PubMed | University Ceuma and Federal University of Pernambuco
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Free radical research | Year: 2016
Several plant-derived compounds have been screened by antioxidant assays, but many of these results are questionable, since they do not evaluate the pharmacologic parameters. In fact, the development of better antioxidants stills a great challenge. In vitro cell-based assays have been employed to assess the antioxidant effect of various compounds at subcellular level. Cell-based assays can also reveal compounds able to enhance the antioxidant pathways, but without direct radical scavenging action (which could not be detected by traditional assays). These methodologies are general of easy implementation and reproducible making them suitable for the early stages of drug discovery. Hydrogen peroxide, a nonradical derivative of oxygen, can be employed as an oxidative agent in these assays due its biochemical properties (presence of all biological systems, solubility) and capacity to induce cell death. Truthfully, if their limitations are understood (such as difference on cell metabolism when in in vitro conditions), these cell-based assays can provide useful information about the pathways involved in the protective effects of phytochemicals against cell death induced by oxidative stress, which can be exploited to develop new therapeutic approaches.
Fernandes E.S.,University Ceuma |
Vong C.T.,King's College London |
Quek S.,King's College London |
Cheong J.,King's College London |
And 8 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013
The underlying mechanisms of itch are poorly understood. We have investigated a model involving the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) that is up-regulated in common skin diseases. Intradermal injection of LTB4 (0.1 nmol/site) into female CD1 mice induced significant scratching movements (used as an itch index) compared with vehicle-injected (0.1% bovine serum albumin-saline) mice. Intraperitoneal transient receptor potential (TRP) channel antagonist treatment significantly inhibited itch as follows: TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 (0.5 mg/kg, by 97%) and the TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonists TCS 5861528 (10 mg/kg; 82%) and HC-030031 (100 mg/kg; 76%). Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 antagonism by LY255283 (5 mg/kg i.p.; 62%) reduced itch. Neither TRPV1-knockout (TRPV1-KO) nor TRPA1-knockout (TRPA1-KO mice exhibited LTB4-induced itch compared with their wild-type counterparts. The reactive oxygen species scavengers N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 204 mg/kg i.p.; 86%) or superoxide dismutase (SOD; 10 mg/kg i.p.; 83%) also inhibited itch. LTB4-induced superoxide release was attenuated by TCS 5861528 (56%) and HC- 030031 (66%), NAC (58%), SOD (50%), and LY255283 (59%) but not by the leukotriene B4 receptor 1 antagonist U-75302 (9 nmol/site) or SB366791. Itch, superoxide, and myeloperoxidase generation were inhibited by the leukocyte migration inhibitor fucoidan (10 mg/kg i.v.) by 80, 61, and 34%, respectively. Myeloperoxidase activity was also reduced by SB366791 (35%) and SOD (28%). TRPV1-KO mice showed impaired myeloperoxidase release, whereas TRPA1-KO mice exhibited diminished production of superoxide. This result provides novel evidence that TRPA1 and TRPV1 contribute to itch via distinct mechanisms.
Brito C.A.R.,University CEUMA |
Fleming R.R.,Pos Graduacao em Engineering Aeronaacute;utica e Mecanica |
Pardini L.C.,IAE |
Alves N.P.,Quimlab Cientifica Ltda.
Polimeros | Year: 2013
This paper summarizes the conventional spinning processes used to obtain polyacrylonitrile (PAN). A brief history of the development of PAN fiber is presented. The employability of PAN fibers is attributed mainly to the textile sector and aviation (as main precursor for carbon fibers). Currently, the wet spinning process became the only means of industrial production of PAN fibers, which employs DMF (dimethylformamide) as the main solvent for this technique of spinning. We describe a new method of spinning of PAN with no need of using highly toxic solvents. This innovative technology enables spinning by melting PAN using glycerin (from biodiesel production) as the primary plasticizer.
Falcai A.,University CEUMA |
Soeiro-Pereira P.V.,Federal University of Maranhão |
Kubo C.A.,University of Sao Paulo |
Aranda C.S.,Federal University of São Paulo |
And 2 more authors.
