is shown for the first time that such Raman characterization has to be achieved at very low laser power to avoid formation of oxygen species by photolysis and analyze only the chemisorbed species. Respecting this requirement, the (O2) 2- and (O2) - species formed on 0.7% Pt/CeO 2 compound, and the CeO 2 support used to prepare it were compared after reduction for various times and at various temperatures. Superoxo species were more stabilized on reduced 0.7% Pt/CeO 2 after short reduction at 773 K than on reduced CeO 2. Additionally, the distributions of peroxo species adsorbed on defect sites of Pt/CeO 2 and CeO 2 were significantly different after long reduction at 773 K in spite of similar amounts. Indeed, less stable species were formed during the reduction of 0.7% Pt/CeO 2. These two features revealed that new sites were created during the preparation and reduction of Pt/CeO 2 compared to its bare support. ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bourgeat-Lami E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Farzi G.A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | David L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Putaux J.-L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | McKenna T.F.L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Langmuir | Year: 2012

The impact of including hydrophobically modified silica on the morphology of miniemulsified monomer mixtures and that of the resulting polymer particles was investigated, with emphasis placed on the distribution and localization of the inorganic phase. Silica nanoparticles with diameters of 20 and 78 nm were first modified with γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) to favor their dispersion in methyl methacrylate (MMA)/n-butyl acrylate (BuA) and mixtures of varying MMA to BuA weight ratios. The monomer-silica dispersions were then emulsified by ultrasonication, and the resulting silica-loaded droplets were examined using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). This represents the first time such silica-loaded nanodroplets were examined in this way. The results of the cryo-TEM show that whereas the silica particles could easily be dispersed in MMA or a mixture of MMA and BuA to produce stable dispersions, the emulsification step promotes the (re)localization of the silica at the oil-water interfaces. It was also shown that not all droplets are equal; some droplets and particles contain no silica whereas others contain many silica particles. After the subsequent polymerization step, the silica was buried inside the latex particles. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Vu-Cong T.,Joseph Fourier University | Jean-Mistral C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sylvestre A.,Joseph Fourier University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Dielectric elastomer generators are a promising solution to scavenge energy from human motion, due to their lightweight, high efficiency, low cost and high energy density. Performances of a dielectric elastomer used in a generator application are generally evaluated by the maximum energy which can be converted. This energy is defined by an area of allowable states and delimited by different failure modes such as: electrical breakdown, loss of tension, mechanical rupture and electromechanical instability, which depend deeply on dielectric behaviors of the material. However, there is controversy on the dielectric constant (permittivity) of usual elastomers used for these applications. This paper aims to investigate the dielectric behaviors of two popular dielectric elastomers: VHB 4910 (3M) and Polypower (Danfoss). This study is undertaken on a broad range of temperature. We focus on the influence of pre-stretch in the change of the dielectric constant. An originality of this study is related to the significant influence of the nature of compliant electrodes deposited on these elastomers. Additionally, the electrical breakdown field of these two elastomers has been studied as a function of pre-stretch and temperature. Lastly, thanks to these experiments, analytic equations have been proposed to take into account the influence of the temperature, the pre-stretch and the nature of the compliant electrodes on the permittivity. These analytic equations and the electrical breakdown field were embedded in a thermodynamic model making it possible to define new limits of operation closer to the real use of these elastomers for energy harvesting applications. © 2013 SPIE.

Blichert-Toft J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Puchtel I.S.,University of Maryland University College
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2010

In this study, we present Lu-Hf isotope systematics and Lu and Hf abundances for komatiites from the lowermost part of the 2.8Ga Kostomuksha greenstone belt in the Baltic Shield and compare these, as well as available Sm-Nd isotope data, with those for the best characterized Archean komatiite systems. The Lu-Hf isotope compositions of four spatially associated differentiated lava flows from the Kostomuksha greenstone belt yield an isochron (MSWD=1.6) with an age of 2931±300Ma, which represents the first Lu-Hf isochron obtained for a suite of co-magmatic komatiite lavas. The calculated mean initial 176Hf/177Hf for the Kostomuksha komatiite samples is 0.281107±3 (2σmean), which corresponds to an initial ε176Hf of +4.9±0.1 (2σmean). Assuming that mantle differentiation occurred 10Ma after Earth's accretion at 4.558Ga, this precise initial ratio requires a time-integrated 176Lu/177Hf=0.03759±8, which is identical to the average time-integrated 176Lu/177Hf=0.0375±6 calculated for the best characterized late Archean komatiite systems. Together with the calculated average time-integrated 147Sm/144Nd=0.2091±4 for the same late Archean komatiite systems, these parameters represent our best estimate of the Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd properties in the late Archean mantle and indicate derivation of komatiite magmas from around the globe from long-term melt-depleted sources that were remarkably homogenous in terms of lithophile trace element systematics. These time-integrated ratios are identical to the respective values of 0.0375 and 0.209 calculated by Boyet and Carlson (2006) for the so-called Early Depleted Reservoir (EDR), and may indicate that the late Archean mantle was similar in composition to the putative EDR, whereas early Archean systems had higher, and Proterozoic systems lower time-integrated Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd ratios. The observed decrease in time-integrated Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd in komatiite sources over time is interpreted as strong evidence for the existence of a hidden enriched reservoir complementary to the EDR that has been gradually mixed back into the mantle over time. The overall depletion of the early mantle likely occurred very early in Earth's history as a result of either global magma ocean differentiation or extraction and subsequent long-term isolation of primordial terrestrial crust. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Emsley J.W.,University of Southampton | Lelli M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lesage A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Luckhurst G.R.,University of Southampton
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

The sets of residual dipolar couplings between carbon and hydrogen nuclei obtained from the proton-encoded 13C 2D NMR experiment are used to investigate the conformational changes which occur when the achiral symmetric liquid crystal dimer CB7CB changes from the achiral nematic to the chiral twist-bend nematic phase. It is found that these changes are a consequence of the chirality of the twist-bend nematic phase, rather than being the driving force for the stability of this phase. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Andari E.,Center for Cognitive Neuroscience | Andari E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Schneider F.C.,Jean Monnet University | Mottolese R.,Center for Cognitive Neuroscience | And 5 more authors.
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2014

Oxytocin has a fundamental role in social behavior. In humans, supporting evidence shows that oxytocin enhances people's ability to trust or affiliate with others. A key question is whether differences in plasma oxytocin concentration in humans are related to people's differences in their social traits of personality and if such differences are reflected in the structural organization of brain areas responsive to the action of this hormone. We examined the correlation between oxytocin plasma levels and personality traits in 30 healthy subjects, tested with the Inventory revised neuroticismextroversion- openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R). By using the voxel-based morphometry technique, we also investigated changes in gray matter volume as a function of the plasma oxytocin level and NEO-PI-R scores. A positive correlation was found between plasma oxytocin and extraversion scores, a dimension that captures social affiliative tendencies. Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between plasma oxytocin and the volume of the right amygdala and the right hippocampus, 2 brain areas implicated in fear and anxiety. Finally, we showed that the amygdalahippocampal complex correlate negatively with extraversion scores. Our findings provide evidence for a neural mechanism linking physiological oxytocin's variability and structural variation of brain regions relevant for emotion regulation to individual differences in affiliative personality traits. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Peyruchaud O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Leblanc R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | David M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2013

Bone is a common metastatic site for solid cancers. Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated by intimate cross-talks between osteoblast (bone forming cells) and osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells). Once in the bone microenvironment, metastatic cells do not alter bone directly but instead perturb the physiological balance of the bone remodeling process controlled by bone cells. Tumor cells produce growth factors and cytokines stimulating either osteoclast activity leading to osteolytic lesions or osteoblast function resulting in osteoblastic metastases. Growth factors, released from the resorbed bone matrix or throughout osteoblastic bone formation, sustain tumor growth. Therefore, bone metastases are the sites of vicious cycles wherein tumor growth and bone metabolism sustain each other. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promotes the growth of primary tumors and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. We have shown that by acting on cancer cells via the contribution of blood platelets and the LPA-producing enzyme Autotaxin (ATX), LPA promotes the progression of osteolytic bone metastases in animal models. In the light of recent reports it would appear that the role of LPA in the context of bone metastases is complex involving multiple sources of lipid combined with direct and indirect effects on target cells. This review will present our current knowledge on the LPA/ATX axis involvement in osteolytic and osteoblastic skeletal metastases and will discuss the potential activity of LPA upstream and downstream metastasis seeding of cancer cells to bone as well as its implication in cancer induced bone pain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Juillard A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Low Temperature Physics | Year: 2016

EDELWEISS-III is a direct dark matter search experiment, running 800 g heat-and-ionization cryogenic germanium detectors equipped with Full InterDigitized electrodes (FID) for the rejection of near-surface events. We report a preliminary analysis for a subset of the data (35 kg(Formula presented.)days) as well as future prospects for low-mass WIMPs seach. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Rolf T.,ETH Zurich | Coltice N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Coltice N.,Institut Universitaire de France | Tackley P.J.,ETH Zurich
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012

Continents slowly drift at the top of the mantle, sometimes colliding, splitting and aggregating. The evolutions of the continent configuration, as well as oceanic plate tectonics, are surface expressions of mantle convection and closely linked to the thermal state of the mantle; however, quantitative studies are so far lacking. In the present study we use 3D spherical numerical simulations with self-consistently generated plates and compositionally and rheologically distinct continents floating at the top of the mantle in order to investigate the feedbacks between continental drift, oceanic plate tectonics and the thermal state of the Earth's mantle, by using different continent configurations ranging from one supercontinent to six small continents. With the presence of a supercontinent we find a strong time-dependence of the oceanic surface heat flow and suboceanic mantle temperature, driven by the generation of new plate boundaries. Very large oceanic plates correlate with periods of hot suboceanic mantle, while the mantle below smaller oceanic plates tends to be colder. Temperature fluctuations of subcontinental mantle are significantly smaller than in oceanic regions and are caused by a time-variable efficiency of thermal insulation of the continental convection cell. With the presence of multiple continents the temperature below individual continents is generally lower than below supercontinent and is more time-dependent, with fluctuations as large as 15% that are caused by continental assembly and dispersal. The periods featuring a hot subcontinental mantle correlate with strong clustering of the continents and periods characterized by cold subcontinental mantle, at which it can even be colder than suboceanic mantle, with a more dispersed continent configuration. Our findings with multiple continents imply that periods of partial melting and strong magmatic activity inside the continents, which may contribute to continental rifting and pronounced growth of continental crust, might be episodic processes related to the supercontinent cycle. Finally, we observe an influence of continents on the wavelength of convection: for a given strength of the lithosphere we observe longer-wavelength flow components, when continents are present. This observation is regardless of the number of continents, but most pronounced for a single supercontinent. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Albalat E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Telouk P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Albarede F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012

