University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
Barquisimeto, Venezuela

The Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado is a public university of Venezuela located in Barquisimeto. It was founded in 1962 with the creation of the Centro Experimental de Estudios Superiores , and became the Universidad de la Región Centro Occidental in 1967, before being given its current name in 1979. Wikipedia.

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Obtaining new cultivars has capital importance in production of cultivated species. Most of the Venezuelan sesame is produced for export market, therefore these sesame cultivars must meet export market and farmer requirements (good adaptation and high yield). In 2008 the confection of a sesame base population started by two simple crosses, which later were crossed between them for originating a segregant population with alleles coming from four genotypes. A family structure was derived from this population, and three selection cycles were applied on it. One family was remarkable because of the high yield and good quality for the sesame seed processing industry. This family was named UCLA-2. This new cultivar has yielded up to 1246 kg·ha-1. In average over several trials, its yield has been 28.41% higher than UCLA-1 (the main cultivar used to date in Venezuela). UCLA-2 has uniform and clear colour seeds, which is the main attribute considered by export market. © 2017, Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). All rights reserved.

Vasquez C.,University of Sao Paulo | Vasquez C.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | de Moraes G.J.,University of Sao Paulo
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2013

The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Chiurillo M.A.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy | Year: 2015

Pharmacogenetics is being applied to develop individual specific therapies considering different ethnic groups and mixed populations. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the admixture process that occurred between Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans through five centuries. This review provides a summary of the literature concerning gene variants within drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug targets, and drug receptors (CYP2C19, CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NAT2, MTHFR, LEP, LEPR, LTC4S, and ADRβ2 genes) evaluated in the Venezuelan population. In particular, most of the studies were conducted with relatively low numbers of individuals. Some of these studies included analyses of genetic polymorphisms in native groups living in this country. Although the recent studies represent a hopeful progress toward the inclusion of the Venezuelan population among those who will benefit from the implementation of pharmacogenetic principles and tools in drug therapy, there are not yet sufficient data concerning allelic frequencies of genomic biomarkers related to drug response for their implementation in clinical practice. Therefore, there is a critical need for more research in pharmacogenetics in Venezuela to increase data availability. Copyright © 2011-2015 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH.

Sosa F.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Ungla Navás is a small and relatively unstudied genus of Neotropical Chrysopini (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Chrysopinae) from Central and South America. Here, the genus is reported from Venezuela for the first time, and seven new species are described: Ungla demarmelsi sp. nov.; Ungla diazi sp. nov.; Ungla curimaguensis sp. nov.; Ungla martinsi sp. nov.; Ungla nigromaculifrons sp. nov.; Ungla rubricosa sp. nov.; and Ungla yutajensis sp. nov. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Padua M.B.,University of Florida | Kowalski A.A.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Canas M.Y.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Hansen P.J.,University of Florida
FASEB Journal | Year: 2010

Uterine serpins (USs), designated as SERPINA14, are expressed in the endometrium in response to progesterone. All species identified as having USs exhibit epitheliochorial placentation and are in the Ruminantia and Suidae orders of the Laurasiatheria superorder. The objective was to identify US genes in species within and outside Laurasiatheria and evaluate whether evolution of the US gene was associated with development of the epitheliochorial placenta. Through queries of nucleotide and genomic databases, known US genes were identified (caprine, bovine, porcine, water buffalo), and new US coding sequences were found in dolphins, horses, dogs, and cats. The cat sequence contained several stop codons. No sequence was found in completed genomic sequences for primates, rodents, rabbits, opossums, or duck-billed platypuses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed expression of the US gene in the uterus of pregnant horses and dogs. The ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions suggests that the US gene evolved under positive selection. In conclusion, the US gene evolved within the Laurasiatheria super-order to play a role in pregnancy for species with epitheliochorial placentation and some but not all Laurasiatheria species that have a different form of placentation. The positive selection taking place in the gene suggests development of species-specific functions. © FASEB.

