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News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

(University at Buffalo) One of the most dramatic medical success stories in recent years has been the introduction of new drugs that eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV). But it's a different story among HCV patients with substance use disorders.As an editorial published online on April 25 in the Annals of Internal Medicine notes, this population typically does not have easy access to conventional health care so it is difficult to screen, diagnose and treat these individuals.


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Since 1955, scientists have repeatedly tackled the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) problem, which found that certain nonlinear systems do not disperse their energy, but rather return to their initial excited states. The challenge within the FPUT problem was that the scientists expected the system to achieve a relaxed state, possibly equilibrium, but instead it never relaxed. Numerous papers have narrowed the focus of the problem, finding that weak nonlinear systems can reach a type of equilibrium. But the question of strongly nonlinear systems reaching full equilibrium has remained a mystery. Now, a discovery reported in the journal Physical Review E finds that such a system can reach equilibrium, provided certain conditions are met. “That is a big deal,” says Surajit Sen, a physics professor at the University at Buffalo and a coauthor of the paper, “because in a very convoluted way, it confirms what [Enrico] Fermi had thought probably should happen.” Sen has been studying solitary waves, generated in a chain of solid spheres—or grains—held between stationary walls, for more than two decades. In 2000, he discovered how such waves can break into smaller “baby” solitary waves. Further research by others found that these solitary waves, under certain conditions, could reach a state of quasi-equilibrium, a generally calm state, but with large kinetic energy fluctuations. Yet whether these strongly nonlinear systems could relax beyond this quasi-equilibrium phase, where the large kinetic energy fluctuations settle to much smaller equilibrium values, remained uncertain. “What we are finding is that when these solitary waves continuously break down during collisions, they start to break down and reform. When this breaking down and reforming become comparable, that’s when you get to the quasi-equilibrium phase,” Sen says. When the number of solitary waves running around the system become too large to even count, that is when the quasi-equilibrium ever-so-slowly goes over to true equilibrium where energy is roughly equally shared by all the particles. Sen concedes that it is reasonable to ask: What does it matter? On one level, Sen says, this is pure science, with few immediate practical applications. However, there may be practical applications for materials science. “I think it has implications in materials modeling,” Sen says. “Suppose I want to make a material capable of withstanding enormous amounts of heat, or one that converts a mechanical vibration to electrical current. To make them, I have to have a really good understanding of how these materials transfer energy, and this research cuts right to the heart of it.” The breakthrough in the research came when Michelle Przedborski, a PhD student at Brock University in Canada, examined the specific heat of the chain of solid spheres by considering the collisions between the spheres. The specific heat behavior and the energy fluctuation, due to the collisions as predicted by the equilibrium theory, agreed exactly with the results predicted by dynamical computer simulations. “That was the ‘aha!’ moment,” Sen says. “They come from two different routes. Nothing can be sweeter than this, because when you have an agreement of this magnitude and of this level of exactness, you know the system is in equilibrium. There are no ‘if, ands, or buts’ about it. “What we have managed to show—in the context of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem, where the question was raised whether non-linear systems would go to equilibrium, over which there has been this 60-plus year debate—is that strongly non-linear systems such as these do go to equilibrium.” Among the conditions required for the equilibrium state to be reached are that solitary waves must interact, or collide with each other, and the system must be gently perturbed, rather than violently shaken.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.nytimes.com

Dental molds used in forensic dentistry research at the University at Buffalo. A federal commission on forensic science set up in 2013 is being shut down.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

