Ateba-Ngoa U.,Leiden University |
Ateba-Ngoa U.,University Bingen |
Mombo-Ngoma G.,Leiden University |
Mombo-Ngoma G.,University Bingen |
And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Background: Children who have been exposed in utero to maternal filarial infection are immunologically less responsive to filarial antigens, have less pathology, and are more susceptible to acquire infection than offspring of uninfected mothers. Moreover children from filaria infected mothers have been shown to be less responsive to vaccination as a consequence of an impairment of their immune response. However, it is not well known how in utero exposure to parasite antigens affects cellular immune responses.Methodology: Here, 30 pregnant women were examined for the presence of microfilaria of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in peripheral blood. At delivery, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) were obtained and the CD4+T cells were phenotyped by expression of the transcription factors Tbet, RORγt, and FOXP3.Results: No significant difference was observed between newborns from infected versus uninfected mothers in the frequencies of total CD4+T cells and CD4+T cells subsets including CD4+Tbet+ , CD4+RORγt+ T and CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ T cells. However, there was a negative association between CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+T cells and CD4+Tbet+ as well as CD4+RORγt+ T cells in the infected group only (B=20.242, P=0.002; B=20.178, P= 0.013 respectively).Conclusion: Our results suggest that filarial infection during pregnancy leads to an expansion of functionally active regulatory Tcells that keep TH1 and TH17 in check. © 2014 Ateba-Ngoa et al.
Finster F.,University of Regensburg |
Hainzl C.,University bingen
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model where Dirac spinors are coupled to classical gravity. For the Dirac spinors we choose a Hartree-Fock ansatz where all one-particle wave functions are coherent and have the same momentum. If the scale function is large, the universe behaves like the classical Friedmann dust solution. If however the scale function is small, quantum effects lead to oscillations of the energy-momentum tensor. It is shown numerically and proven analytically that these quantum oscillations can prevent the formation of a big bang or big crunch singularity. The energy conditions are analyzed. We prove the existence of time-periodic solutions which go through an infinite number of expansion and contraction cycles. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Goovaerts O.,Institute of Tropical Medicine |
Goovaerts O.,University of Antwerp |
Jennes W.,Institute of Tropical Medicine |
Massinga-Loembe M.,Institute of Tropical Medicine |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Background: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains a poorly understood complication in HIV-TB patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS could be associated with an exaggerated immune response to TB-antigens. We compared the recovery of IFNc responses to recall and TB-antigens and explored in vitro innate cytokine production in TB-IRIS patients. Copyright:Methods: In a prospective cohort study of HIV-TB co-infected patients treated for TB before ART initiation, we compared 18 patients who developed TB-IRIS with 18 non-IRIS controls matched for age, sex and CD4 count. We analyzed IFNc ELISpot responses to CMV, influenza, TB and LPS before ART and during TB-IRIS. CMV and LPS stimulated ELISpot supernatants were subsequently evaluated for production of IL-12p70, IL-6, TNFa and IL-10 by Luminex.Results: Before ART, all responses were similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. During TB-IRIS, IFNc responses to TB and influenza antigens were comparable between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls, but responses to CMV and LPS remained significantly lower in TB-IRIS patients. Production of innate cytokines was similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. However, upon LPS stimulation, IL-6/IL-10 and TNFa/IL-10 ratios were increased in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls.Conclusion: TB-IRIS patients did not display excessive IFN c responses to TBantigens. In contrast, the reconstitution of CMV and LPS responses was delayed in the TB-IRIS group. For LPS, this was linked with a pro-inflammatory shift in the innate cytokine balance. These data are in support of a prominent role of the innate immune system in TB-IRIS. © 2014 Goovaerts et al.