Allergologia et Immunopathologia | Year: 2015
Introduction: Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway obstruction, and increased mucus production, with a predominance of type 2 immune response (Th2). According to the hygiene hypothesis, exposure to environmental bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may induce a type 1 immune response (Th1), modulating the development of asthma. Objective: In this study we investigated cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children and adolescents with severe asthma, in response to LPS stimulation in vitro. Materials and methods: 26 children were selected: 13 severe asthmatics and 13 healthy controls, aged between 5 and 18 years. They were evaluated through routine medical history, physical examination and lung function test to diagnose severe asthma. Allergy status was confirmed by skin prick test and specific IgE assay. We collected blood samples to analyse in vitro LPS-induced cytokines release by PBMC. Results: PBMC from severe asthmatic children produced lower levels of IL-12p70 in basal conditions and after 12 and 24. h stimulation with LPS compared to healthy controls. PBMC from severe asthmatic children produced lower levels of IL-4 after 24. h LPS stimulation compared to healthy controls. PBMC from severe asthmatic children produced more levels IL-17 and IL-10 after stimulus with LPS compared to healthy controls. The release of IFN-γ, IL-5 and TNF-α by PBMC from severe asthmatic children was similar to healthy controls. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that LPS directly influence the cytokine profile of PBMC in children with severe asthma. These observations may be potentially helpful in developing new treatment strategies. © 2014 SEICAP.
PubMed | University CEUMA, University of Cuiabá and Post University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice | Year: 2016
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between tooth loss and the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs).One hundred fifty patients with an average age of 49.2 (14.06) years were divided into three groups (n = 50/group) according to the degree of tooth loss: GI (dentate -control), GII (edentulous), GIII (partially dentate). After performing anamnesis and clinical examination, a questionnaire was used, so that the patients could fill in information on signs and symptoms of TMD. After analyzing this information, it was possible to classify the degree of severity of TMD. As age is a confounding variable to the level of TMD, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to check for differences in the degree of TMD between groups (covariate = age). A post hoc test (Bonferroni) was performed to compare the groups two by two (5% significance level).The mean level of TMD according to the groups was GI - 1.95; GII - 2.15; GIII - 2.55. There were significant differences between the study groups (p > 0.05). A post hoc test (Bonferroni) confirmed the difference between edentulous patients and the other groups.The tooth loss is directly related to the signs and symptoms of TMD. The degree of TMD was significantly higher in edentulous patients.
Resende M.M.,Faculdade Estacio Seama |
Resende M.M.,University CEUMA |
Monteiro S.G.,University CEUMA |
Monteiro S.G.,Federal University of Maranhão |
And 5 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is considered the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU), but its features are not fully known in many hospitals in Brazil. We identified clinical and epidemiological aspects associated with VAP in an intensive care unit (ICU) in a general public hospital in northern Brazil and performed an analytical descriptive prospective cohort study.Methods: We analyzed data from thirty-three patients who developed VAP while in the ICU. Clinical and epidemiological data of patients were obtained and tracheal secretions were submitted to culture. Microbial isolates were identified and evaluated for resistance against antimicrobial agents by using the automated Vitek 2 system.Results: The frequency of VAP was 26.2% in patients submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, and death occurred in 78.8% of cases. Only the presence of comorbidity showed a significant association (P = 0.029) with death. The most commonly found bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae. We also found a frequency of 54.5% of multiresistant bacteria associated with VAP, and previous antibiotic therapy was used in 97% of patients.Conclusions: VAP in our ICU presented with a high frequency and was mainly caused by multiresistant bacteria. Implementation of rational protocols for the use of antibacterial agents and rapid delivery of culture and susceptibility test results are essential. This may help decrease VAP-related mortality rates by multiresistant bacteria in the ICU. © 2013 Resende et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Bodkin J.V.,Queen Mary, University of London |
Fernandes E.S.,University Ceuma
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013
Sensory neurons play important roles in many disorders, including inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. Sepsis is a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory reaction to a local bacterial infection, affecting thousands of patients annually. Although associated with a high mortality rate, sepsis outcome depends on the severity of systemic inflammation, which can be directly influenced by several factors, including the immune response of the patient. Currently, there is a lack of effective drugs to treat sepsis, and thus there is a need to develop new drugs to improve sepsis outcome. Several mediators involved in the formation of sepsis have now been identified, but the mechanisms underlying the pathology remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor and the neuropeptide substance P (SP) have recently been demonstrated as important targets for sepsis and are located on sensory neurones and non-neuronal cells. Herein, we highlight and review the importance of sensory neurones for the modulation of sepsis, with specific focus on recent findings relating to TRPV1 and SP, with their distinct abilities to alter the transition from local to systemic inflammation and also modify the overall sepsis outcome. We also emphasize the protective role of TRPV1 in this context. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.