To promote health and wellbeing in an increasingly stressful world, The American Meditation Institute (AMI) in Averill Park, New York will host its first annual Health & Happiness Conference on Saturday, April 29, 2017 from 10am – 4:00pm at the Hindu Cultural Center in Albany, New York. Led by internationally acclaimed mind/body medicine pioneer Bernie Siegel, MD and AMI founder Leonard Perlmutter, the conference will bring together a faculty of distinguished physicians and meditation researchers to present practical tools to enhance health, creativity, well-being, happiness and success. “Coping with daily life—family, work, managing emotions—is incredibly challenging in today’s fast-paced, complex, stressful world,” said Leonard Perlmutter. “AMI’s Health & Happiness Conference will give participants from all walks of life practical ideas on how to transform stress and put proven techniques immediately into action to enhance their lives.” Participants have the opportunity to choose how they will spend the day. Beginner sessions will include Meditation 101, Breath as Medicine, Relieving Stress, and Food as Medicine. Advanced sessions will cover DNA is Not Destiny, Functions of the Mind, and Meditation & The Brain. “The Health & Happiness Conference will offer something for everyone, no matter your experience level,” said Leonard Perlmutter. “By allow participants to customize their day, they will maximize their experience and emerge from the training inspired and ready to create a happier, healthier, more meaningful life.” To nourish body and soul, participants will enjoy easy-gentle yoga and a delicious gourmet vegetarian lunch. In the afternoon, renowned keynote speaker Bernie Siegel will share his thoughts on The Healing Power of Love and Leonard Perlmutter will delve deep into the topic of “Using the Mind to Heal the Body.” A lively panel discussion will cap off the day’s events. Feeling refreshed, rejuvenated and renewed, participants will emerge from the training ready to apply what they learned with these practical tools for healthy living: Leonard Perlmutter, AMI Founder “The Mind Can Heal the Body” and “Who am I?” Leonard is a noted philosopher and author of The Heart and Science of Yoga®. He is a direct disciple of Swami Rama––who, in laboratory conditions, demonstrated that blood pressure, heart rate and the autonomic nervous system can be voluntarily controlled. Leonard has presented courses at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the U. S. Military Academy and The New York Times Yoga Forum with Dean Ornish MD. Bernie Siegel, MD “The Healing Power of Love” Bernie is an acclaimed mind/body medicine pioneer who has worked throughout his illustrious career to help patients heal. As an intuitive Yoga scientist and surgeon, Bernie embraces a philosophy of living and dying that stands as a beacon of clarity for today’s medical ethics and spiritual issues. Beth Netter, MD, MT “Breath as Medicine” and Panel Discussion Beth is a holistic physician and acupuncturist in Albany, NY. A graduate of the University at Buffalo’s School of Biomedical Sciences, she completed her residency in anesthesiology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. Beth serves as Chair of AMI’s Department of Medical Education. Mark Pettus, MD “Epigenomics/Inflammation/Allostatic Load” and Panel Discussion Mark is a board-certified internist and nephrologist currently serving as Director of Medical Education and Population Health at Berkshire Health Systems, and Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at UMass Medical School. Mark is the author of The Savvy Patient and It’s All in Your Head. Susan Lord, MD “Food as Medicine” and Panel Discussion Susan graduated from Case Western Reserve School of Medicine and is in private practice in Great Barrington, MA focusing on prevention and treatment through mindful living and lifestyle changes. She served as Director for the Food as Medicine program at the Center for Mind/Body Medicine 1996-2007. Anthony Santilli, MD “Relieving Physician Burnout” and Panel Discussion Tony received his medical degree from the University at Buffalo, having completed his fellowship at Weill Cornell University and his post graduate training at Brown University. He is board-certified in Pulmonary and Critical Care medicine and practices in Schenectady and Amsterdam NY. Prashant Kaushik, MD Panel Discussion Prashant received a Bachelors of Medicine & Surgery degree from the All India Institute of Medical Services. A board-certified Rheumatologist, Prashant serves as Lead Rheumatologist at the Albany VA Medical Center, Associate Professor, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Albany Medical College. Sara Lazar, PhD “Neuroplasticity: The Effect of Meditation” and Panel Discussion Sara is an instructor in the Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, and an Associate Researcher in the Psychiatry Department at Mass. General Hospital. A leading neuroscientist in the field, her team was the first to show how meditation and yoga influence brain structure and human behavior. Mary Helen Holloway, AMI-MT “Meditation 101” and Panel Discussion Mary is a graduate of Meditational Therapist Certification Program. Drawing upon an intuitive understanding of mind/body medicine, she currently teaches all levels of meditation courses, actively lectures to civic, medical and religious organizations, serves as Director of AMI’s Yoga of Medicine Program. Jenness Cortez Perlmutter Panel Discussion Jenness has studied Yoga Science and practiced meditation since 1977. She is the co-founder and faculty member of AMI and a direct disciple of Swami Rama of the Himalayas. She graduated from the Herron School of Art, and is a world-renowned artist. The American Meditation Institute is a 501(c)3 non-profit educational organization devoted to the teaching and practice of Yoga Science, AMI meditation and its allied disciplines as mind/body medicine. In its holistic approach to wellness, AMI combines the healing arts of the East with the practicality of modern Western science. The American Meditation Institute offers a wide variety of classes, retreats, and teacher training programs. AMI also publishes Transformation a bi-monthly journal of meditation as holistic mind/body medicine. Call (518) 674-8714 for a mail or email subscription.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