Late blight of celery, caused by the fungus Septoria apiicola is the most limiting foliar disease in this crop, especially in the highlands of Táchira State, Venezuela, where control with agrochemicals is not enough for reducing the disease incidence. This research focused on the evaluation of the effect of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts (EE) from Lippia origanoides (Lo) and Gliricidia sepium (Gs) leaves, on the pathogen conidia (in vitro) and disease management, either as preventive or curative treatment, on celery plants in growing chambers. Both, EE of Lo and Gs showed fungicidal effects on conidia at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.8 %, respectively, while in vivo, this effect was observed at treatments Lo 15 % and Gs 19 %. Preventive and curative treatments with Lo 15 % showed their potential use to reduce disease infection 44 and 47.4 %, respectively, while with Gs 19 % the reduction was 69.5 and 64.4 %, respectively. On the other hand, when using Gs 19 % a light phytoxicity effect and a hormesis phenomenon were observed in the plants. © 2016, Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). All Rights reserved.

Chiurillo M.A.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large metaanalyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin ]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of gastric cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health programs in Latin America. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.

Guerrero R.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Melfo A.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Pantoja N.,University of Los Andes, Venezuela | Rodriguez R.O.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

We consider the effects of spacetime curvature and brane thickness on the localization of gauge fields on a brane via kinetic terms induced by localized fermions. We find that in a warped geometry with an infinitely thin brane, both the infrared and the ultraviolet behavior of the electromagnetic propagator are affected, providing a more stringent bound on the brane's tension than that coming from the requirement of four-dimensional gravity on the brane. On the other hand, for a thick wall in a flat spacetime, where the fermions are localized by means of a Yukawa coupling, we find that four-dimensional electromagnetism is recovered in a region bounded from above by the same critical distance appearing in the thin case, but also from below by a new scale related to the brane's thickness and the electromagnetic couplings. This imposes very stringent bounds on the brane's thickness which seem to invalidate the localization mechanism for this case. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Sanchez M.E.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | Pastor M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Applied Physics And Computational Mathematics | Romana M.G.,Technical University of Madrid
Georisk | Year: 2013

This paper proposes an extension of methods used to predict the propagation of landslides having a long runout to smaller landslides with much shorter propagation distances. The method is based on: (1) a depth-integrated mathematical model including the coupling between the soil skeleton and the pore fluids, (2) suitable rheological models describing the relation between the stress and the rate of deformation tensors for fluidised soils and (3) a meshless numerical method, Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics, which separates the computational mesh (or set of computational nodes) from the mesh describing the terrain topography, which is of structured type - thus accelerating search operations. The proposed model is validated using two examples for which there are analytical solutions, and then it is applied to two short runout landslides which happened in Hong Kong in 1995, for which there is available information. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Ortiz J.N.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado | de Juan J.A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Tarjuelo J.M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2010

The effect of water application uniformity (CU) on the uniformity of soil water content (CUs) and crop yield uniformity (CUyield) from a centre pivot irrigation system operating under field conditions was analysed. Rotating Spray Plate Sprinklers (RSPS) and Fixed Spray Plate Sprinklers (FSPS) were placed at 2.5 and 1 m above the ground. For individual irrigation events, RSPS had higher values of CU (90-95%) than the FSPS (80-85%). The value of CU corresponding to the series of accumulated irrigation depths (CUa) was more closely correlated with final crop yield than the values for individual irrigation events (CU). This was much more important with FSPS because of the method used to apply the water. In sprinkler irrigation, a CU value of around 80% for individual irrigation events can be sufficient to provide good crop yield uniformity since the corresponding CUs can easily exceed 90% since values of CU > 90% in individual irrigation events do not significantly increase water uniformity in the soil. The final sugar beet yield was affected more by the amount of water available in the soil than by the slight differences in soil water uniformity obtained with centre pivots. This behaviour is considered to be typical for this kind of sprinkler. © 2009 IAgrE.

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