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Rengifo-Salgado E.,Institute Investigaciones Of La Amazonia Peruana | Vargas-Arana G.,University Cientifica del Peru
Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas | Year: 2013

Physalis angulata is a specie of the Solanaceae family, which edible fruit is used in several countries of tropical and subtropical regions of the world as medicinal and fruit-tree. This review shows research over the last 30 years, about traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacology of this specie. The studies related to traditional uses show that P. angulata is known for its antimalarial, anti-inflammatory and post-partum treating properties. It presents the different pharmacological experiments in vitro and in vivo models that have been made, also the identification of phytochemical constituents with medicinal importance, the main being physalins and withanolides. Pharmacological studies have shown antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, antimalarial, antileishmanial, immunosuppressive, antiasthmatic diuretic, and antitumor activities, thus validating its traditional uses and demonstrating the great potential of this specie for further development within the pharmaceutical industry. © 2013 Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas. Source

Castro J.C.,National University of San Juan | Maddox J.D.,Pritzker Laboratory for Molecular Systematics and Evolution | Cobos M.,University Cientifica del Peru | Requena D.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Myrciaria dubia is an Amazonian fruit shrub that produces numerous bioactive phytochemicals, but is best known by its high L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content in fruits. Pronounced variation in AsA content has been observed both within and among individuals, but the genetic factors responsible for this variation are largely unknown. The goals of this research, therefore, were to assemble, characterize, and annotate the fruit transcriptome of M. dubia in order to reconstruct metabolic pathways and determine if multiple pathways contribute to AsA biosynthesis. Results: In total 24,551,882 high-quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 70,048 unigenes (mean length = 1150 bp, N50 = 1775 bp). Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases such as TAIR, GR-protein, FB, MGI, RGD, ZFIN, SGN, WB, TIGR_CMR, and JCVI-CMR with 75.2 % of unigenes having annotations. Of the three core GO annotation categories, biological processes comprised 53.6 % of the total assigned annotations, whereas cellular components and molecular functions comprised 23.3 and 23.1 %, respectively. Based on the KEGG pathway assignment of the functionally annotated transcripts, five metabolic pathways for AsA biosynthesis were identified: animal-like pathway, myo-inositol pathway, L-gulose pathway, D-mannose/L-galactose pathway, and uronic acid pathway. All transcripts coding enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were also identified. Finally, we used the assembly to identified 6314 genic microsatellites and 23,481 high quality SNPs. Conclusions: This study describes the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome annotation of a non-model Amazonian plant that is relevant for AsA production and other bioactive phytochemicals. Genes encoding key enzymes were successfully identified and metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis of AsA, anthocyanins, and other metabolic pathways have been reconstructed. The identification of these genes and pathways is in agreement with the empirically observed capability of M. dubia to synthesize and accumulate AsA and other important molecules, and adds to our current knowledge of the molecular biology and biochemistry of their production in plants. By providing insights into the mechanisms underpinning these metabolic processes, these results can be used to direct efforts to genetically manipulate this organism in order to enhance the production of these bioactive phytochemicals. The accumulation of AsA precursor and discovery of genes associated with their biosynthesis and metabolism in M. dubia is intriguing and worthy of further investigation. The sequences and pathways produced here present the genetic framework required for further studies. Quantitative transcriptomics in concert with studies of the genome, proteome, and metabolome under conditions that stimulate production and accumulation of AsA and their precursors are needed to provide a more comprehensive view of how these pathways for AsA metabolism are regulated and linked in this species. © 2015 Castro et al. Source

Cobos Ruiz M.,University Cientifica del Peru | Paredes Rodriguez J.D.,University Cientifica del Peru | Castro Gomez J.C.,University of the Amazon
Acta Biologica Colombiana | Year: 2016