While many people believe making or having more money would make them happier, basing your self-esteem around the pursuit of money could have negative consequences for your mental health, a new study suggests. When people tie their self-worth to the pursuit of financial success, they are more vulnerable to negative psychological consequences, according to Lora Park, an associate professor of psychology at the University at Buffalo and the study’s lead author. Specifically, basing self-esteem on financial success predicted making more financially based social comparisons with others, feeling less autonomy and control over one’s life, and experiencing more financial hassles, stress, and anxiety. These findings, published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, were evident even after accounting for other variables, such as financial status, materialistic values, and importance of financial goals. “People don’t often think of the possible down sides of wrapping their identity and self-worth around financial pursuits, because our society values wealth as a model of how one should be in the world,” says Park. “It’s important to realize these costs because people are gravitating toward this domain as a source of self-esteem without realizing that it has these unintended consequences.” Working with samples of 349 college students and a nationally representative group of 389 participants, the researchers first developed a scale to measure Financial Contingency of Self-Worth (CSW), or the degree to which people base their self-esteem on financial success, and then conducted a series of experiments to examine the effects of threatening people’s sense of financial security. “When we asked people to write about a financial stressor, they experienced a drop in their feelings of autonomy,” says Park. “They also showed more disengagement from their financial problems—they gave up searching for solutions. We didn’t find this in people who didn’t tie their self-esteem to financial success or among those who were asked to write about an academic stressor.” In those essays, the researchers also coded the type of language participants used to describe their financial problems. “We found that people who highly based their self-worth on financial success used more negative emotion-related words, like sadness and anger,” says Park. “This demonstrates that just thinking about a financial problem generates a lot of stress and negative emotions for these individuals.” But Park says this effect is eliminated if you get people to self-affirm by giving them an opportunity to think about their personal strengths. “This suggests that self-esteem concerns emerge when people are thinking about financial problems, but if you can repair their self-esteem by having them think about their strengths, then there is no reduction in feelings of autonomy.” A final study found that people who based their self-esteem on financial success—and were led to believe that they would experience financial instability in their future—became more cautious when it came to extravagant spending decisions. This could be interpreted as a desire of these individuals to protect their self-esteem following this financial threat, suggests Park. This research also has implications beyond finances and self-esteem and has many possible future directions, such as the effects of financially contingent self-worth on close relationships, group dynamics, and organizational settings.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- In physics, the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) problem -- which found that certain nonlinear systems do not disperse their energy, but rather return to their initial excited states -- has been a challenge that scientists have tackled repeatedly since 1955. The challenge within the FPUT problem was that the scientists expected the system to achieve a relaxed state, possibly equilibrium, but instead it never relaxed. Numerous papers have narrowed the focus of the problem, finding that weak nonlinear systems can reach a type of equilibrium. But the question of strongly nonlinear systems reaching full equilibrium has remained a mystery. Now, a discovery by an international team of scientists, published in March in the journal Physical Review E, has found that such a system can reach equilibrium, provided certain conditions are met. "That is a big deal," said Surajit Sen, PhD, a physics professor in the University at Buffalo's College of Arts and Sciences and co-author of the paper, "because in a very convoluted way, it confirms what [Enrico] Fermi had thought probably should happen." Sen has been studying solitary waves, generated in a chain of solid spheres -- or grains -- held between stationary walls, for more than two decades. In 2000, he discovered how such waves can break into smaller "baby" solitary waves. Further research by others found that these solitary waves, under certain conditions, could reach a state of quasi-equilibrium, a generally calm state, but with large kinetic energy fluctuations. Yet whether these strongly nonlinear systems could relax beyond this quasi-equilibrium phase, where the large kinetic energy fluctuations settle to much smaller equilibrium values, remained uncertain. "What we are finding is that when these solitary waves continuously break down during collisions, they start to break down and reform. When this breaking down and reforming become comparable, that's when you get to the quasi-equilibrium phase," Sen said. When the number of solitary waves running around the system become too large to even count, that is when the quasi-equilibrium ever-so-slowly goes over to true equilibrium where energy is roughly equally shared by all the particles. Sen concedes that it is reasonable to ask: What does it matter? On one level, Sen says, this is pure science, with few immediate practical applications. However, there may be practical applications for materials science. "I think it has implications in materials modeling," Sen said. "Suppose I want to make a material capable of withstanding enormous amounts of heat, or one that converts a mechanical vibration to electrical current. To make them, I have to have a really good understanding of how these materials transfer energy, and this research cuts right to the heart of it." The breakthrough in the research came when Michelle Przedborski, a PhD student at Brock University in Canada, examined the specific heat of the chain of solid spheres by considering the collisions between the spheres. The specific heat behavior and the energy fluctuation, due to the collisions as predicted by the equilibrium theory, agreed exactly with the results predicted by dynamical computer simulations. "That was the 'aha!' moment," Sen said. "They come from two different routes. Nothing can be sweeter than this, because when you have an agreement of this magnitude and of this level of exactness, you know the system is in equilibrium. There are no 'if, ands or buts' about it. "What we have managed to show -- in the context of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem, where the question was raised whether non-linear systems would go to equilibrium, over which there has been this 60-plus year debate -- is that strongly non-linear systems such as these do go to equilibrium." Among the conditions required for the equilibrium state to be reached are that solitary waves must interact, or collide with each other, and the system must be gently perturbed, rather than violently shaken. The paper, entitled "Fluctuations in Hertz chains at equilibrium," was authored by Przedborski, Sen, and her advisor Thad A. Harroun, PhD, professor in the physics department at Brock.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: phys.org

