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Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico

Tovar A.R.,University of Queretaro | Caamao M.D.C.,University of Queretaro | Garcia-Padilla S.,Cindetec A.C | Garcia O.P.,University of Queretaro | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Journal

Background: Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods. In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18-50 y) with BMI25kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3months: 1) Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR), 2) Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR+I), 3) Two doses/d of 5g of inulin (INU) and 4) Control group (CON). All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD). Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3months. Results: All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60days, PMR+I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR+I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR+I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR+I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion: Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID. NCT01505023. © 2012 Tovar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mesplet M.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Mesplet M.,CONICET | Echaide I.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Dominguez M.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

Background: Cysteine proteases have been shown to be highly relevant for Apicomplexan parasites. In the case of Babesia bovis, a tick-transmitted hemoparasite of cattle, inhibitors of these enzymes were shown to hamper intraerythrocytic replication of the parasite, underscoring their importance for survival. Results. Four papain-like cysteine proteases were found to be encoded by the B. bovis genome using the MEROPS database. One of them, the ortholog of Plasmodium falciparum falcipain-2, here named bovipain-2, was further characterized. Bovipain-2 is encoded in B. bovis chromosome 4 by an ORF of 1.3 kb, has a predicted molecular weight of 42 kDa, and is hydrophilic with the exception of a transmembrane region. It has orthologs in several other apicomplexans, and its predicted amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation among several B. bovis isolates from North and South America. Synteny studies demonstrated that the bovipain-2 gene has expanded in the genomes of two related piroplasmids, Theileria parva and T. annulata, into families of 6 and 7 clustered genes respectively. The bovipain-2 gene is transcribed in in vitro cultured intra-erythrocyte forms of a virulent and an attenuated B. bovis strain from Argentina, and has no introns, as shown by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Antibodies against a recombinant form of bovipain-2 recognized two parasite protein bands of 34 and 26 kDa, which coincide with the predicted sizes of the pro-peptidase and mature peptidase, respectively. Immunofluorescence studies showed an intracellular localization of bovipain-2 in the middle-rear region of in vitro cultured merozoites, as well as diffused in the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes. Anti-bovipain-2 antibodies also reacted with B. bigemina-infected erythrocytes giving a similar pattern, which suggests cross-reactivity among these species. Antibodies in sera of two out of six B. bovis-experimentally infected bovines tested, reacted specifically with recombinant bovipain-2 in immunoblots, thus demonstrating expression and immunogenicity during bovine-infecting stages. Conclusions. Overall, we present the characterization of bovipain-2 and demonstrate its in vitro and in vivo expression in virulent and attenuated strains. Given the involvement of apicomplexan cysteine proteases in essential parasite functions, bovipain-2 constitutes a new vaccine candidate and potential drug target for bovine babesiosis. © 2010 Mesplet et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Rosado J.L.,University Autanoma Of Queretaro | Gonzalez K.E.,CINDETEC | Caamano M.D.C.,University Autanoma Of Queretaro | Garcia O.P.,University Autanoma Of Queretaro | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition Journal

Background: Anemia continues to be a major public health problem among children in many regions of the world, and it is still not clear which strategy to treat it is most effective. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and children's acceptance of several recognized strategies to treat anemia. Methods: Non-breastfed children (n = 577), 6 to 43 mo of age, were screened for the trial; 267 were anemic (hemoglobin < 11.7 g/dL), and 266 of those were randomized into 1 of 5 treatments to received daily either: an iron supplement (IS), an iron+folic acid supplement (IFS), a multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS), a micronutrient-fortified complementary food as porridge powder (FCF), or zinc+iron+ascorbic acid fortified water (FW). The iron content of each daily dose was 20, 12.5, 10, 10 and 6.7 mg respectively. Hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, total iron, weight and height were measured at baseline and after 4 months of treatment. Morbidity, treatment acceptability and adherence were recorded during the intervention. Results: All treatments significantly increased Hb and total iron concentration; ferritin did not change significantly. Groups MMS, IS and IFS increased Hb (g/dL) [1.50 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.83), 1.48 [(1.18, 1.78) and 1.57 (1.26, 1.88), respectively] and total iron ((μg/dL) [0.15 (0.01, 0.29), 0.19 (0.06, 0.31) and 0.12(-0.01, 0.25), respectively] significantly more than FCF [0.92 (0.64, 1.20)] but not to FW group [0.14 (0.04, 0.24)]. The prevalence of anemia was reduced to a greater extent in the MMS and IFS groups (72% and 69%, respectively) than in the FCF group (45%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in anthropometry or in the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections among treatment groups. The supplements MMS and IS were less acceptable to children, than IFS, FCF and FW. Conclusion: The three supplements IS, ISF and MMS increased Hb more than the FCF; the supplements that contained micronutrients (IFS and MMS) were more effective for reducing the prevalence of anemia. In general, fortified foods were better accepted by the study participants than supplements. ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier. NCT00822380. © 2010 Rosado et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Garcia O.P.,University Autanoma Of Queretaro | Ronquillo D.,University Autanoma Of Queretaro | Caamao M.D.C.,University Autanoma Of Queretaro | Camacho M.,University Autanoma Of Queretaro | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition and Metabolism

Background: The prevalence of obesity among Mexican women is high and it could be related to micronutrient status. We evaluated in a cross-sectional study the associations of zinc and vitamins A, C and E concentrations with BMI, central adiposity, body fat and leptin concentration. Methods: Women aged 37 ± 7.5 years (n = 580) from 6 rural communities in Mexico were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumference. A fasting blood sample was taken for the analysis of glucose, lipid profile, leptin, zinc, and vitamins A, C and E. Body composition was determined by DEXA (Hologic Mod Explorer). Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 36% (BMI>25 Kg/m 2) and 44% (BMI>30 Kg/m 2), respectively. Prevalence of zinc and vitamins C and E deficiencies were similar in obese, overweight and normal weight women. No vitamin A deficiency was found. Vitamin C was negatively associated with BMI, waist-to-height ratio, and leptin concentrations (p<0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with leptin (p<0.05). When stratifying by BMI, % body fat and waist circumference, high leptin concentrations were associated with lower zinc and lower vitamin C concentrations in women with obesity (p<0.05) and higher vitamin A concentrations in women without obesity (p<0.01). Vitamin E status was not associated with any markers of obesity. Conclusion: Zinc and vitamins A and C are associated with obesity, adiposity and leptin concentration in women from rural Mexico, and may play an important role in fat deposition. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed. © 2012 Garcia et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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