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News Article | December 12, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

(PHILADELPHIA) Dec. 12, 2016 - In one of the first studies to examine priorities in recovery identified by trauma patients, family members and clinicians over time, an international research partnership that was launched from the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing (Penn Nursing) and Griffith University School of Nursing & Midwifery in Australia has helped advance the importance of patient-reported outcome measures for improved trauma care and research. The study, "Indicators of Injury Recovery Identified by Patients, Family Members and Clinicians," was recently published in the journal Injury and is available here in digital format. "While it is recognized that focusing on what patients envision to be good outcomes is an important part of patient-centered care, asking trauma patients and their families what they consider to be the priorities of care and recovery has been neglected," said Penn Nursing's Therese S. Richmond, PhD, FAAN, CRNP, the Andrea B. Laporte Professor of Nursing and Associate Dean for Research & Innovation. Richmond, and study's lead author Leanne M. Aitken, PhD, RN, Professor of Nursing, now at the City, University of London, conceived the research while Aitken was undertaking a Fulbright Senior Scholarship at the University of Pennsylvania. The study focused on two areas: learning what patients, family members and clinicians considered to be the indicators of successful recovery from an acute hospitalization after traumatic injury; and understanding if these indicators differed between these groups of stakeholders or changed over time, from during hospitalization to three months after discharge. Thirty-three trauma patients, 22 family members and 40 clinicians were recruited from trauma departments in two Australian teaching hospitals. Stakeholders in the study identified five specific Indicators of recovery, including returning to work, resuming family roles, achieving independence, recapturing normality and achieving comfort. Trauma patients articulated the most detail in these indicators, compared to the responses from the study's other stakeholders. "Understanding different perceptions in relation to outcomes is particularly important in trauma, where patients may not be able to participate in decision making for a period of their hospitalization," said Aitken. Perceptions of indicators of injury recovery changed for some participants over the three months after they were discharged. These changes fell into three broad groups: increasing recognition that activities of daily living were important; increasing realization of the impact of the injury; and unfolding appreciation that life could not be taken for granted. While in the hospital, trauma patients in the study often noted the desire to be able to care for themselves. The practical implications of their physical limitations, however, did not fully reveal themselves until after discharge. Instead, the ripple effects of limitations in their abilities to undertake basic self-care activities or have full range of movement of their limbs became increasingly apparent within the first month of being at home. "Changes in expectations and priorities over time have implications for how we provide education and support that should be tailored to different phases in the recovery trajectory," said Richmond. "As patients and family members change their expectations over time, appropriate care needs to be provided across the care continuum." The study's findings indicate a further need to explore recovery priorities using quantitative techniques to determine relevance to a broad cross-section of trauma patients and to develop an appropriate set of outcome measures that patients consider to be important. Although some differences between stakeholder groups were identified, similarities and differences should be tested further in larger groups. "It is expected that by understanding what matters to patients and family members will help us empower patients to be active participants in the healthcare process and will underpin development of patient-reported outcomes that should be used in practice and research in trauma care," said Aitken. "This information will also inform future trauma outcome research to ensure these priority areas are appropriate for a broader range of participants." In addition to Aitken and Richmond, the research team included: Wendy Chaboyer, RN, PhD, NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Nursing (NCREN), Menzies Health Institute Queensland & School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Australia ; Carol Jeffrey, RN, MHSc, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Australia, and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Australia; Bronte Martin, RN, MNurs, National Critical Care Trauma Response Centre, Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia; Jennifer A. Whitty, BPharm(Hons) GradDipClinPharm PhD, Health Economics, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, Menzies Health Institute Queensland & School of Medicine, Griffith University, Australia and School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Australia; Michael Schuetz, FRACS, Dr.med. Dr.med.habil., Charité Hospital, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany. Editor's Note: The team of researchers report no conflicts of interest. About the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing is one of the world's leading schools of nursing and is ranked the #1 graduate nursing school in the United States by U.S. News & World Report. Penn Nursing is consistently among the nation's top recipients of nursing research funding from the National Institutes of Health. Penn Nursing prepares nurse


News Article | April 12, 2016
Site: phys.org

Large carnivores such as brown bears or wolves—so-called top predators—play a crucial role in the regulation of wildlife populations even in human-dominated ecosystems. This is the result of a joint study by scientists of the Leuphana University Lueneburg, the Humboldt University Berlin and the Charles Sturt University and the Deakin University (both Australia), recently published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. That top predators are important for the regulation of the ecosystem in natural landscapes is well known.


