University CEUMA

São Luís, Brazil

University CEUMA

São Luís, Brazil
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Medeiros-Filho J.B.,University CEUMA | Maia Filho E.M.,University CEUMA | Ferreira M.C.,University CEUMA
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy | Year: 2017

Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined with photochemotherapy (PCT) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in young patients. Methods A randomized, blind, clinical trial with a split-mouth design was conducted involving a sample of 15 cancer patients aged three to 16 years at the Aldenora Bello Hospital in the city of São Luís, Brazil. The treatments (PCT + LLLT and LLLT alone) were randomly determined for each side of the oral cavity. The patients were blinded to the type of therapy performed on each side. The outcome was the area of the lesion measured in cm2 over an eight-day evaluation period. Treatment and follow up of the lesions under evaluation as well as other lesions occurred until complete remission. Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were employed. Significance was set at a 95% confidence level (α = 0.05) and the effect size was calculated. Results A statistically significant difference was found between therapies for lesion area on Days 6–8 (p = 0.020, 0.011 and 0.005, respectively), which was confirmed by the moderate effect size. Lesions submitted to PCT + LLLT had a smaller area at the end of the evaluation period. Conclusion Based on the present findings, PCT + LLLT had a greater therapeutic effect in comparison to LLLT alone regarding the reduction in the degree of severity of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Costa R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Costa R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Bicca M.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Manjavachi M.N.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2017

Kinin B1 (B1R) and B2 receptors (B2R) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel are known to play a critical role in the peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel (PTX) in rodents. However, the downstream pathways activated by kinin receptors as well as the sensitizers of the TRPV4 channel involved in this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigated whether kinins sensitize TRPV4 channels in order to maintain PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. The mechanical hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin (BK, a B2R agonist) or des-Arg9-BK (DABK, a B1R agonist) was inhibited by the selective TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. Additionally, BK was able to sensitize TRPV4, thus contributing to mechanical hyperalgesia. This response was dependent on phospholipase C/protein kinase C (PKC) activation. The selective kinin B1R (des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin) and B2R (HOE 140) antagonists reduced the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by PTX, with efficacies and time response profiles similar to those observed for the TRPV4 antagonist (HC-067047). Additionally, both kinin receptor antagonists inhibited the overt nociception induced by hypotonic solution in PTX-injected animals. The same animals presented lower PKCε levels in skin and dorsal root ganglion samples. The selective PKCε inhibitor (εV1–2) reduced the hypotonicity-induced overt nociception in PTX-treated mice with the same magnitude observed for the kinin receptor antagonists. These findings suggest that B1R or B2R agonists sensitize TRPV4 channels to induce mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. This mechanism of interaction may contribute to PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy through the activation of PKCε. We suggest these targets represent new opportunities for the development of effective analgesics to treat chronic pain. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

da Cunha N.B.,Catholic University of Brasília | Cobacho N.B.,Catholic University of Brasília | Viana J.F.C.,Catholic University of Brasília | Viana J.F.C.,University Ceuma | And 11 more authors.
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2017

Anti-infective drugs have had a key role in the contemporary world, contributing to dramatically decrease mortality rates caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are multifunctional effectors of the innate immune system of mucosal surfaces and present antimicrobial activity against a range of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi. However, the discovery and development of new antibacterial drugs is a crucial step to overcome the great challenge posed by the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In this review, we outline recent advances in the development of novel AMPs with improved antimicrobial activities that were achieved through characteristic structural design. In addition, we describe recent progress made to overcome some of the major limitations that have hindered peptide biosynthesis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Aubdool A.A.,King's College London | Kodji X.,King's College London | Abdul-Kader N.,King's College London | Heads R.,King's College London | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Background and Purpose: Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) activation is known to mediate neurogenic vasodilatation. We investigated the mechanisms involved in TRPA1-mediated peripheral vasodilatation in vivo using the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde. Experimental Approach: Changes in vascular ear blood flow were measured in anaesthetized mice using laser Doppler flowmetry. Key Results: Topical application of cinnamaldehyde to the mouse ear caused a significant increase in blood flow in the skin of anaesthetized wild-type (WT) mice but not in TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice. Cinnamaldehyde-induced vasodilatation was inhibited by the pharmacological blockade of the potent microvascular vasodilator neuropeptide CGRP and neuronal NOS-derived NO pathways. Cinnamaldehyde-mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced by treatment with reactive oxygen nitrogen species (RONS) scavenger such as catalase and the SOD mimetic TEMPOL, supporting a role of RONS in the downstream vasodilator TRPA1-mediated response. Co-treatment with a non-selective NOS inhibitor L-NAME and antioxidant apocynin further inhibited the TRPA1-mediated vasodilatation. Cinnamaldehyde treatment induced the generation of peroxynitrite that was blocked by the peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS and shown to be dependent on TRPA1, as reflected by an increase in protein tyrosine nitration in the skin of WT, but not in TRPA1 KO mice. Conclusion and Implications: This study provides in vivo evidence that TRPA1-induced vasodilatation mediated by cinnamaldehyde requires neuronal NOS-derived NO, in addition to the traditional neuropeptide component. A novel role of peroxynitrite is revealed, which is generated downstream of TRPA1 activation by cinnamaldehyde. This mechanistic pathway underlying TRPA1-mediated vasodilatation may be important in understanding the role of TRPA1 in pathophysiological situations. © 2016 The Authors British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society