A new field of physics seeking such advancements is called valleytronics, which exploits the electron's "valley degree of freedom" for data storage and logic applications. Simply put, valleys are maxima and minima of electron energies in a crystalline solid. A method to control electrons in different valleys could yield new, super-efficient computer chips. A University at Buffalo team, led by Hao Zeng, PhD, professor in the Department of Physics, worked with scientists around the world to discover a new way to split the energy levels between the valleys in a two-dimensional semiconductor. The work is described in a study published online today (May 1, 2017) in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The key to Zeng's discovery is the use of a ferromagnetic compound to pull the valleys apart and keep them at different energy levels. This leads to an increase in the separation of valley energies by a factor of 10 more than the one obtained by applying an external magnetic field. "Normally there are two valleys in these atomically thin semiconductors with exactly the same energy. These are called 'degenerate energy levels' in quantum mechanics terms. This limits our ability to control individual valleys. An external magnetic field can be used to break this degeneracy. However, the splitting is so small that you would have to go to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratories to measure a sizable energy difference. Our new approach makes the valleys more accessible and easier to control, and this could allow valleys to be useful for future information storage and processing," Zeng said. The simplest way to understand how valleys could be used in processing data may be to think of two valleys side by side. When one valley is occupied by electrons, the switch is "on." When the other valley is occupied, the switch is "off." Zeng's work shows that the valleys can be positioned in such a way that a device can be turned "on" and "off," with a tiny amount of electricity. Zeng and his colleagues created a two-layered heterostructure, with a 10 nanometer thick film of magnetic EuS (europium sulfide) on the bottom and a single layer (less than 1 nanometer) of the transition metal dichalcogenide WSe2 (tungsten diselenide) on top. The magnetic field of the bottom layer forced the energy separation of the valleys in the WSe2. Previous attempts to separate the valleys involved the application of very large magnetic fields from outside. Zeng's experiment is believed to be the first time a ferromagnetic material has been used in conjunction with an atomically thin semiconductor material to split its valley energy levels. "As long as we have the magnetic material there, the valleys will stay apart," he said. "This makes it valuable for nonvolatile memory applications." Athos Petrou, a UB Distinguished Professor in the Department of Physics, measured the energy difference between the separated valleys by bouncing light off the material and measuring the energy of reflected light. "We typically get this type of results only once every five or 10 years," Petrou said. The experiment was conducted at 7 degrees Kelvin (-447 Fahrenheit), so any everyday use of the process is far in the future. However, proving it possible is a first step. "The reason people are really excited about this, is that Moore's law [which says the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years] is predicted to end soon. It no longer works because it has hit its fundamental limit," Zeng said. "Current computer chips rely on the movement of electrical charges, and that generates an enormous amount of heat as computers get more powerful. Our work has really pushed valleytronics a step closer in getting over that challenge." Explore further: Scientists model the formation of multivalleys in semiconductor microcavities More information: Enhanced valley splitting in monolayer WSe2 due to magnetic exchange field, Nature Nanotechnology (2017). nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.68