The production of total lipids in five microalgal species was induced by absence of nitrogen. The microalgae Ankistrodesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus nannoselene, Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda were cultured in CHU10 medium with and without nitrogen. They were evaluated during six days. The microalgae density was daily determined by a Neubahuer chamber. The average growth, total biomass and total lipids were also determined. The total lipids were extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1). The results indicated that species with production greater amount of total lipids were Ankistrodesmus sp. (263.6 mg/g dry biomass), Ankistrodesmus nannoselene (316 mg/g dry biomass) and Scenedesmus sp. (243.3 mg/g dry biomass) when grown in media without nitrogen. Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella sp. when grown in media with nitrogen showed higher amount of dry biomass (159.1 mg/g dry biomass and 221.1 mg/g dry biomass respectively) compared to those which were grown in media without nitrogen. The growth rate was variable between species grown in both conditions. In conclusion, Ankistrodesmus sp. microalgae experienced the highest growth rate (0.77 day-1) in medium without nitrogen. Under the same culture conditions, Scenedesmus sp., had the highest biomass production in dry weight (174.7 mg/l) and Ankistrodesmus nannoselene accumulated the highest percentage of total lipids. © 2016, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved. Source

Schmeda-Hirschmann G.,University of Talca | Delporte C.,University of Chile | Valenzuela-Barra G.,University of Chile | Silva X.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Animal oils and fats from the fishes Electrophorus electricus and Potamotrygon motoro, the reptiles Boa constrictor, Chelonoidis denticulata (Geochelone denticulata) and Melanosuchus niger and the riverine dolphin Inia geoffrensis are used as anti-inflammatory agents in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of the study was to assess the topic anti-inflammatory effect of the oils/fats as well as to evaluate its antimicrobial activity and fatty acid composition. Materials and methods The oils/fats were purchased from a traditional store at the Iquitos market of Belen, Peru. The topic anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by the mice ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) at the dose of 3 mg oil/ear. Indomethacine and nimesulide were used as reference anti-inflammatory drugs. The application resembles the traditional topical use of the oils. The antimicrobial effect of the oils/fats was assessed by the microdilution test against reference strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. The fatty acid composition of the oils/fats (as methyl esters) was determined by GC and GC-MS analysis after saponification. Results All oils/fats showed topic anti-inflammatory activity, with better effect in the TPA-induced mice ear edema assay. The most active drugs were Potamotrygon motoro, Melanosuchus niger and Geochelone denticulata. In the AA-induced assay, the best activity was found for Potamotrygon motoro and Electrophorus electricus oil. The oil of Electrophorus electricus also showed a weak antimicrobial effect with MIC values of 250 μg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis-MI. The main fatty acids in the oils were oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. Conclusions Topical application of all the oils/fats investigated showed anti-inflammatory activity in the mice ear edema assay. The effect can be related with the identity and composition of the fatty acids in the samples. This study gives support to the traditional use of animal oils/fats as ant-inflammatory agents in the Peruvian Amazon. However, new alternative should be encouraged due to the conservation status of several of the animal sources of the crude drugs. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Castro J.C.,University of the Amazon | Cobos M.,University Cientifica del Peru | Maddox J.D.,The Field Museum of Natural History | Iman S.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria | And 3 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to elucidate the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that control L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content variation in Myrciaria dubia. The AsA was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography, gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR, and enzyme activities by spectrophotometric methods from leaves and immature fruits of two genotypes (Md-60,06 and Md-02,04) with pronounced (about 2 times) differences in the AsA content. In either genotype, the fruit peel had ~ 1.5 times more AsA than the fruit pulp and ~ 15.0 times more than the leaf. All tissues examined demonstrated the capability for AsA biosynthesis through the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway because mRNAs of the six key genes [GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-D-mannose-3′,5′- epimerase (GME), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH), and L-galactono-1-4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH)] and catalytic activities of the corresponding enzymes (GMP, GDH, and GLDH) were detected. The differential expressions of genes and enzyme activities mostly correlated with the respective AsA content. Thus, the expression of several genes of the D-mannose/ L-galactose pathway determined the AsA content variation in tissues of M. dubia. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

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