Terrestrial planets are depleted in volatile elements relative to solar abundances. Little is known, however, about volatility at the high temperatures relevant to asteroidal collisions and to the giant lunar impact. Although refractory rare-earth elements have overall similar crystallochemical properties, some differ in their temperatures of condensation from the nebular gas. This is the case for Yb, which condenses at ~1490K and in the vapor is mostly in elemental form. By contrast, Er, largely present as ErO, condenses at ~1660K. We analyzed the Er and Yb isotopic compositions in 33 terrestrial basalts, garnets, different classes of chondrites and achondrites, and lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The range of mass-dependent isotope fractionation is larger for Yb (0.43‰ per amu) than Er (0.23‰) isotopes. For terrestrial rocks, a positive correlation between δYb and La/Yb suggests that the isotopic differences between Er and Yb can be accounted for by the presence of small fractions of Yb2+. Yb is isotopically heavy in kimberlite and light in garnets. Ytterbium behaves similarly to Fe, with Yb3+ being more incompatible than the much less abundant Yb2+. In addition, the coexistence of divalent and trivalent sites in the garnet structure and the preference of heavy isotopes for stable bonds makes Yb in garnet isotopically light.The deficit of heavy Yb isotopes in lunar basaltic samples relative to the Earth, chondrites, and eucrites provides new evidence that the Moon formed by the condensation of silicate vapor in the aftermath of the giant lunar impact. Separation of vapor from melt and of heavy from light isotopes is first expected during the adiabatic expansion of the initial vapor plume. Subsequently, friction between melt and gas tends to further enrich the Moon feeding zone in silicate vapor to compensate the inward migration of melt out of the pre-lunar disk. A major consequence of interpreting the present lunar data by vapor/melt segregation is that the relative abundances of refractory elements in the Moon are unlikely to be chondrite-like or even Earth-like.Erbium isotope ratios in lunar samples reflect the capture of neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays. The first resonance of 167Er for neutron capture will help cover an energy range poorly covered by other nuclides. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Dimitrov-Raytchev P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Beghdadi S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Serghei A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Drockenmuller E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Drockenmuller E.,Institut Universitaire de France
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2013

Step growth polymerization of an α-azide-ω-alkyne monomer by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition affords a high molar mass linear poly(1,2,3-triazole) that is subsequently reacted with iodomethane to yield the corresponding poly(3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium iodide) derivative. The formation of this new type of poly(ionic liquid) having main-chain 1,2,3-triazolium groups in the repeating unit is demonstrated by 1H NMR. The large variety of 1,2,3-triazole-based architectures accessible by anion exchange and macromolecular engineering through click chemistry open new perspectives in the field of poly(ionic liquid)s. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Statzner B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: <10 -6-<10 -15) for nine sediment variables describing baseflow and flood-induced sediment transport as well as sediment surface modifications. For example, bioturbator biomass and/or algal abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~70 and ~90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial sediments over three orders of magnitude and (ii) frequencies of mass transport events over five orders of magnitude. The fastest way to identify promising subsequent research routes in this field would be through a variety of abundance manipulations of lotic organisms (animals and plants having different mechanistic sediment-engineering abilities) in real rivers in combination with a simple approach to assess the critical shear stress in situ for varying types of sediments. This would require joint research by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists, and ecologists. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Geraud B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bocquet L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Barentin C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Physical Journal E | Year: 2013

In this paper, we probe the influence of confinement on the flows of a polymer microgel, namely Carbopol. We compare its bulk rheological behavior, measured with a rheometer and well described by a Hershel-Bulkley law, to velocity profiles measured in rough microchannels, obtained with a particle tracking velocimetry technique. We show a strong disagreement between the bulk prediction for the velocity profiles and the measured ones in the microchannels. Velocity profiles in confined conditions are successfully analyzed within the framework of a non-local fluidity model introduced recently (J. Goyon et al. Nature, 454, 84 (2008)). This allows to determine a cooperativity length ξ, whose order of magnitude compares with the structure size of the microgel. Moreover, we measure flow curves using a rheometer for different gap conditions and also show that this set of data exhibit a strong effect of the confinement on the measured rheological properties. This is again characterized by a typical length of the same order as the cooperativity length scale ξ. We thus evidence confinement effects with two complementary experiments which both give the same typical length for the rearrangements in the flows. © 2013 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Martens K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bocquet L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Barrat J.-L.,Joseph Fourier University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

In this Letter, we explore the relations between tracer diffusion and flow heterogeneities in amorphous materials. On the basis of scaling arguments and an extensive numerical study of an athermal elastoplastic model, we show that there is a direct link between the self-diffusion coefficient and the size of cooperative regions at low strain rates. Both depend strongly on rate and system size. The mean square displacement of passive tracers thus gives information about the microscopic rheology, such as the geometry of cooperative regions and their scaling with strain rate and system size. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Tully R.B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Courtois H.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Courtois H.M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

In order to measure distances with minimal systematics using the correlation between galaxy luminosities and rotation rates it is necessary to adhere to a strict and tested recipe. We now derive a measure of rotation from a new characterization of the width of a neutral hydrogen line profile. Additionally, new photometry and zero-point calibration data are available. Particularly the introduction of a new linewidth parameter necessitates the reconstruction and absolute calibration of the luminosity-linewidth template. The slope of the new template is set by 267 galaxies in 13 clusters. The zero point is set by 36 galaxies with Cepheid or tip of the red giant branch distances. Tentatively, we determine H 0 ∼ 75kms-1 Mpc-1. Distances determined using the luminosity-linewidth calibration will contribute to the distance compendium Cosmicflows-2. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Juniper M.P.,University of Cambridge | Pier B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids | Year: 2015

The structural sensitivity shows where an instability of a fluid flow is most sensitive to changes in internal feedback mechanisms. It is formed from the overlap of the flow's direct and adjoint global modes. These global modes are usually calculated with 2D or 3D global stability analyses, which can be very computationally expensive. For weakly non-parallel flows the direct global mode can also be calculated with a local stability analysis, which is orders of magnitude cheaper. In this theoretical paper we show that, if the direct global mode has been calculated with a local analysis, then the adjoint global mode follows at little extra cost. We also show that the maximum of the structural sensitivity is the location at which the local k+ and k- branches have the same imaginary value. Finally, we use the local analysis to derive the structural sensitivity of two flows: a confined co-flow wake at Re=400, for which it works very well, and the flow behind a cylinder at Re=50, for which it works reasonably well. As expected, we find that the local analysis becomes less accurate when the flow becomes less parallel. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Dal Pont K.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gerard J.-F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Espuche E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics | Year: 2013

In this work, a novel nanocomposite series based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR latex) and alpha-zirconium phosphate(α-ZrP) lamellar nanofillers is successfully prepared. The α-ZrP lamellar filler is modified at the cation exchange capacity by γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and the filler surface modification is first discussed. A significant improvement of the mechanical properties is obtained by using the surface modified nanofillers. However, no modification of the gas barrier properties is observed. The impact of addition of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide (TESPT) as coupling agent in the system is discussed on the nanofiller dispersion state and on the filler-matrix interfacial bonding. Simultaneous use of modified nanofillers and TESPT coupling agent is found out with extraordinary reinforcing effects on both mechanical and gas barrier properties and the key factors at the origin of the improvement of these properties are identified. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ovize M.,Center Dinvestigation Clinique Of Lyon | Ovize M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Thibault H.,Center Dinvestigation Clinique Of Lyon | Thibault H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Przyklenk K.,Wayne State University
Circulation Research | Year: 2013

Myocardial conditioning is an endogenous cardioprotective phenomenon that profoundly limits infarct size in experimental models. The current challenge is to translate this paradigm from the laboratory to the clinic. Accordingly, our goal in this review is to provide a critical summary of the progress toward, opportunities for, and caveats to, the successful clinical translation of postconditioning and remote conditioning, the 2 conditioning strategies considered to have the broadest applicability for real-world patient care. In the majority of phase II studies published to date, postconditioning evoked a ≈35% reduction of infarct size in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Essential criteria for the successful implementation of postconditioning include the appropriate choice of patients (ie, those with large risk regions and negligible collateral flow), timely application of the postconditioning stimulus (immediately on reperfusion), together with proper choice of end points (infarct size, with concomitant assessment of risk region). Remote conditioning has been applied in planned ischemic events (including cardiac surgery and elective percutaneous coronary intervention) and in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients during hospital transport. Controversies with regard to efficacy have emerged, particularly among surgical trials. These disparate outcomes in all likelihood reflect the remarkable heterogeneity within and among studies, together with a deficit in our understanding of the impact of these variations on the infarct-sparing effect of remote conditioning. Ongoing phase III trials will provide critical insight into the future role of postconditioning and remote conditioning as clinically relevant cardioprotective strategies. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

Vijande J.,University of Valencia | Valcarce A.,University of Salamanca | Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We revisit the role of color mixing in the quark model calculation of tetraquark states, and compare simple pairwise potentials to more elaborate string models with three- and four-body forces. We attempt to disentangle the improved dynamics of confinement from the approximations made in the treatment of the internal color degrees of freedom. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Biance A.-L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Biance A.-L.,CNRS Physics Laboratory of Condensed Matter and Nanostructure | Delbos A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Pitois O.,University Paris Est Creteil
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The stability of foam is investigated experimentally through coalescence events. Instability (coalescence) occurs when the system is submitted to external perturbations (T1) and when the liquid amount in the film network is below a critical value. Microscopically, transient thick films are observed during film rearrangements. Film rupture, with coalescence and eventual collapse of the foam, occurs when the available local liquid amount is too small for transient films to be formed. Similar experiments and results are shown in the two-bubble case. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Floret D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal des Anti-Infectieux | Year: 2013

Contexte: Méthodes: Résultats: Conclusions: Background: The French vaccine schedule for children is somewhat complicated with a lot of shots. Adults are expected to receive a booster every 10 years, that is difficult to memorize and eventually not often respected. Recent data suggest the possibility to provide a good protection with fewer shots. Methods: A working group from the Technical Committee for Immunizations/High Council for Public Health made an extensive review of literature, collected data from other countries, heard national and international experts and implemented a study on acceptability of a new vaccine schedule. Results: A simplified vaccine schedule is implemented: the current infant immunization schedule against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae b invasive infections, comprised three shots (at 2, 3 and 4 months of age) and a booster administered between 16 and 18 months of age. The present schedule consists in the administration of two shots at two and four months of age and a booster at 11 months. The timing of the other vaccines is changed to allow co-administrations with a maximum of two shots at the same visit. Instead of booster vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis every 10 years, adults should now receive boosters at fixed age: 25 years (adding pertussis vaccine), 45, 65 years of age, then 75, 85 ...years (a 10-year interval due to immune senescence). Conclusion: This new vaccine schedule seems to be well accepted by health care professionals and is expected to improve the acceptability of vaccination and hence increase the vaccine coverage. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Martini M.,Free University of Colombia | Ericson M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ericson M.,CERN | Chanfray G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Data on neutrino oscillation often involve reconstructed neutrino energies while the analysis implies the real neutrino energy. The corrections corresponding to the transformation from real to reconstructed energy are discussed in the case of Cherenkov detectors where multinucleon events appear as quasielastic ones. These corrections show up as a tendency for the events to escape the region of high flux, with a clear preference for the low energy side. This is an effect of the multinucleon component of the quasielastic cross section. We have applied our corrections to the T2K and MiniBooNE data for electron appearance or νμ disappearance data. We show that the inclusion of this correction in the analysis is expected to lead to an increase of the best fit oscillation mass parameters, particularly pronounced for the MiniBooNE neutrino data. This inclusion in the analysis of the MiniBooNE neutrino data should improve the compatibility with the existing constraints. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Courtois H.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Tully R.B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The construction of the Cosmicflows-2 compendium of distances involves the merging of distance measures contributed by the following methods: (Cepheid) period-luminosity, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), surface brightness fluctuation (SBF), luminosity-linewidth (TF), fundamental plane (FP), and Type Ia supernova (SNIa). The method involving SNIa is at the top of an interconnected ladder, providing accurate distances to well beyond the expected range of distortions to Hubble flow from peculiar motions. In this paper, the SNIa scale is anchored by 36 TF spirals with Cepheid or TRGB distances, 56 SNIa hosts with TF distances, and 61 groups or clusters hosting SNIa with Cepheid, SBF, TF, or FP distances. With the SNIa scale zero-point set, a value of the Hubble constant is evaluated over a range of redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.5, assuming a cosmological model with Ωm = 0.27 and ΩΛ = 0.73. The value determined for the Hubble constant is H 0 = 75.9 ± 3.8kms-1Mpc-1. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Dufay M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pierre-Louis O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We report on the destabilization of the film edge during the dewetting of ultrathin solid films. An unusual coarsening behavior is found within the linear instability regime. In addition, we find that the instability is suppressed along faceted orientations. Our results are obtained via kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. An analytical model based on diffusion-limited mass transport on the rim and nucleation-limited increase of the rim height provides a good description of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Our results are consistent with recent experimental observations. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Statzner B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Doledec S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
International Review of Hydrobiology | Year: 2011