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

The challenge within the FPUT problem was that the scientists expected the system to achieve a relaxed state, possibly equilibrium, but instead it never relaxed. Numerous papers have narrowed the focus of the problem, finding that weak nonlinear systems can reach a type of equilibrium. But the question of strongly nonlinear systems reaching full equilibrium has remained a mystery. Now, a discovery by an international team of scientists, published in March in the journal Physical Review E, has found that such a system can reach equilibrium, provided certain conditions are met. "That is a big deal," said Surajit Sen, PhD, a physics professor in the University at Buffalo's College of Arts and Sciences and co-author of the paper, "because in a very convoluted way, it confirms what [Enrico] Fermi had thought probably should happen." Sen has been studying solitary waves, generated in a chain of solid spheres—or grains—held between stationary walls, for more than two decades. In 2000, he discovered how such waves can break into smaller "baby" solitary waves. Further research by others found that these solitary waves, under certain conditions, could reach a state of quasi-equilibrium, a generally calm state, but with large kinetic energy fluctuations. Yet whether these strongly nonlinear systems could relax beyond this quasi-equilibrium phase, where the large kinetic energy fluctuations settle to much smaller equilibrium values, remained uncertain. "What we are finding is that when these solitary waves continuously break down during collisions, they start to break down and reform. When this breaking down and reforming become comparable, that's when you get to the quasi-equilibrium phase," Sen said. When the number of solitary waves running around the system become too large to even count, that is when the quasi-equilibrium ever-so-slowly goes over to true equilibrium where energy is roughly equally shared by all the particles. Sen concedes that it is reasonable to ask: What does it matter? On one level, Sen says, this is pure science, with few immediate practical applications. However, there may be practical applications for materials science. "I think it has implications in materials modeling," Sen said. "Suppose I want to make a material capable of withstanding enormous amounts of heat, or one that converts a mechanical vibration to electrical current. To make them, I have to have a really good understanding of how these materials transfer energy, and this research cuts right to the heart of it." The breakthrough in the research came when Michelle Przedborski, a PhD student at Brock University in Canada, examined the specific heat of the chain of solid spheres by considering the collisions between the spheres. The specific heat behavior and the energy fluctuation, due to the collisions as predicted by the equilibrium theory, agreed exactly with the results predicted by dynamical computer simulations. "That was the 'aha!' moment," Sen said. "They come from two different routes. Nothing can be sweeter than this, because when you have an agreement of this magnitude and of this level of exactness, you know the system is in equilibrium. There are no 'if, ands or buts' about it. "What we have managed to show—in the context of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem, where the question was raised whether non-linear systems would go to equilibrium, over which there has been this 60-plus year debate—is that strongly non-linear systems such as these do go to equilibrium." Among the conditions required for the equilibrium state to be reached are that solitary waves must interact, or collide with each other, and the system must be gently perturbed, rather than violently shaken. More information: Michelle Przedborski et al, Fluctuations in Hertz chains at equilibrium, Physical Review E (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.032903


