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Bamako, Mali

Vayssieres J.-F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vayssieres J.-F.,Biol Control Unit Afr | Sinzogan A.,University Abomey Calavi | Adandonon A.,University of Benin | And 22 more authors.
Fruits | Year: 2014

Introduction: Losses in West African commercial mango orchards due to fruit fly infestations have exceeded 50% by the middle of the crop season since 2005, resulting in considerable income loss for the growers. Materials and methods: In 2009, weekly monitoring of adult fruit fly species of economic significance was carried out in eight West African countries at 12 sites across five agro-ecological zones: (i) Humid Forest, (ii) Guinean savanna, (iii) Southern Sudan, (iv) Northern Sudan, and (v) Sahelian. Trapping was performed using methyl eugenol and terpinyl acetate in 288 Tephri-traps, targeting Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis cosyra. Results: The data showed that B. invadens was present throughout the year in the Forest zone, abundant for 7 months, with a peak in May at the end of the mango season, C. cosyra being totally absent. In the Guinean savanna zone, B. invadens was abundant for 6-7 months, with a peak at the beginning of June coinciding with the season, with a few C. cosyra. In the Southern Sudan zone, B. invadens was abundant for 6 months, with a peak in mid-June during the season, C. cosyra peaking in April. In the Northern Sudan zone, B. invadens was abundant for 5 months, with a peak at the end of June at the end of the season, C. cosyra peaking in May. In the Sahelian zone, B. invadens was abundant for 4 months, peaking in August during the season, C. cosyra peaking just before. These preliminary results showed that the exotic species, B. invadens, was present at high levels [mean peak of 378 flies per trap per day (FTD)] in all agro-ecological zones, while the native species, C. cosyra, preferred the drier zones of West Africa, with lower population levels (mean peak of 77 FTD). Conclusion: Detection trapping of male flies with parapheromones is a useful indicator of field population levels and could be used to deploy control measures (IPM package) in a timely manner when the Economic Injury Level is reached. Control strategies for these quarantine mango fruit fly species are discussed with respect to agro-ecological zones and the phenological stages of the mango tree. © 2014 Cirad/EDP Sciences. Source


Diaw M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Pialoux V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pialoux V.,Institut Universitaire de France | Pialoux V.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | And 18 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE It is predicted that Africa will have the greatest increase in the number of patients with type 2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM)within the next decade. T2DMpatients are at risk for cardiovascular disorders. In Sub-Saharan African countries, sickle cell trait (SCT) is frequent. Despite the presence of modest abnormalities in hemorheology and oxidative stress, SCT is generally considered a benign condition. Little is known about vascular function in SCT, although recent studies demonstrated an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, including venous thromboembolism, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that SCT could accentuate the vascular dysfunction observed in T2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The current study, conducted in Senegal, compared vascular function, hemorheological profile, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and nitric oxide metabolism in healthy individuals (CONT), subjectswith T2DMor SCT, and patients with bothT2DM and SCT (T2DM-SCT). RESULTS Flow-mediated dilationwas blunted in individuals with T2DM, SCT, and T2DM-SCT compared with CONT, with vascular dysfunction being most pronounced in the latter group. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements demonstrated increased arterial stiffness in T2DM-SCT. Oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products, and inflammation (interleukin-1β)were greater in patients with T2DM-SCT compared with the other groups. Blood viscosity was higher in individuals with TD2M, SCT carriers, and individuals with T2DM-SCT, and the values were further increased in the latter group. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate severe biological abnormalities and marked vascular dysfunction in patients with both T2DM and SCT. SCT should be viewed as a risk factor for further cardiovascular disorders in individuals with T2DM. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Diaw M.,Laboratoire Of Physiologie Et Explorations Fonctionnelles | Diop S.,Laboratoire dhemato immunologie | Soubaiga F.Y.W.,Laboratoire dhemato immunologie | Seck M.,Laboratoire dhemato immunologie | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to compare blood and plasma viscosities, as well as the hematocrit/blood viscosity ratio (HVR), between trained and sedentary SCT carriers. Thirty African male SCT carriers from the city of Dakar (Senegal) participated in the study: one group composed of 15 trained SCT carriers (TSCTc) and one group composed of 15 sedentary individuals (SSCTc). Blood was sampled in resting condition and blood and plasma viscosities were measured using a cone-plate viscometer. After the determination of hematocrit by microcentrifugation, HVR was determined for each subject. Blood and plasma viscosities, as well as hematocrit, were significantly reduced in TSCTc compared to SSCTc. As a consequence, HRV was greater in TSCTc. These findings provide evidence that SCT carriers should be encouraged to practice regular physical activity to limit the cardiovascular strain usually caused by their blood hyperviscosity. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. Source


Diouf M.,University Bamako | Boetsch G.,University Bamako | Ka K.,McGill University | Tal-Dia A.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Bonfil J.J.,Faculte dOdontologie
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica | Year: 2013

Objectives. Health is a subjective concept that considers the social, cultural, environmental and behavioural problems of the individual. This study was conducted with the objective of better understanding the sociocultural aspects related to the oral health of the Fulani populations of Ferlo, Senegal. Methods. The study was qualitative and based in the area of the Great Green Wall (GGW) in the region known as Ferlo, northern Senegal. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews in a sample of the population and through discussions with a focus group. It concerned health and aesthetics of the teeth, care and traditional herbal recipes, teeth and superstitions. Results. It appears that people were using the toothpick, the chewing stick and/or charcoal to clean their teeth. Confusion persisted with respect to the types of food consumed that were implicated in the occurrence of dental caries: tea, rice, 'jumbo' (a seasoning spice) and tobacco. 'Borom bop', which means 'master of the head', was the most commonly reported cause of caries. Healthy, beautiful teeth were attributes of beauty and elegance, enhanced by tattoos and crafted crowns in the Fulani. Their health problems were generally managed by healers or traditional practitioners who based their practices on empirical and 'handed down' knowledge. Socio-anthropological meanings were given to children with neonatal teeth. Conclusions. It is therefore important to consider the sociocultural aspects in oral health projects and programmes; the place of herbal medicine in dentistry should be recognized and maybe researched in the region of the Great Green Wall. © 2013 Informa Healthcare. Source


Wonni I.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Wonni I.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles Inera | Cottyn B.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Detemmerman L.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 14 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola was first reported in Africa in the 1980s. Recently, a substantial reemergence of this disease was observed in West Africa. Samples were collected at various sites in five and three different rice-growing regions of Burkina Faso and Mali, respectively. Sixty-seven X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were isolated from cultivated and wild rice varieties and from weeds showing BLS symptoms. X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were evaluated for virulence on rice and showed high variation in lesion length on a susceptible cultivar. X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were further characterized by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using six housekeeping genes. Inferred dendrograms clearly indicated different groups among X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the transcriptional activator like effector avrXa7 as probe resulted in the identification of 18 haplotypes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analyses of two conserved type III effector (T3E) genes (xopAJ and xopW) differentiated the strains into distinct groups, with xopAJ not detected in most African X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. XopAJ functionality was confirmed by leaf infiltration on 'Kitaake' rice Rxo1 lines. Sequence analysis of xopW revealed four groups among X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Distribution of 43 T3E genes shows variation in a subset of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Together, our results show that African X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains are diverse and rapidly evolving, with a group endemic to Africa and another one that may have evolved from an Asian strain. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

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