When Illies published his concept on the longitudinal zonation of lotic invertebrates five decades ago (Illies, J., 1961: Internat. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 46: 205-213), he defined a research topic that currently interests many ecologists because he linked speciation and phylogeny with spatial distribution and trait adaptation to environmental conditions prevailing along rivers. We tested these ideas analyzing nine species of the caddisfly genus Hydropsyche from the Loire River (France). A morphology-based phylogeny illustrated that the oldest of our species occurred in the headwater and that specific phylogenetic distances from the root location in the tree were significantly related to the specific longitudinal occurrences in the Loire. Furthermore, traits such as oxygen consumption, optimal velocity for filter-net-building, and larval size were significantly related to the specific phylogenetic distances, indicating meaningful, gradual adaptations to environmental gradients prevailing along European rivers (particularly in water temperature, near-bottom flow, sediment porosity). Thus, joining phylogeny, spatial distribution, and species traits provided insights into a central topic of contemporary ecology, the spatial patterns of speciation, taxonomic community structure (species distributions), and niche adaptation (traits). © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Favre E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in adult patients suffering from Wilsonʼs disease is now more clearly described, even in liver forms of the disease. Although this condition can appear during childhood, the cognitive abilities of children have not yet been reported in a substantial case series. This retrospective study included 21 children with Wilsonʼs disease who had undergone general cognitive assessment. The results argue in favour of a poor working memory capacity in the liver form of the disease, and more extensive cognitive impairments in its neurological form. Extensive neuropsychological investigations on all children suffering from Wilsonʼs disease are thus required. © 2016 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

D'Agosto F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Boisson C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

The present paper highlights analogies between one of the most efficient control radical polymerization techniques namely the reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer process, and the catalyzed polyethylene chain growth, the only technique that can controlled olefins polymerization through coordination chemistry under catalytic conditions. © CSIRO 2010.

Luquot L.,Montpellier University | Andreani M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gouze P.,Montpellier University | Camps P.,Montpellier University
Chemical Geology | Year: 2012

Underground CO 2 sequestration is highly recommended as an effective means of significantly decreasing CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. Mineral storage is the more secure technology, but requires the presence of high concentration of divalent cations in the pore-fluid. Results from CO 2 percolation experiments through chlorite/zeolite-rich sandstone samples from the Pretty Hill Formation (Otway Basin, Australia) are presented. The dissolution of the laumontite (7wt.%) and chamosite (7wt.%) are the potential sources of calcium, iron and magnesium required for carbonate precipitation. The percolation experiment was setup to reproduce, at laboratory scale, the in situ temperature and pressure conditions (T=95°C and P=10MPa). The fluid injected at constant flow rate is a rock-equilibrated brine subsequently enriched in CO 2 up to partial pressure of 6MPa.We observe feldspars, laumontite and chamosite dissolution, kaolinite and silica precipitation and a noticeable sink of CO 2 in the sample which is attributed to the precipitation of both amorphous carbon due to the reduction of CO 2 and Fe-rich carbonate. Permeability decreases of about one order of magnitude due to the localization of the kaolinite precipitation in the main flow paths, while porosity increases.The high reactivity of this sandstone makes this reservoir a valuable target for CO 2 mineralization, but the associated permeability decrease may limit the injection rate and the spreading of the CO 2 in the reservoir. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Pole M.,Queensland Herbarium | Philippe M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Alcheringa | Year: 2010

Pitt Island, a part of the Chathams Islands group, lies 700 km east of New Zealand. Its geology includes the Tupuangi Formation, dated as Motuan to Teratan (late Albian to Santonian) on the basis of palynology. Samples of Tupuangi Formation mudstone yielded leaf cuticle assemblages dominated by araucarian and podocarp conifers and locally by angiosperms. The 12 distinguishable conifer taxa include a new species of Araucaria, A. rangiauriaensis, and the extinct genera Eromangia, Kakahuia (both Podocarpaceae), Otwayia (Cheirolepidiaceae), Paahake (Taxodiaceae or Taxaceae) and possibly Katikia (Podocarpaceae). Ginkgo and two types of dicotyledonous angiosperm cuticle are present. Based on the absence of bennettitaleans and rarity of Ginkgo, a Turonian or slightly younger age is inferred, making the Pitt Island assemblage the first Turonian plant macrofossils documented from New Zealand. The fossils provide a window into southern high-latitude (polar) vegetation of the mid-Cretaceous. Conifer charcoal (probably of Podocarpaceae) is locally abundant and suggests that fire was an important part of the ecosystem. A broad analogy with modern boreal conifer-deciduous angiosperm forests is suggested although clearly with warmer temperatures. © 2010 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists.

Antoni J.,Compiègne University of Technology | Antoni J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Chauhan S.,Brüel and Kjær Vibro
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2013

Second-order blind source separation (SOBSS) has gained recent interest in operational modal analysis (OMA), since it is able to separate a set of system responses into modal coordinates from which the system poles can be extracted by single-degree-of-freedom techniques. In addition, SOBSS returns a mixing matrix whose columns are the estimates of the system mode shapes. The objective of this paper is threefold. First, a theoretical analysis of current SOBSS methods is conducted within the OMA framework and its precise conditions of applicability are established. Second, a new separation method is proposed that fixes current limitations of SOBSS: It returns estimate of complex mode shapes, it can deal with more active modes than the number of available sensors, and it shows superior performance in the case of heavily damped and/or strongly coupled modes. Third, a theoretical connection is drawn between SOBSS and stochastic subspace identification (SSI), which stands as one of the points of reference in OMA. All approaches are finally compared by means of numerical simulations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Peyrin F.,INSA Lyon | Peyrin F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Peyrin F.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

This paper reviews the possibilities offered by X-ray micro-CT in bone tissue engineering. This technique provides a fast, nondestructive, and 3D quantification of bone scaffolds, bone ingrowth, and microvascularization. Synchrotron radiation absorption and phase micro-CT offer additional advantages to image newly formed bone in bioceramic scaffolds and pre-bone matrix. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011.

Matouzenko G.S.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Jeanneau E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Verat A.Y.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Bousseksou A.,CNRS Coordination Chemistry
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2011

Two polymorphic modifications 1 and 3 of binuclear compound [{Fe(dpia)(NCS) 2} 2(bpe)] and pseudo-polymorphic modification [{Fe(dpia)(NCS) 2} 2(bpe)]·2CH 3OH (2), where dpia = di-(2-picolyl)amine, bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl) ethene, were synthesized, and their structures, magnetic properties, and Mössbauer spectra were studied. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements of three binuclear compounds show different types of magnetic behaviour. The complex 1 exhibits a gradual two-step spin crossover (SCO) suggesting the occurrence of the mixed [HS-LS] (HS: high spin, LS: low spin) pair at the plateau temperature (182 K), at which about 50% of the complexes undergoes a thermal spin conversion. The complex 2 displays an abrupt full one-step spin transition without hysteresis, centred at about 159 K. The complex 3 is paramagnetic over the temperature range 20-290 K. The single-crystal X-ray studies show that all three compounds are built up from the bpe-bridged binuclear molecules. The structure of 1 was solved for three spin isomers [HS-HS], [HS-LS], and [LS-LS] at three temperatures 300 K, 183 K, and 90 K. The crystal structures for 2 and 3 were determined for the [HS-HS] complexes at room temperature. The analysis of correlations between the structural characteristics and different types of magnetic behaviour for new 1-3 binuclear complexes, as well as for previously reported binuclear compounds, revealed that the SCO process (occurrence of full one-step, two-step, or partial (50%) SCO) is specified by the degree of distortion of the octahedral geometry of the [FeN 6] core, caused by both packing and strain effects arising from terminal and/or bridging ligands. The comparison of the magnetic properties and the networks of intra- and inter-molecular interactions in the crystal lattice for the family of related SCO binuclear compounds suggests that the intermolecular interactions play a predominant role in the cooperativeness of the spin transition relative to the intramolecular interactions through the bridging ligand. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Teulier L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

Rochette N.C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Brochier-Armanet C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gouy M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

The evolutionary origin of eukaryotes is a question of great interest for which many different hypotheses have been proposed. These hypotheses predict distinct patterns of evolutionary relationships for individual genes of the ancestral eukaryotic genome. The availability of numerous completely sequenced genomes covering the three domains of life makes it possible to contrast these predictions with empirical data. We performed a systematic analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of ancestral eukaryotic genes with archaeal and bacterial genes. In contrast with previous studies, we emphasize the critical importance of methods accounting for statistical support, horizontal gene transfer, and gene loss, and we disentangle the processes underlying the phylogenomic pattern we observe. We first recover a clear signal indicating that a fraction of the bacteria-like eukaryotic genes are of alphaproteobacterial origin. Then, we show that the majority of bacteria-related eukaryotic genes actually do not point to a relationship with a specific bacterial taxonomic group. We also provide evidence that eukaryotes branch close to the last archaeal common ancestor. Our results demonstrate that there is no phylogenetic support for hypotheses involving a fusion with a bacterium other than the ancestor of mitochondria. Overall, they leave only two possible interpretations, respectively, based on the early-mitochondria hypotheses, which suppose an early endosymbiosis of an alphaproteobacterium in an archaeal host and on the slow-drip autogenous hypothesis, in which early eukaryotic ancestors were particularly prone to horizontal gene transfers. © 2014 The Author.