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: www.PR.com

State of the Art Blue Springs Dental Practice Welcomes New Dentist Foster Dental Care, leading dental provider in Blue Springs, is expanding with the addition of associate dentist, Dr. Scott Davis. Blue Springs, MO, April 28, 2017 --( Dr. Davis graduated with a Doctor of Dental Surgery from the University at Buffalo in New York after attending Brigham Young University to earn his bachelor's degree. An avid student, he participated in a postdoctoral training program to enhance his skills as a general practitioner by receiving his AEGD (Advanced Education in General Dentistry) while being an active member of the United States Air Force Dental Corps, stationed at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida, and Randolph Air Force Base in Texas. Following military service, Dr. Davis spent two years in Arizona at a private practice, recently relocating to Missouri in order to join the dental team of Dr. Alan Foster, Dr. Rebecca Spencer and Dr. Michelle Plattner at Foster Dental Care. Dr. Davis brings with him a vast amount of clinical knowledge and a strong desire to serve the community’s dental care needs. Dr. Alan Foster, the owner of Foster Dental Care, wants you to know that Dr. Davis is a dentist with the ability to make a difference. “Dr. Davis’s philosophy on patient care, treatment, and continuing education mirrors the core values of our practice. I know that our patients will be in good hands.” Foster continues, “In this business, I realize how few people get excited about going to the dentist. We’ve always taken every step possible to make your dental experience as enjoyable and comfortable as possible. With the addition of Dr. Davis we will have more flexibility in meeting the scheduling needs of each of our patients while continuing with our tradition of quality care.” Outside of his new position at Foster Dental Care, Dr. Davis is involved with his church. He enjoys outdoor sports, gardening, and spending time with his wife Heather, children: Rylee, Piper, Sawyer, and the family’s goldendoodle, Murphy. About Foster Dental Care: Foster Dental Care is dedicated to comfort and prompt attention while creating healthy, beautiful smiles and building lasting relationships with their patients. It is their goal to make patients feel satisfied with their smile. For over 35 years Dr. Alan Foster and the Team at Foster Dental Care have been working with patients to provide the best cosmetic and general dentistry. To learn more, please visit http://www.FosterDentalCare.com. Blue Springs, MO, April 28, 2017 --( PR.com )-- The Blue Springs area has the arrival of a new dentist to celebrate. Dr. Scott Davis joins the established team of oral health-care professionals at Foster Dental Care located at 2150 NW South Outer Road.Dr. Davis graduated with a Doctor of Dental Surgery from the University at Buffalo in New York after attending Brigham Young University to earn his bachelor's degree. An avid student, he participated in a postdoctoral training program to enhance his skills as a general practitioner by receiving his AEGD (Advanced Education in General Dentistry) while being an active member of the United States Air Force Dental Corps, stationed at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida, and Randolph Air Force Base in Texas. Following military service, Dr. Davis spent two years in Arizona at a private practice, recently relocating to Missouri in order to join the dental team of Dr. Alan Foster, Dr. Rebecca Spencer and Dr. Michelle Plattner at Foster Dental Care.Dr. Davis brings with him a vast amount of clinical knowledge and a strong desire to serve the community’s dental care needs. Dr. Alan Foster, the owner of Foster Dental Care, wants you to know that Dr. Davis is a dentist with the ability to make a difference. “Dr. Davis’s philosophy on patient care, treatment, and continuing education mirrors the core values of our practice. I know that our patients will be in good hands.”Foster continues, “In this business, I realize how few people get excited about going to the dentist. We’ve always taken every step possible to make your dental experience as enjoyable and comfortable as possible. With the addition of Dr. Davis we will have more flexibility in meeting the scheduling needs of each of our patients while continuing with our tradition of quality care.”Outside of his new position at Foster Dental Care, Dr. Davis is involved with his church. He enjoys outdoor sports, gardening, and spending time with his wife Heather, children: Rylee, Piper, Sawyer, and the family’s goldendoodle, Murphy.About Foster Dental Care:Foster Dental Care is dedicated to comfort and prompt attention while creating healthy, beautiful smiles and building lasting relationships with their patients. It is their goal to make patients feel satisfied with their smile. For over 35 years Dr. Alan Foster and the Team at Foster Dental Care have been working with patients to provide the best cosmetic and general dentistry. To learn more, please visit http://www.FosterDentalCare.com. Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Foster Dental Care


