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Catolica, Brazil

de Carvalho C.X.,Federal University of Goais | Kipnis A.,Federal University of Goais | Thorn L.,Secretary of Health of Goiania | de Andrade J.G.,Federal University of Goais | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine was introduced into the Immunization Program of Brazil in 1999 and no study has evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination in H. influenzae carriage so far. In June 2010, Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). We investigated the prevalence of encapsulated H. influenzae and NTHi isolates in nasopharyngeal samples of 1192 children attending day-care centers in Goiânia, central Brazil. H. influenzae carriage rate was 32.1% and 38.4% of them carried β-lactamase TEM-1 gene. Serotype f (4.6%) was the most frequent encapsulated isolate, type b was recovered in only 0.7% and carriage rate of NTHi was 23.3%. Recurrent acute otitis media and NTHi were independently associated with colonization by β-lactamase producing H. influenzae. Changes in frequency of H. influenzae carriage isolates should be carefully monitored to assess the impact of the PHiD-CV on NTHi carriage in young children. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Andrade A.L.S.,Federal University of Goais | Franco C.M.,Secretariat of Health of the Municipality of Goiania | Franco C.M.,Catolica University of Goias | Lamaro-Cardoso J.,Federal University of Goais | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2010

Objectives: We have recently found a high prevalence of non-typeable pneumococcal isolates (NTPn) circulating in day-care centers in Central Brazil, besides serotype 14 isolates. We therefore examined the genetic relationship among NTPn and serotype 14 from carriage and invasive pneumococcal isolates obtained from children attending emergency rooms enrolled in a population-based surveillance. Methods: The isolates were characterized by Quellung reaction serotyping, PCR for the presence of pneumolysin and the loci for a capsule gene (cpsA) and the type 14 gene (cps14H) in all NTPn, and by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: 87.2% of the isolates were clustered into nine clusters. The major cluster included 41 pneumococcal serotype 14 (28 carriage and 13 invasive isolates) and two NTPn related to the global pneumococcal clone Spain 9V-3. Overall, 95.4% of the NTPn carriage strains were genetically related to carriage or invasive strains expressing serotype 14. A dominant NTPn lineage was found, that grouped 14 pneumococcal strains. Almost half of the multidrug-resistant isolates grouped into the NTPn cluster. Conclusion: These findings provide baseline data to assess the impact of the pneumococcal vaccination on the molecular epidemiology of . Streptococcus pneumoniae. Changes in frequency of NTPn isolates and also genetic changes should be carefully monitored post vaccination, to detect potential vaccine-escape or replacement disease by capsule switched strains, especially in areas where colonization with NTPn has been frequently observed. © 2010 The British Infection Society. Source

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