Rieger J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Zhang W.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Stoffelbach F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Charleux B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Macromolecules | Year: 2010

Water-soluble poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)s (PDMAAm) with a reactive trithiocarbonate group exhibiting different structures were used as macromolecular RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) agents in the surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate and styrene, under ab initio, batch conditions. Independently of the structure of the RAFT group, the polymerizations were fast and controlled with molar masses that matched well the theoretical values and rather low polydispersity indexes. Monomer conversions close to 100% were reached and the polymerizations behaved as controlled systems, even when solids contents up to 40% were targeted. The system thus led to poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-polystyrene amphiphilic diblock copolymers formed in situ and self-assembled upon chain extension. The stability of the aqueous dispersions, measured by the amount of coagulum formed, improved with increasing length of the stabilizing hydrophilic PDMAAm segments. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Nussey D.H.,University of Edinburgh | Froy H.,University of Edinburgh | Lemaitre J.-F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Gaillard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Austad S.N.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2013

That senescence is rarely, if ever, observed in natural populations is an oft-quoted fallacy within bio-gerontology. We identify the roots of this fallacy in the otherwise seminal works of Medawar and Comfort, and explain that under antagonistic pleiotropy or disposable soma explanations for the evolution of senescence there is no reason why senescence cannot evolve to be manifest within the life expectancies of wild organisms. The recent emergence of long-term field studies presents irrefutable evidence that senescence is commonly detected in nature. We found such evidence in 175 different animal species from 340 separate studies. Although the bulk of this evidence comes from birds and mammals, we also found evidence for senescence in other vertebrates and insects. We describe how high-quality longitudinal field data allow us to test evolutionary explanations for differences in senescence between the sexes and among traits and individuals. Recent studies indicate that genes, prior environment and investment in growth and reproduction influence aging rates in the wild. We argue that - with the fallacy that wild animals do not senesce finally dead and buried - collaborations between bio-gerontologists and field biologists can begin to test the ecological generality of purportedly 'public' mechanisms regulating aging in laboratory models. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada | Fauquette S.,Montpellier University | Suc J.-P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

Pollen analysis of Miocene and Pliocene sediments from the Iberian Peninsula shows a progressive reduction in plant diversity through time caused by the disappearance of thermophilous and high-water requirement plants. In addition, an increase in warm-temperate (mesothermic), seasonal-adapted "Mediterranean" taxa, high-elevation conifers and herbs (mainly Artemisia) occurred during the Middle and Late Miocene and Pliocene. This has mainly been interpreted as a response of the vegetation to global and regional processes, including climate cooling related to the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and then the onset of the Arctic Ice Sheet, uplift of regional mountains related to the Alpine uplift and the progressive movement of Eurasia towards northern latitudes as a result of the northwards subduction of Africa. The development of steppe-like vegetation in southern Iberia is ancient and probably started during the Oligocene. The onset of a contrasted seasonality in temperature during the Mid-Pliocene superimposed on the pre-existing seasonality in precipitation, the annual length of which increased southward. The Mediterranean climatic rhythm (summer drought) began about 3.4. Ma and caused the individualization of modern Mediterranean ecosystems. Quaternary-type Mediterranean climatic fluctuations started at 2.6. Ma (Gelasian) resulting in repeated steppe vs. forest alternations. A latitudinal climatic gradient between the southern and the northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula existed since the Middle Miocene. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang E.,Compiègne University of Technology | Antoni J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Feissel P.,Compiègne University of Technology
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

This paper presents a Bayesian approach for force reconstruction which can deal with both measurement noise and model uncertainty. In particular, an uncertain model is considered for inversion in the form of a matrix of frequency response functions whose modal parameters originate from either measurements or a finite element model. The model uncertainty and the regularization parameter are jointly determined with the unknown force through Monte Carlo Markov chain methods. Bayesian credible intervals of the force are built from its posterior probability density function by taking into account the quantified model uncertainty and measurement noise. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated on numerical and experimental examples. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

Current and upcoming experiments should improve the sensitivity to e α → e βγ decays by an order of magnitude. This paper assumes that one of the τ → e βγ decays is observed, and explores the structure and consequences of the required new flavoured couplings. In simple models (a low-scale seesaw, leptoquarks) it is shown that the dipole vertex function is proportional to a product of flavoured matrices from the Lagrangian (a "Jarlskog-like"invariant), provided that the loop particles are weakly coupled to the Higgs. Secondly, if the dipole vertex function has a hierarchical structure, this might imply that only some of the τ → e βγ modes can be observed, due to the "approximate zero" implied by the bound on μ→e γ. The assumptions underlying this potential test of a hierarchical structure are discussed. © Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica 2012.

Bacchus-Montabonel M.-C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Modeling-induced radiation damage in biological systems, in particular, in DNA building blocks, is of major concern in cancer therapy studies. Ion-induced charge-transfer dynamics may indeed be involved in proton and hadrontherapy treatments. We have thus performed a theoretical approach of the charge-transfer dynamics in collision of C4+ ions and protons with isolated 2-deoxy-d-ribose in a wide collision energy range by means of ab initio quantum chemistry molecular methods. The comparison of both projectile ions has been performed with regard to previous theoretical and experimental results. The charge transfer appears markedly less efficient with the 2-deoxy-d-ribose target than that with pyrimidine nucleobases, which would induce an enhancement of the fragmentation process in agreement with experimental measurements. The mechanism has been analyzed with regard to inner orbital excitations, and qualitative tendencies have been pointed out for studies on DNA buiding block damage. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Groussin M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Groussin M.,CNRS Biometry and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory | Boussau B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Boussau B.,University of California at Berkeley | Gouy M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Systematic Biology | Year: 2013

Most models of nucleotide or amino acid substitution used in phylogenetic studies assume that the evolutionary process has been homogeneous across lineages and that composition of nucleotides or amino acids has remained the same throughout the tree. These oversimplified assumptions are refuted by the observation that compositional variability characterizes extant biological sequences. Branch-heterogeneous models of protein evolution that account for compositional variability have been developed, but are not yet in common use because of the large number of parameters required, leading to high computational costs and potential overparameterization. Here, we present a new branch-nonhomogeneous and nonstationary model of protein evolution that captures more accurately the high complexity of sequence evolution. This model, henceforth called Correspondence and likelihood analysis (COaLA), makes use of a correspondence analysis to reduce the number of parameters to be optimized through maximum likelihood, focusing on most of the compositional variation observed in the data. The model was thoroughly tested on both simulated and biological data sets to show its high performance in terms of data fitting and CPU time. COaLA efficiently estimates ancestral amino acid frequencies and sequences, making it relevant for studies aiming at reconstructing and resurrecting ancestral amino acid sequences. Finally, we applied COaLA on a concatenate of universal amino acid sequences to confirm previous results obtained with a nonhomogeneous Bayesian model regarding the early pattern of adaptation to optimal growth temperature, supporting the mesophilic nature of the Last Universal Common Ancestor. [Ancestral sequence reconstruction; nonhomogeneous model; optimal growth temperature; phylogenomics; phylogeny.] © The Author(s) 2013.

Vilhena J.G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Botti S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Botti S.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Marques M.A.L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Using a first-principle approach beyond density functional theory we calculate the electronic and optical properties of small diameter CdSe nanowires. Our results demonstrate how some approximations commonly used in bulk systems fail at this nanoscale level and how indispensable it is to include crystal local fields and excitonic effects to predict the unique optical properties of nanowires. From our results, we then construct a simple model to describe the optical gap as a function of the diameter of the wire, that turns out to be in excellent agreement with experiments for intermediate and large diameters. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Allouche A.-R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Allouche A.-R.,CNRS Laboratory of Ionic and Molecular Spectrometry
Journal of Computational Chemistry | Year: 2011

Gabedit is a freeware graphical user interface, offering preprocessing and postprocessing adapted (to date) to nine computational chemistry software packages. It includes tools for editing, displaying, analyzing, converting, and animating molecular systems. A conformational search tool is implemented using a molecular mechanics or a semiempirical potential. Input files can be generated for the computational chemistry software supported by Gabedit. Some molecular properties of interest are processed directly from the output of the computational chemistry programs; others are calculated by Gabedit before display. Molecular orbitals, electron density, electrostatic potential, nuclear magnetic resonance shielding density, and any other volumetric data properties can be displayed. It can display electronic circular dichroism, UV-visible, infrared, and Raman-computed spectra after a convolution. Gabedit can generate a Povray file for geometry, surfaces, contours, and color-coded planes. Output can be exported to a selection of popular image and vector graphics file formats; the program can also generate a series of pictures for animation. Quantum mechanical electrostatic potentials can be calculated using the partial charges on atoms, or by solving the Poisson equation using the multigrid method. The atoms in molecule charges can also be calculated. Gabedit is platform independent. The code is distributed under free open source X11 style license and is available at. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ter-Ovanessian B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Alemany-Dumont C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Normand B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2014

In the presence of chloride ions, passive films grown on Nickel-Chromium alloys may be sensitive to chemically induced breakdown. As chloride ion adsorption on the passive film/electrolyte interface and their penetration through the film are the main reasons for passivity breakdown, their mechanisms need to be assessed and understood. In the present study, the passivity of pure Ni, pure Cr and different Ni-Cr alloys (with 16, 20, 24 and 28 wt% Cr) was characterized for two film growth conditions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the Mott-Schottky analysis. EIS spectra, obtained after the immersions, were analyzed from an Equivalent Electrical Circuit taking into account migration phenomena through the passive film (transport resistance, apparent diffusivity). Mott-Schottky analyses were performed to obtain the semiconductor properties of the passive films, such as semiconducting type, charge carrier density and flat band potential. All of these results were compared as a function of substrate composition and film-forming conditions. The relation between chloride anions adsorption or penetration and the electronic and transport properties of the passive films is then discussed. Particular attention is paid to the migration parameters, the flat band potential and the charge carrier density. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Uras A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

Low-mass dimuon production, including light vector mesons ρ, ω, φ, provides key information on the hot and dense state of strongly interacting matter produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In particular, strangeness production can be studied via φ meson measurements, while the detailed description of the full dimuon mass spectrum down to the kinematic threshold can be used to reveal in-medium modifications of hadron properties and the thermal emission arising from the medium. Measurements in pp and p-A systems, in absence of hot nuclear matter effects, must be used as a reference to test our knowledge of the processes expected to contribute to dilepton production. Dimuon production is studied with the ALICE apparatus at the LHC at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4) with the Muon Spectrometer. In this contribution, results on low-mass dimuon production are shown, for various center-of-mass energies per nucleon pair, in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions.