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

In the world of semiconductor physics, the goal is to devise more efficient and microscopic ways to control and keep track of 0 and 1, the binary codes that all information storage and logic functions in computers are based on. A new field of physics seeking such advancements is called valleytronics, which exploits the electron’s “valley degree of freedom” for data storage and logic applications. Simply put, valleys are maxima and minima of electron energies in a crystalline solid. A method to control electrons in different valleys could yield new, super-efficient computer chips. A University at Buffalo team, led by Hao Zeng, PhD, professor in the Department of Physics, worked with scientists around the world to discover a new way to split the energy levels between the valleys in a two-dimensional semiconductor. The work is described in a study published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The key to Zeng’s discovery is the use of a ferromagnetic compound to pull the valleys apart and keep them at different energy levels. This leads to an increase in the separation of valley energies by a factor of 10 more than the one obtained by applying an external magnetic field. “Normally there are two valleys in these atomically thin semiconductors with exactly the same energy. These are called ‘degenerate energy levels’ in quantum mechanics terms. This limits our ability to control individual valleys. An external magnetic field can be used to break this degeneracy. However, the splitting is so small that you would have to go to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratories to measure a sizable energy difference. Our new approach makes the valleys more accessible and easier to control, and this could allow valleys to be useful for future information storage and processing,” Zeng says. The simplest way to understand how valleys could be used in processing data may be to think of two valleys side by side. When one valley is occupied by electrons, the switch is “on.” When the other valley is occupied, the switch is “off.” Zeng’s work shows that the valleys can be positioned in such a way that a device can be turned “on” and “off,” with a tiny amount of electricity. Zeng and his colleagues created a two-layered heterostructure, with a 10 nanometer thick film of magnetic EuS (europium sulfide) on the bottom and a single layer (less than 1 nanometer) of the transition metal dichalcogenide WSe2 (tungsten diselenide) on top. The magnetic field of the bottom layer forced the energy separation of the valleys in the WSe2. Previous attempts to separate the valleys involved the application of very large magnetic fields from outside. Zeng’s experiment is believed to be the first time a ferromagnetic material has been used in conjunction with an atomically thin semiconductor material to split its valley energy levels. “As long as we have the magnetic material there, the valleys will stay apart,” he says. “This makes it valuable for nonvolatile memory applications.” Athos Petrou, a UB Distinguished Professor in the Department of Physics, measured the energy difference between the separated valleys by bouncing light off the material and measuring the energy of reflected light. “We typically get this type of results only once every five or 10 years,” Petrou says. The experiment was conducted at 7 degrees Kelvin (-447 Fahrenheit), so any everyday use of the process is far in the future. However, proving it possible is a first step. “The reason people are really excited about this, is that Moore’s law [which says the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years] is predicted to end soon. It no longer works because it has hit its fundamental limit,” Zeng says. “Current computer chips rely on the movement of electrical charges, and that generates an enormous amount of heat as computers get more powerful. Our work has really pushed valleytronics a step closer in getting over that challenge.” Contributors to the study included the physics graduate students from UB: Chuan Zhao, Tenzin Norden, Peiyao Zhang, Fan Sun; plus researchers at Nanjing Tech University and Xi’an Jiaotong University in China; University of Waterloo in Canada; University of Nebraska-Omaha; and University of Crete in Greece.

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