Goicolea I.,Umea University |
Goicolea I.,University of Alicante |
Vives-Cases C.,University of Alicante |
Vives-Cases C.,CIBER ISCIII |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Background Health care professionals, especially those working in primary health-care services, can play a key role in preventing and responding to intimate partner violence. However, there are huge variations in the way health care professionals and primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence. In this study we tested a previously developed programme theory on 15 primary health care center teams located in four different Spanish regions: Murcia, C Valenciana, Castilla-León and Cantabria. The aim was to identify the key combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that trigger a good primary health care center team response to intimate partner violence. Methods A multiple case-study design was used. Qualitative and quantitative information was collected from each of the 15 centers (cases). In order to handle the large amount of information without losing familiarity with each case, qualitative comparative analysis was undertaken. Conditions (context and mechanisms) and outcomes, were identified and assessed for each of the 15 cases, and solution formulae were calculated using qualitative comparative analysis software. Results The emerging programme theory highlighted the importance of the combination of each team's self-efficacy, perceived preparation and women-centredness in generating a good team response to intimate partner violence. The use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care were the most relevant contextual/intervention conditions to trigger a good response. However in order to achieve this, they must be combined with other conditions, such as an enabling team climate, having a champion social worker and having staff with training in intimate partner violence. Conclusions Interventions to improve primary health care teams' response to intimate partner violence should focus on strengthening team's self-efficacy, perceived preparation and the implementation of a woman-centred approach. The use of the protocol combined with a large working experience in primary health care, and other factors such as training, a good team climate, and having a champion social worker on the team, also played a key role. Measures to sustain such interventions and promote these contextual factors should be encouraged. © 2015 Goicolea et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source
Thi W.-F.,University of Edinburgh |
Thi W.-F.,Joseph Fourier University |
Mathews G.,University of Hawaii at Manoa |
Menard F.,Joseph Fourier University |
And 57 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010
Planets are formed in disks around young stars. With an age of ∼10 Myr, TW Hya is one of the nearest T Tauri stars that is still surrounded by a relatively massive disk. In addition a large number of molecules has been found in the TW Hya disk, making TW Hya the perfect test case in a large survey of disks with Herschel-PACS to directly study their gaseous component. We aim to constrain the gas and dust mass of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya. We observed the fine-structure lines of [O i] and [C ii] as part of the open-time large program GASPS. We complement this with continuum data and ground-based 12 CO 3-2 and 13CO 3-2 observations. We simultaneously model the continuum and the line fluxes with the 3D Monte-Carlo code MCFOST and the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo to derive the gas and dust masses. We detect the [O i] line at 63 μm. The other lines that were observed, [O i] at 145 μm and [C ii] at 157 μm, are not detected. No extended emission has been found. Preliminary modeling of the photometric and line data assuming [ 12CO] /[13CO] = 69 suggests a dust mass for grains with radius <1 mm of ∼1.9 × 10-4 M⊙ (total solid mass of 3 × 10-3 M⊙) and a gas mass of (0.5-5) × 10 -3 M⊙. The gas-to-dust mass may be lower than the standard interstellar value of 100. © 2010 ESO. Source
Gillet N.,University of Strasbourg |
Ocvirk P.,University of Strasbourg |
Aubert D.,University of Strasbourg |
Knebe A.,University Autonomade Madrid |
And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015
We search for vast planes of satellites (VPoS) in a high-resolution simulation of the Local Group performed by the CLUES project, which improves significantly the resolution of previous similar studies. We use a simple method for detecting planar configurations of satellites, and validate it on the known plane of M31. We implement a range of prescriptions for modeling the satellite populations, roughly reproducing the variety of recipes used in the literature, and investigate the occurrence and properties of planar structures in these populations. The structure of the simulated satellite systems is strongly non-random and contains planes of satellites, predominantly co-rotating, with, in some cases, sizes comparable to the plane observed in M31 by Ibata et al. However, the latter is slightly richer in satellites, slightly thinner, and has stronger co-rotation, which makes it stand out as overall more exceptional than the simulated planes, when compared to a random population. Although the simulated planes we find are generally dominated by one real structure forming its backbone, they are also partly fortuitous and are thus not kinematically coherent structures as a whole. Provided that the simulated and observed planes of satellites are indeed of the same nature, our results suggest that the VPoS of M31 is not a coherent disk and that one-third to one-half of its satellites must have large proper motions perpendicular to the plane. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source
Shargorodsky J.,Johns Hopkins University |
Garcia-Esquinas E.,University Autonomade Madrid |
Garcia-Esquinas E.,CIBER ISCIII |
Garcia-Esquinas E.,Johns Hopkins University |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Introduction: Tobacco exposure has been linked with sinonasal pathology and may be associated with allergic sensitization. This study evaluates the association between exposure to active smoking or secondhand smoke (SHS) and the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization in the US adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 4,339 adults aged 20-85 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Never smoking was defined as reported lifetime smoking less than 100 cigarettes and serum cotinine levels <10ng/ml, while active smoking was defined as self-reported smoking or serum cotinine concentrations > 10 ng/mL. Self-reported rhinitis was based on symptoms during the past 12 months, and allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to any of the 19 specific IgE antigens tested. Results: Almost half of the population (43%) had detectable levels of IgE specific to at least one inhaled allergen and 32% reported a history of rhinitis. After multivariate adjustment, there was a statistically significant association between the highest serum cotinine tertile and rhinitis in active smokers (OR 1.42; 95%CI1.00-2.00). The association between active smoking and rhinitis was stronger in individuals without allergic sensitization (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.44-4.23). There was a statistically significant association between increasing cotinine tertiles and decreased odds of inhaled allergen sensitization (p-trend <.01). Conclusion: Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms, but not with allergic sensitization. The results indicate that the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and sinonasal pathology in adults may be independent of allergic sensitization. © 2015 Shargorodsky et al. Source
Jimenez E.,University Autonomade Madrid |
Jimenez E.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Raras |
Zafra F.,University Autonomade Madrid |
Zafra F.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Raras |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011
The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl- 2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′- phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source