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Martin-Fernandez B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rubio-Navarro A.,Autonoma University | Cortegano I.,Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Ballesteros S.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

We aimed to evaluate macrophages heterogeneity and structural, functional and inflammatory alterations in rat kidney by aldosterone + salt administration. The effects of treatment with spironolactone on above parameters were also analyzed. Male Wistar rats received aldosterone (1 mgkg-1d-1) + 1% NaCl for 3 weeks. Half of the animals were treated with spironolactone (200 mg kg-1d-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were elevated (p<0.05) in aldosterone + salt-treated rats. Relative kidney weight, collagen content, fibronectin, macrophage infiltrate, CTGF, Col I, MMP2, TNF-á, CD68, Arg2, and SGK-1 were increased (p<0.05) in aldosterone + salt-treated rats, being reduced by spironolactone (p<0.05). Increased iNOS and IFN-α mRNA gene expression (M1 macrophage markers) was observed in aldosterone + salt rats, whereas no significant differences were observed in IL- 10 and gene ArgI mRNA expression or ED2 protein content (M2 macrophage markers). All the observed changes were blocked with spironolactone treatment. Macrophage depletion with liposomal clodronate reduced macrophage influx and inflammatory M1 markers (INF- or iNOS), whereas interstitial fibrosis was only partially reduced after this intervention, in aldosterone plus salt-treated rats. In conclusion, aldosterone + salt administration mediates inflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype and increased fibrosis throughout mineralocorticoid receptors activation. © 2016 2016 Martín-Fernández et a.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII and Autonoma University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

We aimed to evaluate macrophages heterogeneity and structural, functional and inflammatory alterations in rat kidney by aldosterone + salt administration. The effects of treatment with spironolactone on above parameters were also analyzed. Male Wistar rats received aldosterone (1 mgkg-1d-1) + 1% NaCl for 3 weeks. Half of the animals were treated with spironolactone (200 mg kg-1d-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were elevated (p<0.05) in aldosterone + salt-treated rats. Relative kidney weight, collagen content, fibronectin, macrophage infiltrate, CTGF, Col I, MMP2, TNF-, CD68, Arg2, and SGK-1 were increased (p<0.05) in aldosterone + salt-treated rats, being reduced by spironolactone (p<0.05). Increased iNOS and IFN- mRNA gene expression (M1 macrophage markers) was observed in aldosterone + salt rats, whereas no significant differences were observed in IL-10 and gene ArgI mRNA expression or ED2 protein content (M2 macrophage markers). All the observed changes were blocked with spironolactone treatment. Macrophage depletion with liposomal clodronate reduced macrophage influx and inflammatory M1 markers (INF- or iNOS), whereas interstitial fibrosis was only partially reduced after this intervention, in aldosterone plus salt-treated rats. In conclusion, aldosterone + salt administration mediates inflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype and increased fibrosis throughout mineralocorticoid receptors activation.


Pineda F.,Autonoma Of Colombia University | Pineda F.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Pineda F.,Autonoma University | Chica A.,Autonoma Of Colombia University | And 2 more authors.
2010 IEEE ANDESCON Conference Proceedings, ANDESCON 2010 | Year: 2010

This article presents an alternative method for finding the state feedback matrix for MIMO systems from the model matrix polynomial fraction MPF. The proposed algorithm is recurrent state-feedback method for multivariable canonical forms. This algorithm tends to be more efficient at level structurally, but not computationally, because advances in simulation with the model MPF not yet have a clear prospect by using symbolic mathematics. This works shown a simple and easy handling that this model provides to engineers and researches. To facilitate and validate the algorithm, some functions have been developed with Matlab®, which are available in Matlab Mathworks Center. ©2010 IEEE.


PubMed | Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII, Autonoma University and Complutense University
Type: | Journal: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2016

There is increasing evidence suggesting the important role of inflammation and, subsequently, macrophages in the development and progression of renal disease. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells that have been implicated in kidney injury. Macrophages may be classified into two different phenotypes: classically activated macrophages (M1 macrophages), that release pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote fibrosis; and alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) that are associated with immunoregulatory and tissue-remodeling functions. These macrophage phenotypes need to be discriminated and analyzed to determine their contribution to renal injury. However, there are scarce studies reporting consistent phenotypic and functional information about macrophage subtypes in inflammatory renal disease models, especially in rats. This fact may be related to the limited macrophage markers used in rats, contrary to mice. Therefore, novel strategies are necessary to quantify and characterize the renal content of these infiltrating cells in a reliable way. This manuscript details a protocol for kidney digestion and further phenotypic and quantitative analysis of macrophages from rat kidneys by flow cytometry. Briefly, kidneys were incubated with collagenase and total macrophages were identified according to the dual presence of CD45 (leukocytes common antigen) and CD68 (PAN macrophage marker) in live cells.This was followed by surface staining of CD86 (M1 marker) and CD163 (M2 marker). Rat peritoneal macrophages were used as positive control for macrophage marker detection by flow cytometry. Our protocol resulted in low cellular mortality and allowed characterization of different intracellular and surface protein markers, thus limiting the loss of cellular integrity observed in other protocols. Moreover, this procedure allows the use of macrophages for further techniques, including cell sorting and mRNA or protein expression studies, among others.

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