Fernandes E.S.,University Ceuma | Vong C.T.,King's College London | Quek S.,King's College London | Cheong J.,King's College London | And 8 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013

The underlying mechanisms of itch are poorly understood. We have investigated a model involving the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) that is up-regulated in common skin diseases. Intradermal injection of LTB4 (0.1 nmol/site) into female CD1 mice induced significant scratching movements (used as an itch index) compared with vehicle-injected (0.1% bovine serum albumin-saline) mice. Intraperitoneal transient receptor potential (TRP) channel antagonist treatment significantly inhibited itch as follows: TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 (0.5 mg/kg, by 97%) and the TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonists TCS 5861528 (10 mg/kg; 82%) and HC-030031 (100 mg/kg; 76%). Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 antagonism by LY255283 (5 mg/kg i.p.; 62%) reduced itch. Neither TRPV1-knockout (TRPV1-KO) nor TRPA1-knockout (TRPA1-KO mice exhibited LTB4-induced itch compared with their wild-type counterparts. The reactive oxygen species scavengers N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 204 mg/kg i.p.; 86%) or superoxide dismutase (SOD; 10 mg/kg i.p.; 83%) also inhibited itch. LTB4-induced superoxide release was attenuated by TCS 5861528 (56%) and HC- 030031 (66%), NAC (58%), SOD (50%), and LY255283 (59%) but not by the leukotriene B4 receptor 1 antagonist U-75302 (9 nmol/site) or SB366791. Itch, superoxide, and myeloperoxidase generation were inhibited by the leukocyte migration inhibitor fucoidan (10 mg/kg i.v.) by 80, 61, and 34%, respectively. Myeloperoxidase activity was also reduced by SB366791 (35%) and SOD (28%). TRPV1-KO mice showed impaired myeloperoxidase release, whereas TRPA1-KO mice exhibited diminished production of superoxide. This result provides novel evidence that TRPA1 and TRPV1 contribute to itch via distinct mechanisms.

Brito C.A.R.,University CEUMA | Fleming R.R.,Pos Graduacao em Engineering Aeronaacute;utica e Mecanica | Pardini L.C.,IAE | Alves N.P.,Quimlab Cientifica Ltda.
Polimeros | Year: 2013

This paper summarizes the conventional spinning processes used to obtain polyacrylonitrile (PAN). A brief history of the development of PAN fiber is presented. The employability of PAN fibers is attributed mainly to the textile sector and aviation (as main precursor for carbon fibers). Currently, the wet spinning process became the only means of industrial production of PAN fibers, which employs DMF (dimethylformamide) as the main solvent for this technique of spinning. We describe a new method of spinning of PAN with no need of using highly toxic solvents. This innovative technology enables spinning by melting PAN using glycerin (from biodiesel production) as the primary plasticizer.

Falcai A.,University CEUMA | Soeiro-Pereira P.V.,Federal University of Maranhão | Kubo C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Aranda C.S.,Federal University of São Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Allergologia et Immunopathologia | Year: 2015