Rizo H.,CNRS Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory | Boyet M.,CNRS Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory | Blichert-Toft J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Rosing M.,Copenhagen University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2011

We present the first combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd and 176Lu- 176Hf study of mafic rocks (amphibolites) from the western part of the Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB, SW Greenland). Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf whole-rock isochrons yield identical ages within error: 3.72±0.08 and 3.67±0.07Ga, respectively. 142Nd measurements confirm and extend the database of 142Nd excesses in Isua samples (μ 142Nd=7-16ppm relative to the terrestrial Nd standard), indicating that early-differentiated reservoirs escaped complete homogenization by mantle convection until the Archean. Combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd systematics suggest differentiation of the Isua amphibolite reservoir at maximum ages of ~4.53, ~4.47, and ~4.32Ga. These ages are relative to, respectively, ordinary-chondritic, enstatite-chondritic, and higher-than-chondritic mantle compositions. The intercept of the Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron is in accordance with 142Nd results and consistent with a superchondritic initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratio (ε 143Nd 3.7Ga=+1.41±0.98). In contrast, the corresponding initial ε 176Hf 3.7Ga=-1.41±0.57 is subchondritic. Since Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd fractionate similarly during mantle processes, the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems display incongruent relative parent-daughter behavior in the source of Isua amphibolites. Based on high-pressure and -temperature phase partition coefficients, we propose a model that satisfies 147Sm- 143Nd, 176Lu- 176Hf, and 142Nd results, as well as trace element characteristics. A deep-seated source composed largely of magnesium perovskite (98% MgPv) and containing 2% calcium perovskite satisfactorily explains the Nd and Hf isotopic discordance observed for Isua amphibolites. The negative HFSE anomalies characterizing Isua basalts likewise could have been inherited from such an early (4.53-4.32Ga) deep mantle cumulate. Since the ~4Ga old Acasta Gneisses (Northwest Territories, Canada) have radiogenic 176Hf/ 177Hf (Scherer et al., 2010), dissociation of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systems may not be a ubiquitous feature of the Hadean mantle, but rather reflects that a deep-seated source was involved in the formation of ISB lavas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bacchetta J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cochat P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2015

Primary disease recurrence after renal transplantation is mainly diagnosed by examination of biopsy samples, but can also be associated with clinical symptoms. In some patients, recurrence can lead to graft loss (7-8% of all graft losses). Primary disease recurrence is generally associated with a high risk of graft loss in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis, primary hyperoxaluria or atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome. By contrast, disease recurrence is associated with a limited risk of graft loss in patients with IgA nephropathy, renal involvement associated with Henoch-Schönlein purpura, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis or lupus nephritis. The presence of systemic diseases that affect the kidneys, such as sickle cell anaemia and diabetes mellitus, also increases the risk of delayed graft loss. This Review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of primary disease recurrence in paediatric renal graft recipients, and describes the overall effect on graft survival of each of the primary diseases listed above. With appropriate management, few paediatric patients should be excluded from renal transplantation programmes because of an increased risk of recurrence. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Rodrigue N.,University of Calgary | Lartillot N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Motivation: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the potential of codon substitution models for a variety of applications. However, the computational demands of these models have sometimes lead to the adoption of oversimplified assumptions, questionable statistical methods or a limited focus on small data sets.Results: Here, we offer a scalable, message-passing- interface-based Bayesian implementation of site-heterogeneous codon models in the mutation-selection framework. Our software jointly infers the global mutational parameters at the nucleotide level, the branch lengths of the tree and a Dirichlet process governing across-site variation at the amino acid level. We focus on an example estimation of the distribution of selection coefficients from an alignment of several hundred sequences of the influenza PB2 gene, and highlight the site-specific characterization enabled by such a modeling approach. Finally, we discuss future potential applications of the software for conducting evolutionary inferences. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

Mollereau B.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Ma D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Apoptosis | Year: 2014

The canonical role of p53 in preserving genome integrity and limiting carcinogenesis has been well established. In the presence of acute DNA-damage, oncogene deregulation and other forms of cellular stress, p53 orchestrates a myriad of pleiotropic processes to repair cellular damages and maintain homeostasis. Beside these well-studied functions of p53, recent studies in Drosophila have unraveled intriguing roles of Dmp53 in promoting cell division in apoptosis-induced proliferation, enhancing fitness and proliferation of the winner cell in cell competition and coordinating growth at the organ and organismal level in the presence of stress. In this review, we describe these new functions of Dmp53 and discuss their relevance in the context of carcinogenesis. © 2014 The Author(s).

Vitillo J.G.,University of Turin | Savonnet M.,French Institute of Petroleum | Savonnet M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ricchiardi G.,University of Turin | Bordiga S.,University of Turin
ChemSusChem | Year: 2011

Carbon dioxide capture from processes is one of the strategies adopted to decrease anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. To lower the cost associated with the regeneration of amine-based scrubber systems, one of the envisaged strategies is the grafting of amines onto high-surface-area supports and, in particular, onto metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this study, the interaction between CO 2 and aliphatic and aromatic amines has been characterized by quantum mechanical methods (MP2), focusing attention both on species already reported in MOFs and on new amine-based linkers, to inspire the rational synthesis of new high-capacity MOFs. The calculations highlight binding-site requisites and indicate that CO 2 vibrations are independent of the adsorption energy and monitoring them in probe-molecule experiments is not a suitable marker of efficient adsorption. Scrubbed away: Quantum mechanics is used as a screening tool to investigate the affinity of different functional groups towards CO 2. The calculations explain the large CO 2 affinity observed experimentally for 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate-based materials by the presence of pairs of -NH 2 groups and not by the direct interaction with isolated -NH 2 groups (see picture). © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Alim K.,Harvard University | Hamant O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Boudaoud A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

The coordination of cell division and cell expansion are critical to normal development of tissues. In plants, cell wall mechanics and the there from arising cell shapes and mechanical stresses can regulate cell division and cell expansion and thereby tissue growth and morphology. Limited by experimental accessibility it remains unknown how cell division and expansion cooperatively affect tissue growth dynamics. Employing a cell-based two dimensional tissue simulation we investigate the regulatory role of a range of cell division rules on tissue growth dynamics and in particular on the spatial heterogeneity of growth. We find that random cell divisions only add noise to the growth and therefore increase growth heterogeneity, while cell divisions following the shortest new wall or along the direction of maximal mechanical stress reduce growth heterogeneity by actively enhancing the regulation of growth by mechanical stresses. Thus, we find that, beyond tissue geometry and topology, cell divisions affect the dynamics of growth, and that their signature is embedded in the statistics of tissue growth. © 2012 Alim, Hamant and Boudaoud.

Colombie C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lecuyer C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Strasser A.,University of Fribourg
Geological Magazine | Year: 2011

Carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios are commonly used to correlate shallow- and deep-marine successions. Carbon- and oxygen-isotope analyses were performed on bulk-carbonate samples from two Kimmeridgian sections of the Swiss Jura platform in order to correlate them with biostratigraphically well-dated coeval sections in the adjacent basin. On the platform, a general decrease in δ13C and δ18O values from the base to the top of the studied interval is measured, whereas time-equivalent pelagic-hemipelagic carbonates record an increase in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. Moreover, the measured δ13C and δ18O values are generally lower than those indicated for the Kimmeridgian open ocean and show high-frequency variations superimposed on the general trend. Samples were screened for diagenetic alteration using optical and cathodoluminescence petrography and coupled carbon- and oxygen-isotope and trace-element analyses. Some observations favour a role for diagenetic alteration, but isotopic and elemental trends as well as sedimentological evidence suggest that the more negative values of δ13C and δ18O relative to Kimmeridgian seawater are also due to local environmental conditions. High-frequency changes in δ18O and δ13C values most likely result from variations in salinity and carbonate production and accumulation rates. These variations were produced by different water masses that were isolated from the open ocean and developed their own geochemical signatures. Repeated isolation was induced by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations and helped by irregular platform morphology. Consequently, carbon- and oxygen-isotope records in shallow-marine carbonates can be used for stratigraphic correlation only if their origin is well known. © Cambridge University Press 2010.

Dole-Olivier M.-J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2011

The hyporheic zone (HZ) is thought to serve multiple functions for lotic invertebrates, but its role in the persistence of benthic assemblages after disturbances ('hyporheic refuge hypothesis', HRH) has never been clearly demonstrated since its initial proposal in 1953. Water exchanges through the HZ appear to be crucial in determining most hyporheic processes and subsequently, in controlling directly or indirectly the distribution of hyporheic assemblages. At present, it seems that the distribution of hyporheic refugia would also be controlled by hyporheic flowpaths, explaining the non-uniform response to the HRH documented in the literature. In light of recent developments in hyporheic hydrology, it is timely to propose research directions for understanding the distribution and patchiness of hyporheic refugia. This review proposes a framework of hypotheses, based on the recognition of hyporheic flowpaths across several scales and predicting the highest refugial capacity in large-scale upwelling zones. Outcomes from this framework include the development of physical indicators measuring the ability of the HZ to protect invertebrates, the identification of river areas demonstrating the highest refuge capacity (hyporheic hotspots) and the promotion in restoration projects of suitable hydrologic exchanges for enhancing the development of hyporheic hotspots. © CSIRO 2011.

Perrier V.,University of Tartu | Vannier J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Siveter D.J.,University of Leicester
Palaeontology | Year: 2011

Bolbozoid and cypridinid myodocope ostracods from France, the Czech Republic and Sardinia consist of four genera (one new: Silurocypridina) and at least ten species (eight new: Bolbozoe acuta, B. rugosa, B. parvafraga, Parabolbozoe armoricana, Silurocypridina retroreticulata, S. variostriata, S. calva and Calocaria robusta). They have a functional design, palaeogeographical distribution, depositional setting and faunal associates that suggest that they were swimmers in the water column, living in dim light, relatively deep environments, above near bottom dysoxic/anoxic conditions. These myodocope faunas include some possible pelagic species sensu stricto, with widespread palaeogeographical (transoceanic) distribution, and some species that occupied hyperbenthic niches and were capable of making short incursions to the sediment to scavenge on carrion. These data support the model that Silurian myodocopes were pioneer pelagic ostracods. © The Palaeontological Association.

Peresypkina E.V.,RAS Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry | Majcher A.M.,Jagiellonian University | Rams M.,Jagiellonian University | Vostrikova K.E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

The first single chain magnet (SCM) based on orbitally degenerate hexacyanoosmate(iii) was prepared. The high values of energy barriers for the [Mn(acacen)Os(CN)6]2- complex of 81 and 48.4 K are the result of interplay of three axes anisotropic coupling of [Os(CN) 6]3- with zero field splitted Mn3+. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Martinent G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ferrand C.,University of Tours
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport | Year: 2015

Purpose: Cognitive-motivational-relational theory (CMRT) emphasizes that cognitive appraisal components and core relational themes (in which the 6 separate appraisal judgments are brought together as 1) are the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. This study aimed to explore appraisals associated with discrete emotions experienced by athletes during competition by adopting a naturalistic, qualitative video-assisted approach. Method: Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table-tennis players. Qualitative inductive and deductive content analyses were conducted on the participants' transcripts. Results: Content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego involvement, blame or credit, coping potential, and future expectations) were associated with a range of positive and negative discrete emotions: self-, other-, and environmental-oriented anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, hope, and pride. Hierarchical content analyses also provided some support for the concept of core relational themes. Conclusion: Findings of the present study are consistent with a CMRT approach and highlight that primary and secondary appraisals as well as core relational themes are associated with discrete emotions experienced by athletes while competing. Limitations and practical applications of this study are discussed. Copyright © 2015 SHAPE America.

