University Australia

Rockhampton Qld., Australia

University Australia

Rockhampton Qld., Australia
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Kyd J.M.,University Australia | Mcgrath J.,University Australia | Krishnamurthy A.,University Australia
Current Drug Targets | Year: 2011

A key characteristic of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the persistent presence of bacteria in the lower airways. The most commonly isolated bacteria in the lower respiratory tract of COPD patients are nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, with growing evidence of the significance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in severe COPD disease. This review focuses on the antibiotic resistant mechanisms associated with the gram-negative bacteria H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis and comparison with P. aeruginosa infection because of the recent evidence of its significance in patients with severe COPD disease. These mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams in H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis are mostly associated with serine β-lactamases of class A type, whereas P. aeruginosa strains exhibit a much broader repertoire with class A-D type mechanisms. Other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance include membrane permeability, efflux pump systems and mutations in antimicrobial targets. Antimicrobial resistance within biofilm matrices appears to be different to the mechanisms observed when the bacteria are in the planktonic state. P. aeruginosa exhibits a more numerous and diverse range of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in comparison to M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. The recognition that P. aeruginosa is associated with exacerbations in patients with more severe COPD and that turnover in infecting strains is detected (unlike in cystic fibrosis patients), then further investigation is required to better understand the contribution of antimicrobial resistance and other virulence mechanisms to poor clinical outcomes to improve therapeutic approaches. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Rabbi F.,The University of Notre Dame Australia | Akbar D.,University Australia | Kabir S.Z.,University Australia
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy | Year: 2015

This article investigates the current status of the association between carbon emissions releases, use of energy, openness of trade and overall output of Bangladesh from its independence to 2012. The research outcomes for Bangladesh show that a robust long-run association is present there along with short-run dynamic adjustment among those variables. The research indicates that environmental degradation in Bangladesh may increase because of high economic growth in future and therefore, policies to tackle environmental pollution are imperative where the use of both market and non-market based management tools is important. Finally, this study provides some future research directions which were beyond the scope of this research. © 2015, Econjournals. All rights reserved.

Phillott A.D.,Asian University of Bangladesh | Phillott A.D.,James Cook University | Parmenter C.J.,University Australia
Herpetological Conservation and Biology | Year: 2014

To determine the possible effect of fungal invasion on Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas) embryo development and subsequent hatchling condition, we compared hatchling scalation patterns, straight carapace length, and weight among nests with varying proportions of fungal colonization. Analyses suggested that the condition of hatchlings emerging from nests that have a high percentage of eggs colonized by fungus was similar to those from nests without fungus. © 2014. Andrea Phillott. All Rights Reserved.

Robillard R.,University of Sydney | Naismith S.L.,University of Sydney | Rogers N.L.,University Australia | Scott E.M.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
European Psychiatry | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the potential of circadian measures as early markers of mood disorders subtypes. Patients with bipolar disorders had significantly lower levels and later onset of melatonin secretion than those with unipolar depression. Furthermore, abnormal phase angles between sleep, melatonin and temperature were found in several patients. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Eliot M.,University Australia | Turns J.,University of Washington
Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2011

Background: While previously researching the educational impacts of single-course and cross-curricular portfolios, investigators noted that student participants described their portfolio activities as positively impacting their growing identities as engineering professionals. These impacts were seen particularly in studies regarding cross-curricular portfolios. Purpose (Hypothesis): This study was designed to explicitly investigate identity-related impacts of cross-curricular portfolios and to explore the processes students employed during portfolio construction to identify themselves as budding engineers and as future professionals. Design/Method: Engineering undergraduate students attended four weekly workshops where they wrote a professional statement, selected artifacts that demonstrated their engineering abilities, and wrote annotations that explained how the artifacts served as concrete examples of their claims for professional standing. Online surveys were administered at each workshop asking participants about their ongoing experiences of creating their portfolios and sharing these portfolios with their peers. Results: Analysis of the survey responses revealed that participants had two primary frames of reference for the construction of professional identity during portfolio creation. The external frame of reference focused on students' understanding of the expectations of potential employers and recruiters. The internal frame of reference, which accounted for twice as many responses as the external frame coding, focused on students' emerging realizations of their own values and interests as professional engineers. Conclusions: As engineering educators, we often support the external frame of reference in terms of building professional identity. We need to provide students with opportunities to engage the internal frame of reference with which our participants were particularly concerned. © 2011 ASEE.

Li L.D.,University Australia | Yu X.,RMIT University | Li X.,RMIT University | Guo W.,University Australia
IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference) | Year: 2011

This paper presents a dynamic neighbourhood Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) algorithm for constrained optimisation problems. The constraint dominance concept is adopted for constraint handling. The dynamic neighbourhood aims to enhance communication between particles from different groups in order to improve searching performance. Simulation to the benchmark functions demonstrates the proposed dynamic neighbourhood PSO outperforms the static neighbourhood PSO in finding consistent quality results. © 2011 IEEE.

Kyd J.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Kyd J.,University Australia | Krishnamurthy A.,University Institute of Health Sciences | McGrath J.,University Institute of Health Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2011

The dynamic interactions of the major respiratory microbial pathogens are complex. An understanding of the impact on naturally acquired immune responses to respiratory polymicrobial commensal bacteria is slowly evolving. Maintaining a micro-floral balance and the host's ability to respond to imbalances associated with disease is critical. Studies of acquired immune responses have found that both antibody and cellular immune responses are suppressed by the presence of multiple bacteria when compared with colonization by the single microbe. Microbes interact with the mucosal epithelium through a range of receptor-ligand interactions, including interactions with Toll-like receptors and adhesion molecules. Regulation of the inflammatory response associated with commensal colonization suggests a possible role for Treg cells in controlling the upper airway responses to bacterial microflora with both bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions affecting colonization and immune responses. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Sammon N.B.,University Australia | Harrower K.M.,University Australia | Fabbro L.D.,University Australia | Reed R.H.,University Australia
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2010

Microfungi were recovered from all parts of a municipal water distribution system in sub-tropical Australia even though virtually no colony-forming units were recovered from the treated water as it left the treatment plant. A study was then undertaken to determine the potential sources of the microfungal population in the distribution system. Observation of frogs (Litoria caerulea) using the internal infrastructure of a reservoir as diurnal sleeping places, together with observation of visible microfungal growth on their faecal pellets, led to an investigation of the possible involvement of this animal. Old faecal pellets were collected and sporulating fungal colonies growing on their surfaces were identified. Fresh faecal pellets were collected and analysed for microfungal content, and skin swabs were analysed for yeasts. It was found that the faeces and skin of L. caerulea carried large numbers of yeasts as well as spores of various filamentous fungal genera. While there are many possible sources of microfungal contamination of municipal drinking water supplies, this study has revealed that the Australian green tree frog L. caerulea is one of the important sources of filamentous microfungi and yeasts in water storage reservoirs in sub-tropical Australia where the animal is endemic. © 2010 by the authors.

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