Introduction: Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway obstruction, and increased mucus production, with a predominance of type 2 immune response (Th2). According to the hygiene hypothesis, exposure to environmental bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may induce a type 1 immune response (Th1), modulating the development of asthma. Objective: In this study we investigated cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children and adolescents with severe asthma, in response to LPS stimulation in vitro. Materials and methods: 26 children were selected: 13 severe asthmatics and 13 healthy controls, aged between 5 and 18 years. They were evaluated through routine medical history, physical examination and lung function test to diagnose severe asthma. Allergy status was confirmed by skin prick test and specific IgE assay. We collected blood samples to analyse in vitro LPS-induced cytokines release by PBMC. Results: PBMC from severe asthmatic children produced lower levels of IL-12p70 in basal conditions and after 12 and 24. h stimulation with LPS compared to healthy controls. PBMC from severe asthmatic children produced lower levels of IL-4 after 24. h LPS stimulation compared to healthy controls. PBMC from severe asthmatic children produced more levels IL-17 and IL-10 after stimulus with LPS compared to healthy controls. The release of IFN-γ, IL-5 and TNF-α by PBMC from severe asthmatic children was similar to healthy controls. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that LPS directly influence the cytokine profile of PBMC in children with severe asthma. These observations may be potentially helpful in developing new treatment strategies. © 2014 SEICAP.

Resende M.M.,Faculdade Estacio Seama | Resende M.M.,University CEUMA | Monteiro S.G.,University CEUMA | Monteiro S.G.,Federal University of Maranhão | And 5 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is considered the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU), but its features are not fully known in many hospitals in Brazil. We identified clinical and epidemiological aspects associated with VAP in an intensive care unit (ICU) in a general public hospital in northern Brazil and performed an analytical descriptive prospective cohort study.Methods: We analyzed data from thirty-three patients who developed VAP while in the ICU. Clinical and epidemiological data of patients were obtained and tracheal secretions were submitted to culture. Microbial isolates were identified and evaluated for resistance against antimicrobial agents by using the automated Vitek 2 system.Results: The frequency of VAP was 26.2% in patients submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, and death occurred in 78.8% of cases. Only the presence of comorbidity showed a significant association (P = 0.029) with death. The most commonly found bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae. We also found a frequency of 54.5% of multiresistant bacteria associated with VAP, and previous antibiotic therapy was used in 97% of patients.Conclusions: VAP in our ICU presented with a high frequency and was mainly caused by multiresistant bacteria. Implementation of rational protocols for the use of antibacterial agents and rapid delivery of culture and susceptibility test results are essential. This may help decrease VAP-related mortality rates by multiresistant bacteria in the ICU. © 2013 Resende et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bodkin J.V.,Queen Mary, University of London | Fernandes E.S.,University Ceuma
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Sensory neurons play important roles in many disorders, including inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. Sepsis is a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory reaction to a local bacterial infection, affecting thousands of patients annually. Although associated with a high mortality rate, sepsis outcome depends on the severity of systemic inflammation, which can be directly influenced by several factors, including the immune response of the patient. Currently, there is a lack of effective drugs to treat sepsis, and thus there is a need to develop new drugs to improve sepsis outcome. Several mediators involved in the formation of sepsis have now been identified, but the mechanisms underlying the pathology remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor and the neuropeptide substance P (SP) have recently been demonstrated as important targets for sepsis and are located on sensory neurones and non-neuronal cells. Herein, we highlight and review the importance of sensory neurones for the modulation of sepsis, with specific focus on recent findings relating to TRPV1 and SP, with their distinct abilities to alter the transition from local to systemic inflammation and also modify the overall sepsis outcome. We also emphasize the protective role of TRPV1 in this context. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

Madeira H.G.R.,Federal University of Maranhão | Garcia J.B.S.,Federal University of Maranhão | Lima M.V.V.,University Ceuma | Serra H.O.,Federal University of Maranhão
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of low back pain in pregnant women and to describe its characteristics and associated factors. METHODS: The participants were 269 pregnant women in the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, seen at the obstetrics outpatient clinic of a University Hospital in the Brazilian Northeast. We applied a questionnaire in order to obtain data regarding socio-demographic variables, obstetric history and characteristics of low back pain, as well as the Oswestry and Rolland Morris questionnaires to assess disability and a visual analog pain scale to measure pain intensity. RESULTS: The prevalence of low back pain was 73%, with the following characteristics: stabbing (62/31.6%), irradiation (162/82.6%), of daily frequency (105/53.5%), usually starting at night (83/42.3%) when it was also more intense (122/62.2%), and lasting about 1 hour in 118 women (60.2%). Pain improved with rest (100/51%), worsened when the women stood or sat for a long time (86/43.9%) and when they did housework (85/43.4%). The level of disability ranged from "mild" to "moderate" in most cases. Urinary tract infection (p=0.02) and the scores of the Oswestry and Rolland Morris questionnaires showed significant association with the visual analogue pain scale. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of back pain among pregnant women is high, with varying characteristics. The degree of disability is usually moderate and the presence of urinary infection and higher disability scores were associated with greater intensity of low back pain.

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