Martini M.,CEA DAM Ile-de-France | Ericson M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ericson M.,CERN | Chanfray G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate the double differential neutrino-carbon quasielastic cross sections as measured by the MiniBooNE experiment. Our present treatment incorporates relativistic corrections in the nuclear response functions and includes the multinucleon component. We confirm our previous conclusion that it is possible to account for all the data without any modification of the axial mass. We also introduce the Q2 distribution for charged and neutral current. The data point at a sizable multinucleon component beside the genuine quasielastic peak. They are also indicative of the collective character of the nuclear response, of interest for hadronic physics. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Laadhari F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2011

A novel feature of the mean velocity gradient in turbulent parallel Poiseuille flows has been found using the results available in databases of direct numerical simulations at moderately high friction Reynolds number Rτ, up to 2000. The computed turbulence statistics show that the logarithm of the mean velocity gradient, normalized by its value at the quarter-channel height, is very close to symmetric with respect to this position. At this location, the ratio of the viscous transport term to the viscous stress is a minimum. The range of validity of this property increases with the Reynolds number and is between y/h = 0.1 and y/h = 0.9 for Rτ = 2000. This property is a convenient tool in channel flow analysis since the velocity profile in the wall region can be accurately predicted from values much further away. We explore in some detail the properties that follow from this discovery. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Ryvlin P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Epilepsia | Year: 2013

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents one of the most severe consequences of drug-resistant epilepsy, for which no evidence-based prevention is available. Development of effective prevention will depend on the following: (1) better understanding of the pathophysiology of SUDEP to define the most appropriate targets of intervention, and (2) identification of risk factors for SUDEP that would allow for the design of feasible clinical trials to test targeted interventions in high-risk populations. The most important known risk factor is the occurrence and frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS), a seizure type that triggers the majority of witnessed SUDEP. Therefore, one likely way to prevent SUDEP is to minimize the risk of GTCS with optimal medical management and patient education. However, whether one might prevent SUDEP in patients with refractory epilepsy by using more frequent review of antiepileptic treatment and earlier referral for presurgical evaluation, remains to be seen. Another hypothetical strategy to prevent SUDEP is to reduce the risk of GTCS-induced postictal respiratory distress. This might be achieved by using lattice pillow, providing nocturnal supervision, reinforcing interictal serotoninergic tone, and lowering opiate- or adenosine-induced postictal brainstem depression. Promising interventions can be tested first on surrogate markers, such as postictal hypoxia in epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs), before SUDEP trials can be implemented. EMU safety should also be improved to avoid SUDEP occurrence in that setting. Finally, the development of ambulatory SUDEP prevention devices should be encouraged but raises a number of unsolved issues. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

Martin J.E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lauprasert K.,Mahasarakham University
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

Despite the report of fragmentary remains from China, the fossil record of primitive Alligatorinae is unbalanced with most of its members reported from North America and Europe. Here, we describe cranial, mandibular, and some postcranial elements of a new alligatorine taxon from the Late Eocene of Krabi Basin, southern Thailand. Krabisuchus siamogallicus gen. et sp. nov. was a small animal probably not surpassing 2 m in total length. Despite deformation, the remains show a dorsally elevated cranium similar to Arambourgia gaudryi and Osteolaemus tetraspis. The new alligatorine is characterized by a very short snout and a blunt dentition in the posterior region. Krabisuchus siamogallicus is the first fossil alligatorine from Asia to be incorporated into cladistic analysis. Results indicate a close relationship of the newtaxon to Procaimanoidea, Arambourgia gaudryi, and Allognathosuchus polyodon, all of them being sister groups to the Alligator clade. Alligatorine were widespread as early as the Late Eocene across the northern hemisphere. Scenarios of alligatorine dispersal during the Palaeogene are discussed in comparison with the European and North American alligatorine fossil record. Basal alligatorines were probably land-dwelling animals contrary to modern-day crocodylians. Such a mode of life may have allowed this group to colonize vast territories, especially during periods of global warm climates. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

Zhang L.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Xue T.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | He D.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics | Guzik M.,Wrocław University | Boulon G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Optics Express | Year: 2015

Lasing properties have been investigated for Yb3+ doped glasses with similar emission cross sections (σemi) and lifetime while possessing different Stark levels. Narrow Stark splitting of Yb3+-phosphate glass is responsible for severe heat generation, narrow emission band and much smaller σemi at lasing wavelength, making Yb3+-phosphate glass unsuccessful to achieve laser output, whereas 1.166W cw laser was obtained in Yb3+-fluorophosphate (FP) glass with broader Stark splitting. Analysis on laser system levels reveals that under room temperature, Yb3+ laser is quasi-3.13-level in phosphate glass and quasi-3.36-level in FP glass. These demonstrations suggest that unless the Stark splitting is enlarged, conventional Yb3+-phosphate glass is not a good gain medium for bulk Yb3+-laser. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

Bacchus-Montabonel M.-C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Wiesenfeld L.,Joseph Fourier University
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

A theoretical treatment of the different processes involved in the collision of C2+ ions with molecular hydrogen is developed with consideration of charge transfer and formation of the CH+ molecular ion. Calculations of the potential energy surfaces and couplings are performed by means of ab initio quantum chemistry methods. Analysis of the different routes is detailed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Few-Body Systems | Year: 2011

A brief review is first presented of attempts to predict stable multiquark states within current models of hadron spectroscopy. Then a model combining flip-flop and connected Steiner trees is introduced and shown to lead to stable multiquarks, in particular for some configurations involving several heavy quarks and bearing exotic quantum numbers. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Lamberti-Raverot B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Puijalon S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

For many plant species, nutrient availability induces important anatomical responses, particularly the production of low-density tissues to the detriment of supporting tissues. Due to the contrasting biomechanical properties of plant tissues, these anatomical responses may induce important modifications in the biomechanical properties of plant organs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutrient enrichment on the anatomical traits of two freshwater plant species and its consequences on plant biomechanical performance. Two plant species were grown under controlled conditions in low versus high nutrient levels. The anatomical and biomechanical traits of the plant stems were measured. Both species produced tissues with lower densities under nutrient-rich conditions, accompanied by modifications in the structure of the aerenchyma for one species. As expected, nutrient enrichment also led to important modifications in the biomechanical properties of the stem for both species. In particular, mechanical resistance (breaking force and strength) and stiffness of stems were significantly reduced under nutrient rich conditions. The production of weaker stem tissues as a result of nutrient enrichment may increase the risk of plants to mechanical failure, thus challenging plant maintenance in mechanically stressful or disturbed habitats. © 2012 The Author.

Lepine F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sansone G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Vrakking M.J.J.,Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

We review the present state of the application of attosecond lasers in molecular physics. Following the first synthesis and characterization of attosecond laser pulses a little more than a decade ago, the first applications in molecular physics have been published only in the last few years. These have yielded new insight into the coupling of multiple electronic degrees of freedom and that of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom on the attosecond to few-femtosecond timescale. We review these first experiments as well as theoretical work that was carried out during the same period, and sketch some future molecular applications of attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sabate C.M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Delalu H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

The geometry and electronic structure of (E)-N4Me4 (1) and the (E)-N4Me4H+ and the (E)-N 4Me5 + cations was examined by a DFT approach. By using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) model we showed that the terminal nitrogen atoms in 1 are strongly basic, as evidenced by their highly negative NBO charges in comparison to the azo nitrogen atoms. Interestingly, protonation of 1 to form the (E)-N4Me4H+ cation does not result in significant changes in the NBO charges of the protonated nitrogen atom, which is in contrast with classical views that describe tetracoordinated nitrogen atoms as being positively charged. Insight into the thermal stability of salts of the (E)-N4Me4H+ and the (E)-N4Me 5 + cations was gained experimentally by DSC measurements of two salts of the (E)-N4Me4H+ cation, namely with chloride (2) and picrate (3) anions and the iodide salt of the (E)-N 4Me5 + cation (4), which were synthesized by protonation of 1 with hydrochloric (2) and picric (3) acids and by methylation of 1 with methyl iodide (4), respectively. Compounds 2-4 were characterized by analytical (elemental analysis and mass spectrometry) and spectroscopic ( 1H/13C NMR, IR/Raman and UV spectroscopies) methods. Protonation and methylation of 1 to form the (E)-N4Me 4H+ (compounds 2 and 3) and (E)-N4Me 5 + (compound 4) cations, respectively, appears to occur at the terminal nitrogen atoms, in keeping with the results of the NBO analysis and the higher stabilization energy of the conformations with a protonated/methylated terminal nitrogen atom. The geometry optimization by the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method points at very weak N3-N4 bonds (N4 = protonated/methylated nitrogen atom), which explains the formation of dimethylammonium picrate in the thermal decomposition of picrate salt 3 and suggests that dialkylaminium radicals (R2N+) are involved in the decomposition pathway. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Colomban C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Kudrik E.V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Afanasiev P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Sorokin A.B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Carbon-fluorine bonds are the strongest single bonds in organic chemistry, making activation and cleavage usually associated with organometallic and reductive approaches particularly difficult. We describe here an efficient defluorination of poly- and perfluorinated aromatics under oxidative conditions catalyzed by the μ-nitrido diiron phthalocyanine complex [(Pc)Fe III(μ-N)FeIV(Pc)] under mild conditions (hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant, near-ambient temperatures). The reaction proceeds via the formation of a high-valent diiron phthalocyanine radical cation complex with fluoride axial ligands, [(Pc)(F)FeIV(μ-N)FeIV(F) (Pc+•)], which was isolated and characterized by UV-vis, EPR, 19F NMR, Fe K-edge EXAFS, XANES, and Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and electrochemical techniques. A wide range of per- and polyfluorinated aromatics (21 examples), including C6F6, C6F5CF3, C6F5CN, and C6F5NO2, were defluorinated with high conversions and high turnover numbers. [(Pc)FeIII(μ-N)Fe IV(Pc)] immobilized on a carbon support showed increased catalytic activity in heterogeneous defluorination in water, providing up to 4825 C-F cleavages per catalyst molecule. The μ-nitrido diiron structure is essential for the oxidative defluorination. Intramolecular competitive reactions using C6F3Cl3 and C6F3H 3 probes indicated preferential transformation of C-F bonds with respect to C-Cl and C-H bonds. On the basis of the available data, mechanistic issues of this unusual reactivity are discussed and a tentative mechanism of defluorination under oxidative conditions is proposed. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Rossini A.J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Zagdoun A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Hegner F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Schwarzwalder M.,ETH Zurich | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR has been applied to powdered microcrystalline solids to obtain sensitivity enhancements on the order of 100. Glucose, sulfathiazole, and paracetamol were impregnated with bis-nitroxide biradical (bis-cyclohexyl-TEMPO-bisketal, bCTbK) solutions of organic solvents. The organic solvents were carefully chosen to be nonsolvents for the compounds, so that DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectra of the unaltered solids could be acquired. A theoretical model is presented that illustrates that for externally doped organic solids characterized by long spin-lattice relaxation times (T 1( 1H) > 200 s), 1H- 1H spin diffusion can relay enhanced polarization over micrometer length scales yielding substantial DNP enhancements (ε). ε on the order of 60 are obtained for microcrystalline glucose and sulfathiazole at 9.4 T and with temperatures of ca. 105 K. The large gain in sensitivity enables the rapid acquisition of 13C- 13C correlation spectra at natural isotopic abundance. It is anticipated that this will be a general method for enhancing the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments of organic solids. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Statzner B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Beche L.A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2010