News Article | November 16, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Dusa McDuff and Dietmar Salamon will receive the 2017 AMS Leroy P. Steele Prize for Exposition. They are honored for their book J-holomorphic Curves and Symplectic Topology (AMS Colloquium Publications, 52, 2004; second edition 2012). (Photo of Dietmar Salamon by Christina Buchmann.) McDuff is the Helen Lyttle Kimmel '42 Professor of Mathematics at Barnard College, Columbia University. Salamon is Professor of Mathematics at the Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich. Geometry and topology constitute a major area of mathematics that studies shapes. There are various kinds of geometry, such as the high-school subject of Euclidean geometry, and Riemannian geometry, which is the mathematical basis for Einstein's theories of relativity. Yet another kind is symplectic geometry, which also has profound connections to physics, as it underlies classical mechanics. Phenomena such as spinning tops, magnetism, and the propagation of water waves can be modeled using symplectic geometry. In 1985, Mikhael Gromov published a paper introducing the notion of a "J-holomorphic curve," which intertwined symplectic topology with other areas such as algebraic geometry and string theory. Since Gromov's paper appeared, symplectic topology has undergone rapid development. His work continues to exert a tremendous influence and to stimulate some of the most exciting work in the area. McDuff and Salamon's book J-holomorphic Curves and Symplectic Topology is a comprehensive introduction to Gromov's theory of J-holomorphic curves. It not only develops the topic from the basics, explaining essential notions and results in detail, but also describes many of the most spectacular results in this area. McDuff and Salamon wrote the book at the same time they themselves were making contributions at the forefront of the field. They spent nearly a decade assembling the foundations of the subject into this mammoth 700-page book. The prize citation says, "[The book] has since served as the most standard and undisputed reference in the field and as the main textbook for graduate students and others entering the field." Born in London, Dusa McDuff received her PhD from Cambridge University (1971). After holding positions at York, Warwick, and Stony Brook universities, she is currently Helen Lyttle Kimmel '42 Professor of Mathematics at Barnard College, Columbia University. In 1991, she received the AMS Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize. She gave a plenary address at the International Congress of Mathematicians (1998), the Noether Lecture of the Association for Women in Mathematics (1998), and the AMS Colloquium Lectures (2014). She was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London (1994), a member of the US Academy of Sciences (1999), and a member of the American Philosophical Society (2013). Born in Bremen, Germany, Dietmar Salamon received his PhD at the University of Bremen in 1982. After postdoctoral positions in Madison and Zurich, he took up a position at the University Warwick in 1986, and moved to ETH Zurich in 1998. He was an invited speaker at the European Congress of Mathematicians (1992) in Paris, at the International Congress of Mathematicians (1994) in Zurich, and at the ECM (2000) in Barcelona. He delivered the Andrejewski Lectures in Göttingen (1998) and at the Humboldt University Berlin (2005), and the Xth Lisbon Summer Lectures in Geometry (2009). He is a member of the Academia Europaea. "What is Symplectic Geometry?", by Tara Holm, appears in the December 2016 issue of the Notices of the AMS. Also related is "What is a Pseudoholomorphic Curve?", by Simon Donaldson, in the October 2005 issue of the Notices of the AMS. Presented annually, the AMS Steele Prize is one of the highest distinctions in mathematics. The prize will be awarded Thursday, January 5, 2017, at the Joint Mathematics Meetings in Atlanta. Find out more about AMS prizes and awards at http://www. . Founded in 1888 to further mathematical research and scholarship, today the American Mathematical Society fulfills its mission through programs and services that promote mathematical research and its uses, strengthen mathematical education, and foster awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and to everyday life.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: physicsworld.com

Individual photons have been put into a quantum superposition of two different colours by a team of physicists in the US and Germany. Such photons could be useful for connecting different parts of quantum-information networks that operate using differently coloured light. Superposition is an important concept of quantum mechanics that allows a physical system to be in two or more quantum states at the same time – until a measurement on the system puts it into a specific state. A photon, for example, can be in a superposition of a horizontally polarized state and a vertically polarized state until it passes through a polarimeter. Information can be encoded into quantum states and then processed in a quantum computer, which uses superposition and other features of quantum mechanics to process information much faster than is possible with conventional computers. Normally when physicists think of a photon, it is in a well-defined energy state having a specific colour. However, quantum mechanics allows the photon to be in a superposition of two or more energy states – or colours. In this latest work, Stéphane Clemmen and colleagues at Cornell University, Humboldt-University Berlin and Columbia University have created photons that are "bichromatic" by being in a superposition of two different colours. The team made the bichromatic photons using a technique called "Bragg-scattering four-wave mixing". This takes place in a 100 m-long optical fibre that is pumped with two laser beams. When a "red" photon is shone into the fibre, it interacts with the laser light and is put into a bichromatic superposition of the initial red state and a second "blue" state. The set-up can be adjusted so that the photon emerges from the opposite end of the fibre with an equal probability of being either red or blue when its colour is measured. Clemmen and colleagues were also able to adjust the relative phase between the red and blue states in the quantum superposition. This allowed them to create photons that were all blue when detected, or all red, or a specific combination of red and blue. This ability to adjust the phase is proof that the photons were in a coherent quantum superposition. The team also showed that to a very high probability, the experiment detects one photon at a time – which means that the researchers are really seeing single photons in a superposition of two colours. The technique could someday be used to connect quantum devices that operate using different colours of light. Two quantum memories, for example, could be put into a state of quantum entanglement by inputting a bichromatic photon. Such entangled memories would prove useful for a range of quantum-computing and quantum-communication applications. Other potential uses include spectroscopy measurements on living samples such as eyes, which must be done using very low levels of incident light. The research is described in Physical Review Letters.