De Sousa Porta S.R.,University of Campinas |
De Lucena-Ferreira S.C.,University of Campinas |
Da Silva W.J.,University of Campinas |
Da Silva W.J.,University CEUMA |
Del Bel Cury A.A.,University of Campinas
Gerodontology | Year: 2015
Objectives To evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on biofilms, colour stability (ΔE) and surface roughness (Ra) of complete dentures and patient acceptability. Background Denture cleansers should be able to reduce the accumulation of biofilms without affecting the acrylic resin properties. Patient satisfaction is important to maintaining their daily use. Materials and methods Fifteen participants were instructed to keep their dentures immersed daily in a 0.5% NaOCl solution for 3 min over 90 days. Swabs were taken from dentures and inoculated on CHROMagar and blood agar. The number of colony-forming units (cfu) was counted after a 48-h incubation period. ΔE was assessed using the CIE L∗a∗b∗ system. Ra was measured using a profilometer. Patient acceptability was checked based on their degree of satisfaction. Cell counts, ΔE and Ra were analysed using anova, Friedman's and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively (α = 0.05). Results A significant reduction in the total number of microorganisms (p = 0.001) and Candida spp. was noticed. No significant differences were found for ΔE (p = 0.68) and for Ra (p = 0.47). The level of the patient satisfaction increased throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion The 0.5% NaOCl solution was effective in reducing microorganisms without significant changes in colour or roughness of denture resin. The participants reported satisfaction with the cleaning results. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Madeira H.G.R.,Federal University of Maranhão |
Garcia J.B.S.,Federal University of Maranhão |
Lima M.V.V.,University Ceuma |
Serra H.O.,Federal University of Maranhão
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia | Year: 2013
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of low back pain in pregnant women and to describe its characteristics and associated factors. METHODS: The participants were 269 pregnant women in the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, seen at the obstetrics outpatient clinic of a University Hospital in the Brazilian Northeast. We applied a questionnaire in order to obtain data regarding socio-demographic variables, obstetric history and characteristics of low back pain, as well as the Oswestry and Rolland Morris questionnaires to assess disability and a visual analog pain scale to measure pain intensity. RESULTS: The prevalence of low back pain was 73%, with the following characteristics: stabbing (62/31.6%), irradiation (162/82.6%), of daily frequency (105/53.5%), usually starting at night (83/42.3%) when it was also more intense (122/62.2%), and lasting about 1 hour in 118 women (60.2%). Pain improved with rest (100/51%), worsened when the women stood or sat for a long time (86/43.9%) and when they did housework (85/43.4%). The level of disability ranged from "mild" to "moderate" in most cases. Urinary tract infection (p=0.02) and the scores of the Oswestry and Rolland Morris questionnaires showed significant association with the visual analogue pain scale. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of back pain among pregnant women is high, with varying characteristics. The degree of disability is usually moderate and the presence of urinary infection and higher disability scores were associated with greater intensity of low back pain.
PubMed | University CEUMA and Federal University of Maranhão
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2016
Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug resistance, especially against rifampicin and isoniazid, places pulmonary tuberculosis in the list of emerging diseases. The misuse of therapeutic regimens is one of its main predisposing factors.Four clinical cases (three were brown and one black) with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, treated in a reference hospital in the state of Maranho, Brazil, were reported to evaluate the importance of radiological framework on disease evolution.The clinical framework showed a bad evolution and drug resistance, while radiology showed lung lesions, ranging from exudative infiltrates to lung parenchyma disintegration.