Accurately assessing the effects of multiple human-caused stressors on freshwater (and other) ecosystems is an essential step in the development of efficient decision support tools for environmental managers. Our objective is to review potentials and limitations of the use of biological traits as indicators (BTIs) of multiple stressor effects on running water (i.e. lotic) ecosystems. 2. Pioneers in ecology provided mechanistic explanations for responses of alternative biological traits to a given stressor and for the action of habitat harshness as a trait filter. These ideas were subsequently integrated in theoretical ecological constructs (e.g. Habitat Templet Concept) that form the basis of the BTI approach. 3. To resolve the effects of multiple stressors on running waters requires multiple traits of a biologically diverse group of organisms such as lotic invertebrates. To meet this goal, however, recently created databases on the biological traits of lotic invertebrates must be expanded and unified. 4. Addressing the technical implementation of the BTI approach, we illustrate that anticipated problems with phylogenetic trait syndromes are seemingly less serious in reality and that presence-absence data of genera and few sample replicates are sufficient for accurate trait descriptions of invertebrate communities. 5. Current trends in politics demand that biomonitoring tools be effective at large scales, i.e. large-scale trait patterns of natural communities (i.e. at reference conditions) should be relatively stable. The trait composition of natural invertebrate communities is relatively stable at the scale of Europe and North America because trait filters of natural lotic habitats act similarly across large biogeographical units. 6. The mechanistic actions of stressors on the biological traits of invertebrates should facilitate a priori predictions, but the complexity of potential trait responses makes such predictions sometimes difficult. 7. To illustrate potentials and limitations of BTIs to identify a given stressor acting exclusively (or primarily), we examine the (i) use of functional feeding groups to indicate the action of various stressors and (ii) trait responses to an indirectly acting stressor (discharge variation) and to a more directly acting stressor (near-bottom flow). If the excessive use of specific traits for the indication of too many different stressors is avoided and a given stressor acts directly on traits as a priori predicted, reliable interpretations of trait responses can be achieved. 8. To illustrate how BTIs can identify individual stressors acting in combination, we examine three cases of multiple stressors: (i) heavy metal pollution in combination with cargo-ship traffic; (ii) eutrophication and fine sediment deposits associated with land use; and (iii) various stressors associated with climate change in combination with salinity. If the number of the assessed traits is sufficiently great and the action of each individual among the multiple stressors is not too weak, multiple traits can potentially resolve the effects of multiple stressors. 9. Thematic implications: if the expansion and unification of existing trait databases can be achieved, the rapidly growing knowledge about biological trait responses of lotic invertebrates to individual and multiple stressors should enable the identification of management priorities focused on: (i) individually acting stressors (manage stressor A at site X prior to stressor B at site Y); (ii) multiple stressors acting in different combinations at different sites (manage stressors A & B at site X prior to stressors C & D at site Y); and (iii) individual stressors acting in combination (manage stressor A prior to stressor B at site X). Thus, the BTI approach has the potential to inaugurate a new era in the biomonitoring of lotic (and other) ecosystems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Palacci J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cottin-Bizonne C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Ybert C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bocquet L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

In this Letter, we investigate experimentally the nonequilibrium steady state of an active colloidal suspension under gravity field. The active particles are made of chemically powered colloids, showing self propulsion in the presence of an added fuel, here hydrogen peroxide. The active suspension is studied in a dedicated microfluidic device, made of permeable gel microstructures. Both the microdynamics of individual colloids and the global stationary state of the suspension under gravity are measured with optical microscopy. This yields a direct measurement of the effective temperature of the active system as a function of the particle activity, on the basis of the fluctuation-dissipation relationship. Our work is a first step in the experimental exploration of the out-of-equilibrium properties of active colloidal systems.

Butet J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bachelier G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Russier-Antoine I.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Jonin C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Optical second-harmonic generation from gold nanoparticles is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The contribution of octupoles is reported for the first time in the second-harmonic emission pattern, by using an harmonic polarization in the scattering plane. The experimental results presented here for particle sizes up to 100 nm are in excellent agreement with finite element method simulations involving the normal surface term only in the nonlinear polarization source. In addition, analytical calculations based on nonlinear Mie scattering theory clearly evidence the constructive and destructive interferences occurring between the dipolar and octupolar responses selected with this polarization configuration. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Crut A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Maioli P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Del Fatti N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Vallee F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Developments of optical detection and spectroscopy methods for single nano-objects are key advances for applications and fundamental understanding of the novel properties exhibited by nanosize systems. These methods are reviewed, focusing on far-field optical approaches based on light absorption and elastic scattering. The principles of the main linear and nonlinear methods are described and experimental results are illustrated in the case of metal nanoparticles, stressing the key role played by the object environment, such as the presence of a substrate, bound surface molecules or other nano-objects. Special attention is devoted to quantitative methods and correlation of the measured optical spectra of a nano-object with its morphology, characterized either optically or by electron microscopy, as this permits precise comparison with theoretical models. Application of these methods to optical detection and spectroscopy for single semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes is also presented. Extension to ultrafast nonlinear extinction or scattering spectroscopies of single nano-objects is finally discussed in the context of investigation of their nonlinear optical response and their electronic, acoustic and thermal properties. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Ladjal H.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Hanus J.-L.,INSA Val de Loire | Ferreira A.,INSA Val de Loire
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2013

To facilitate training of biological cell injection operations, we are developing an interactive virtual environment to simulate needle insertion into biological cells. This paper presents methodologies for dynamic modeling, visual/haptic display, and model validation of cell injection. We first investigate the challenging issues in the modeling of the biomechanical properties of living cells. We propose two dynamic models to simulate cell deformation and puncture. The first approach is based on the assumptions that the mechanical response of living cells is mainly determined by the cytoskeleton and that the cytoskeleton is organized as a tensegrity structure including microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Equivalent microtubules struts are represented with a linear mass-tensor finite-element model and equivalent microfilaments and intermediate filaments with viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt elements. The second modeling method assumes the overall cell as an homogeneous hyperelastic model (St, Venant-Kirchhoff). Both graphic and haptic rendering are provided in real time to the operator through a 3-D virtual environment. Simulated responses are compared to experimental data to show the effectiveness of the proposed physically based model. © 1964-2012 IEEE.

Kulzer F.,ICFO - Institute of Photonic Sciences | Xia T.,Leiden University | Orrit M.,Leiden University | Orrit M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

The optical signals of single molecules provide information about structure and dynamics of their nanoscale environment, free from space and time averaging. These new data are particularly useful whenever complex structures or dynamics are present, as in polymers or in porous oxides, but also in many other classes of materials, where heterogeneity is less obvious. We review the main uses of single molecules in studies of condensed matter at nanometer scales, especially in the fields of soft matter and materials science. We discuss several examples, including the orientation distribution of molecules in crystals, rotational diffusion in glass-forming molecular liquids, polymer studies with probes and labeled chains, porous and heterogeneous oxide materials, blinking of single molecules and nanocrystals, and the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for local chemical analysis. All these examples show that static and dynamic heterogeneities and the spread of molecular parameters are much larger than previously imagined. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Cordier J.-F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cottin V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013

This perspective highlights some evidence that has hitherto been neglected, especially because it may not have been sufficiently explicated in the clinical respiratory medicine literature. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has appeared only in the second half of the 20th century and, like lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, may be a direct consequence of the cigarette smoking epidemic. It is a disease of lung ageing, with most affected patients being .70 years of age. The relationship between lung ageing and pulmonary fibrosis is further illustrated in the bleomycin mouse model, in which older males develop more fibrosis than young female mice. Earlier diagnosis of IPF is a prerequisite for significant progress to be made in the long-term outcome and prognosis. We consider that only two different yet complementary and realistic approaches could lead to earlier diagnosis of IPF and possibly to allowing more efficient disease management: 1) investigating any patients with early Velcro crackles at lung auscultation through proactive education of, and commitment from, primary care physicians; and 2) using current large-scale lung cancer screening strategies with lowdose high-resolution computed tomography in smokers for the detection of subclinical interstitial lung disease and especially early IPF. Copyright ©ERS 2013.

Quadrelli E.A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Basset J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2010

The achievement of a structure-activity relationship for heterogeneous catalysts is a desirable step for improving existing catalysts or for predicting new catalytic reactions. This article reviews the use of silsesquioxanes (POSS) organometallic complexes as molecular models for silica-grafted catalytic centers. It will show that POSS complexes, within some limits, have substantially contributed to gaining better molecular-level understanding of surface reactions and catalysts activity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lecuyer C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Amiot R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Touzeau A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Trotter J.,University of Western Australia
Chemical Geology | Year: 2013

There are significant ambiguities concerning the accuracy of oxygen isotope fractionation equations commonly used to retrieve aquatic paleotemperatures from the δ18O value of phosphatic skeletal remains. This is mainly due to the lack of a certified phosphate standard value, discrepancies in measured standard values between laboratories, and differences in methodologies used to constrain phosphate-water fractionation. Depending on the equation used, differences in calculated isotopic water temperatures may range from 4 to 8°C, these sizable uncertainties significantly reducing the effectiveness of the phosphate 18O/16O ratio as a proxy for water temperature. To address this problem, several phosphate-water fractionation equations from the literature have been tested against the well constrained oxygen isotope fractionation between calcium carbonate and water. Temperatures derived from several pairs of present-day (brachiopods) and fossil (ammonites, brachiopods, belemnite) co-existing carbonate-secreting invertebrates and phosphate-secreting vertebrates (fish) are compared to elucidate the most accurate phosphate-water fractionation equation. These temperatures were obtained by considering using a δ18O value close to 21.7‰ (VSMOW) for the reference phosphorite SRM 120c. The temperature difference (δT) calculated from various carbonate-water and phosphate-water oxygen isotope fractionation equations consistently show that the proposed phosphate-water temperature scale established using both modern lingulids and sharks, T(°C)=117.4(±9.5)-4.50(±0.43)*(δ18OPO4-δ18OH2O), consistently yields temperatures from bioapatites equivalent to those from co-existing carbonates. Compared to other published phosphate-water fractionation equations, this new equation provides the most reliable estimates of aquatic paleotemperatures for bioapatites. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lewandowski J.R.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Dumez J.-N.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Akbey U.,Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology | Lange S.,Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

We investigate the combined effect of perdeuteration and fast magic-angle spinning on the resolution and sensitivity of proton-detected protein NMR spectra and on coherence lifetimes. With 60 kHz spinning of a microcrystalline α-spectrin SH3 sample at a field strength of 23 T, a regime is attained where there is no substantial difference in resolution between perdeuterated samples with 10 or 100% protons at the exchangeable sites.1H resolution is then limited by inhomogeneous contributions. Upon fast spinning, the most dramatic line narrowing effects are observed for residues in the loop or bend regions of the protein, probably due to the removal of destructive dynamics effects. This investigation paves the way for using samples with 100% protons at the exchangeable sites in structure determination protocols, since all backbone amide sites can now contribute to the signal. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Bourgeat-Lami E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Lansalot M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Advances in Polymer Science | Year: 2010