News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

In a new study, an international team of researchers made significant progress in visualizing the process how plants split water to produce oxygen. The results are published in Nature. For mitigating climate change plants play a crucial role: they use sunlight to remove the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into biomass. By splitting water, they also produce in this process the oxygen we breathe. This latter process may turn out to be even more important for saving the climate: if understood completely, it will lead researchers to the development of devices that produce clean hydrogen fuel from solar energy and water, with much higher efficiency than plants can produce biomass. In collaboration with an international team of researchers, professor Johannes Messinger, who recently joint the Molecular Biomimetics Program at Uppsala University, has now found a way how to visualize this reaction at high resolution using the X-ray free-electron laser at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University. For this work the research consortium developed new ways to grow microcrystals of photosystem II, the protein complex that in plants is responsible for producing oxygen from water using sunlight. These microcrystals were then placed on a conveyor belt using technology akin to ink-jet printing. On the belt, the crystals were illuminated with laser flashes of green light, to start the water splitting reaction cycle. The structure of these activated states were subsequently visualized by hitting the crystals at the end of the belt with ultrafast X-ray pulses. 'This work is a breakthrough. It paves the way to study, step-by-step, how an oxygen molecule is formed from two water molecules.' says Johannes Messinger, who is one of the lead authors of this study. In the report, the authors were able to resolve structural differences between two of the states in photosystem II that are involved in water splitting. To reach this goal, research teams from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of Stanford, Humboldt University Berlin, Umeå University and Uppsala University collaborated for five years. 'We are now all set up to tackle the final mysteries of how plants make oxygen - a dream has come true', says Johannes Messinger.


News Article | November 21, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

In a new study, an international team of researchers made significant progress in visualizing the process how plants split water to produce oxygen. The results are published in Nature. For mitigating climate change plants play a crucial role: they use sunlight to remove the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into biomass. By splitting water, they also produce in this process the oxygen we breathe. This latter process may turn out to be even more important for saving the climate: if understood completely, it will lead researchers to the development of devices that produce clean hydrogen fuel from solar energy and water, with much higher efficiency than plants can produce biomass. In collaboration with an international team of researchers, professor Johannes Messinger, who recently joint the Molecular Biomimetics Program at Uppsala University, has now found a way how to visualize this reaction at high resolution using the X-ray free-electron laser at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University. For this work the research consortium developed new ways to grow microcrystals of photosystem II, the protein complex that in plants is responsible for producing oxygen from water using sunlight. These microcrystals were then placed on a conveyor belt using technology akin to ink-jet printing. On the belt, the crystals were illuminated with laser flashes of green light, to start the water splitting reaction cycle. The structure of these activated states were subsequently visualized by hitting the crystals at the end of the belt with ultrafast X-ray pulses. 'This work is a breakthrough. It paves the way to study, step-by-step, how an oxygen molecule is formed from two water molecules.' says Johannes Messinger, who is one of the lead authors of this study. In the report, the authors were able to resolve structural differences between two of the states in photosystem II that are involved in water splitting. To reach this goal, research teams from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of Stanford, Humboldt University Berlin, Umeå University and Uppsala University collaborated for five years. 'We are now all set up to tackle the final mysteries of how plants make oxygen - a dream has come true', says Johannes Messinger.