This review article describes recent advances in the synthesis and properties of waterborne organic/inorganic colloids elaborated through conventional emulsion polymerization, a well-established technology. These materials can be defined as aqueous suspensions of composite latex particles made up of organic and inorganic domains organized into well-defined core-shell, multinuclear, raspberry-like, multipod-like, or armored morphologies. Particular emphasis is placed on the synthetic strategies for fabrication of these colloidal materials. Two main approaches are described: the polymerization of organic monomers in the presence of preformed inorganic particles, and the reverse approach by which inorganic materials are synthesized in the presence of preformed polymer latexes. The list of examples provided in this review is by no means exhaustive but rather intends to give an overview of synthetic methods for selected inorganic compounds (e.g., silica, iron oxide, pigments, clays, quantum dots, and metals), and briefly reports on potential applications of the resulting materials. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Calvo F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2010

Nested Markov chain Monte Carlo is a rigorous way to enhance sampling of a given energy landscape using an auxiliary, approximate potential energy surface. Its practical efficiency mainly depends on how cheap and how different are the auxiliary potential with respect to the reference system. In this article, a combined efficiency index is proposed and assessed for two important families of energy surfaces. As illustrated for water clusters, many-body polarizable potentials can be approximated by simplifying the polarization contribution and keeping only the two-body terms. In small systems, neglecting polarization entirely is also acceptable. When the reference potential energy is obtained from diagonalization of a quantum mechanical Hamiltonian, a first-order perturbation scheme can be used to estimate the energy difference occuring on a Monte Carlo move. Our results indicate that this perturbation approximation performs well provided that the number of steps between successive diagonalization is adjusted beforehand. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Typically, lotic caddisflies attach their mineral pupal cases to cobbles in riffles, where rapid flows facilitate respiration but also decrease case-building material availability through erosion. Effects of local grain availability on grain quantities in and architecture of (per capita grain size use) pupal cases should be more important in Resident Construction Workers (RCWs, building immediately before pupation with minerals collected near the pupation location) than in Itinerant Construction Workers (ICWs, building months before pupation with minerals collected distantly from the pupation location). I tested these hypotheses analyzing mineral grain sizes in pupal cases and streambed sediments of cobble habitats in riffles of five running water types (headwater to large river in different regions) at baseflow or exceptional droughts. When pupae were abundant, the data supported both hypotheses at the local scale of samples, as grain size use by RCWs (as a group) but not by ICWs increased across all sites with local grain availability and abundant taxa among the former responded with four types of case-architecture modifications to grain size shortage. The data also supported the idea that at larger scales such as river or habitat types, mineral grains may be a limited resource for caddisflies building pupal cases with them. These findings suggest that water currents in streams or near shores of lakes and oceans that erode finer mineral grains can create conflicts in resource requirements for invertebrates that build with locally occurring finer mineral grains and simultaneously need high oxygen renewal rates and coarse grains for attachment. © EDP Sciences, 2011.

Merceron G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Kaiser T.M.,University of Hamburg | Kostopoulos D.S.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Schulz E.,University of Hamburg
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The successful evolutionary radiations of European hominoids and pliopithecoids came to an end during the Late Miocene. Using ruminant diets as environmental proxies, it becomes possible to detect variations in vegetation over time with the potential to explain fluctuations in primate diversity along a NW-SE European transect. Analysis shows that ruminants had diverse diets when primate diversity reached its peak, with more grazers in eastern Europe and more browsers farther west. After the drop in primate diversity, grazers accounted for a greater part of western and central European communities. Eastwards, the converse trend was evident with more browsing ruminants. These opposite trends indicate habitat loss and an increase in environmental uniformity that may have severely favoured the decline of primate diversity. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Richard J.-M.,CNRS Laboratory of Subatomic Physics & Cosmology | Richard J.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

The pentaquark is studied in a simple model of confinement in which the quarks and the antiquark are linked by flux tubes of minimal cumulated length and the Coulomb-like interaction, the spin-dependent terms, and the antisymmetrization constraints are neglected. The ground state is found to be stable against spontaneous dissociation into a meson and a baryon, both in the case of five equal-mass constituents and for a static quark or antiquark surrounded by four equal masses. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Saboul D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pialoux V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Hautier C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
European Journal of Sport Science | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of breathing frequency (BF) on heart rate variability (HRV) and specifically on the Low Frequency/High Frequency (LF/HF) ratio in athletes. Fifteen male athletes were subjected to HRV measurements under six randomised breathing conditions: spontaneous breathing frequency (SBF) and five others at controlled breathing frequencies (CBF) (0.20; 0.175; 0.15; 0.125 and 0.10 Hz). The subjects were divided in two groups: the first group included athletes with SBF <0.15 Hz (infSBF) and the second athletes with SBF higher than 0.15 Hz (supSBF). Fatigue and training load were evaluated using a validated questionnaire. There was no difference between the two groups for the fatigue questionnaire and training load. However, the LF/HF ratio during SBF was higher in infSBF than in supSBF (6.82±4.55 vs. 0.72±0.52; p<0.001). The SBF and LF/HF ratio were significantly correlated (R=-0.69; p=0.004). For the five CBF, no differences were found between groups; however, LF/HF ratios were very significantly different between sessions at 0.20; 0.175; 0.15 Hz and 0.125; 0.10 Hz. In this study, BF was the main modulator of the LF/HF ratio in both controlled breathing and spontaneous breathing. Although, none of the subjects of the infSBF group were overtrained, during SBF they all presented LF/HF ratios higher than four commonly interpreted as an overtraining syndrome. During each CBF, all athletes presented spectral energy mainly concentrated around their BF. Consequently, spectral energy was located either in LF or in HF band. These results demonstrate that the LF/HF ratio is unreliable for studying athletes presenting SBF close to 0.15 Hz leading to misclassification in fatigue. © 2014 Copyright European College of Sport Science.

Boussau B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Boussau B.,University of California at Berkeley | Gouy M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

The geological record provides an irreplaceable account of the joint history between the Earth and living organisms. Extant living organisms also contain in their phenotypes and most importantly in their genomes information about their history, and about the history of the Earth. In this review we explain how biologists attempt to extract this information and draw inferences about past history, using statistics, computer algorithms, and molecular biology. We show that inferred ancestral gene contents provide insights into ancient metabolisms, ancestral genome composition in bases or amino-acids provide information about ancient growth temperatures, and protein resurrection offers means to investigate the function of proteins long disappeared. All these inferences throw a new light on organism and Earth evolution. Their combination and the use of statistical models integrating both genomic and geologic histories hold great promises for unveiling more of the past 4. billion year history on Earth. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Bonada N.,University of Barcelona | Doledec S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Statzner B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim To investigate spatial autocorrelation of taxonomic stream invertebrate groups (richness and composition) at a large geographical scale and to analyse the importance of exogenous and endogenous factors. Location The Mediterranean Basin. Methods For exogenous factors, we used large-scale factors related to climate, geology and river zonation; for endogenous factors, we used the dispersal mode of each taxonomic group. After describing and analysing spatial patterns of genus richness and genus composition of stream invertebrate groups in the Mediterranean Basin, we computed Moran's I before and after accounting for the exogenous factors and related it to the endogenous factors. Results In relation to genus richness, most of the taxonomic groups did not show significant spatial autocorrelation, suggesting that no main large-scale exogenous or endogenous factors were important and that local-scale factors were probably controlling taxonomic richness. In contrast, for genus composition, all taxonomic groups except Odonata had significant spatial autocorrelation before accounting for the environment. After accounting for the environment, most taxonomic groups still had a significant spatial autocorrelation, but it decreased with their increasing dispersal ability (from Crustacea to Coleoptera). Thus, spatial taxonomic composition of groups with the strongest dispersal potential is mainly related to exogenous factors, whereas that of groups with weaker dispersal potential is related to a combination of exogenous and endogenous factors. Main conclusions Our results illustrate the importance of dispersal as an endogenous factor causing spatial autocorrelation and suggest that ignoring endogenous factors can lead to misunderstandings when explaining large-scale community patterns. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Abi Jaoude M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Randon J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

A new sol-gel protocol was designed and optimized to produce titanium-dioxide-based columns within confined geometries such as monolithic capillary columns and porous-layer open-tubular columns. A surface pre-treatment of the capillary enabled an efficient anchorage of the monolith to the silica capillary wall during the synthesis. The monolith was further synthesized from a solution containing titanium n-propoxide, hydrochloric acid, N-methylformamide, water, and poly(ethylene oxide) as pore template. The chromatographic application of capillary titania-based columns was demonstrated with the separation of a set of phosphorylated nucleotides as probe molecules using aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography conditions. Capillary titania monoliths offered a compromise between the high permeability and the important loading capacity needed to potentially achieve miniaturized sample preparations. The specificity of the miniaturized titania monolithic support is illustrated with the specific enrichment of 5′-adenosine mono-phosphate. The monolithic column offered a ten times higher loading capacity of 5′-adenosine mono-phosphate compared with that of the capillary titania porous-layer open-tubular geometry. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Davidson S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Davidson S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

An Effective Field Theory for dark matter at a TeV-scale hadron collider should include contact interactions of dark matter with the partons, the Higgs and the Z. This note estimates the impact of including dark matter-Z interactions on the complementarity of spin dependent direct detection and LHC monojet searches for dark matter. The effect of the Z is small, because it interacts with quarks via small electroweak couplings, and the contact interaction self-consistency condition C/⋀2 < 4π/ŝ restricts the coupling to dark matter. In this note, the contact interactions between the Z and dark matter are parametrised by derivative operators; this is convenient at colliders because such interactions do not match onto low energy quark-dark matter contact interactions. © The Authors.

Brenier A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Laser Physics Letters | Year: 2014

Fluorescence and stimulated emission were obtained for propagation directions in the vicinity of the optical axis from the biaxial Nd-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal. We visualized the peculiar role of the optical axis by fluorescence conoscopy. A fourth spectroscopic parameter due to the monoclinic symmetry was exhibited. Intra-laser-cavity conoscopy was performed in conjunction with the lasing in order to indicate the role of the elliptical modes. The lasing efficiency was found to be in agreement with the relative intensity of the left and right circular polarized components of the fluorescence near the optical axis. © 2014 Astro Ltd.

Brenier A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Journal of Optics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

We have investigated the Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 biaxial laser crystal for wave propagation directions in the vicinity of the optical axis at wavelengths tunable around 800 nm. The angular absorption distribution was found to be strongly anisotropic. Increasing absorption, the optical axis splits in two new ones able to propagate unchanged a left or a right circularly polarized light and able to propagate a circularly polarized Voigt wave with a linear spatial dependence. The intensities of the transmitted light in different configurations of polarizations were investigated. The angular displacement of the two optical axes versus the absorbed wavelengths was measured and explained with a single oscillator model. The light energy propagation was found distributed inside a crescent-shaped area. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. <