Trupp S.,Materials and Systems Research | Alberti M.,A-D Technologies | Carofiglio T.,CNR Institute on Membrane Technology | Lubian E.,CNR Institute on Membrane Technology | And 6 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010

Functional hydroxyazobenzene dyes for optically monitoring pH in the range from 6 to 10 were synthesised. The pKa values of the dyes have been tailored by appropriate choice of substituents in position para to the hydroxy group, resulting in lower pKa values for electron acceptor substituents and higher pKa for electron donors. Furthermore, substituent effects on absorbance spectra have been evaluated, with expected shifts to longer wavelength in the case of electron donors. For immobilisation, the indicator dyes were covalently linked to cellulose films via vinylsulfonyl chemistry. Mechanical stabilization of the cellulose films was achieved by lamination onto polyethylene terephthalate foils. In order to obtain patterned sensor layers with geometrical defined sensing areas a laser-structured adhesive tape was used as protective mask in the dyeing step. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Steiner M.,University Berlin | Hu S.,Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources | Liu J.,University Berlin | Liu J.,Northwest University, China | Keupp H.,University Berlin
Bulletin of Geosciences | Year: 2012

Hallucigenia hongmeia sp. nov. and Hallucigenia sparsa are described from the Cambrian Stage 4 Guanshan fossil Lagerstätte of Wulongqing Formation from Guangwei in Kunming district, Yunnan Province, South China. The paired trunk sclerites of lobopodians reveal a general net-like microstructure, which is documented for the genera Hallucigenia, Onychodictyon and Microdictyon. This microstructure is comparable to a similar microstructure in paired trunk sclerites of the palaeoscolecidan sensu lato Cricocosmia and Tabelliscolex. The net-like trunk sclerites of lobopodians are interpreted as having carried numerous sensory or secretory papillae. Lobopodian sclerites such as Hallucigenia, Onychodictyon and Microdictyon and the palaeoscolecidans s.l. Cricocosmia and Tabellicsolex were primarily composed of tanned organic structures. Duplicates of trunk sclerites in Microdictyon and Cricocosmia point to a moulting of the external cuticle. The structure and form of prominent claws in Hallucigenia hongmeia sp. nov. are interpreted as indicative of an adapted lifestyle in the epibenthos.


Kammer J.E.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Gaissmaier W.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Reimer T.,Purdue University | Schermuly C.C.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Schermuly C.C.,University Berlin
Cognitive Science | Year: 2014

Applying the framework of ecological rationality, the authors studied the adaptivity of group decision making. In detail, they investigated whether groups apply decision strategies conditional on their composition in terms of task-relevant features. The authors focused on the recognition heuristic, so the task-relevant features were the validity of the group members' recognition and knowledge, which influenced the potential performance of group strategies. Forty-three three-member groups performed an inference task in which they had to infer which of two German companies had the higher market capitalization. Results based on the choice data support the hypothesis that groups adaptively apply the strategy that leads to the highest theoretically achievable performance. Time constraints had no effect on strategy use but did have an effect on the proportions of different types of arguments. Possible mechanisms underlying the adaptive use of recognition in group decision making are discussed. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.


The world wide and continuously increasing contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with pesticides and other agrochemicals is considered as a main factor causing global amphibian declines. Glyphosate, the most commonly used nonselective systemic herbicide, is sold under a variety of commercial names (e. g. Roundup® and Vision®), and is promoted by the introduction of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate and its metabolites were detected in low concentrations in soil, rainwater, and natural surface waters. The toxicity of glyphosate and its formulations to amphibian larvae and other aquatic organisms has been proven in a variety of laboratory experiments; Roundup® concentrations of less than 1 mg acid equivalent per litre resulted in increased larval mortality in anurans. The active herbicide ingredient (glyphosate) is itself toxic but surfactants such as polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) are even more so; other components of glyphosate formulations probably also contribute to toxicity. Sublethal concentrations of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides can cause teratogenic effects, abnormal behaviour, and developmental failures such as a prolonged larval period or accelerated growth of tadpoles and reduced size at metamorphosis. Until recently, little attention has been paid to indirect effects of herbicide exposure on amphibians. Among such effects are reduced growth of algae and water plants and thus a limited food supply for tadpoles. An impoverished vegetation also reduces the number and spectrum of invertebrates as a food resource for adults. Only little is known about synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects resulting from interactions between glyphosate formulations and other agrochemicals. We also do not know whether glyphosate applications over a longer period of time influence the immune system of amphibians, perhaps by impairing the microbial communities of the skin, making their hosts susceptible to parasites and infections. Despite the huge number of questions still unanswered, our current knowledge is sufficient to justify tightening the application guidelines for glyphosate herbicides, particularly in the interest of human health. In addition, as an important protection measure for amphibians and many other organisms, all pesticide applications should be banned within 300 m of the edge of all aquatic sites. © Laurenti-Verlag, Bielefeld.

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