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Salzman S.,University and Jepson Herbaria | Salzman S.,Harvard University | Driscoll H.E.,University and Jepson Herbaria | Driscoll H.E.,Norwich University | And 6 more authors.
Systematic Botany | Year: 2015

Rapid radiations are notoriously difficult to resolve, yet understanding phylogenetic patterns in such lineages can be useful for investigating evolutionary processes associated with bursts of speciation and morphological diversification. Here we present an expansive molecular phylogeny of Costus L. (Costaceae Nakai) with a focus on the Neotropical species within the clade, sampling 47 of the known 51 Neotropical species and including five molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ETS, rps16, trnL-F, and CaM). We use the phylogenetic results to investigate shifts in pollination syndrome, with the intention of addressing potential mechanisms leading to the rapid radiation documented for this clade. Our ancestral reconstruction of pollination syndrome presents the first evidence in this genus of an evolutionary toggle in pollination morphologies, demonstrating both the multiple independent evolutions of ornithophily (bird pollination) as well as reversals to melittophily (bee pollination). We show that the ornithophilous morphology has evolved at least eight times independently with four potential reversals to melittophilous morphology, and confirm prior work showing that neither pollination syndrome defines a monophyletic lineage. Based on the current distribution for the Neotropical and African species, we reconstruct the ancestral distribution of the Neotropical clade as the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central America. Our results indicate an historic dispersal of a bee-pollinated taxon from Africa to the Pacific Coast of Mexico/Central America, with subsequent diversification leading to the evolution of a bird-pollinated floral morphology in multiple derived lineages. © 2015 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.

Martine C.T.,Bucknell University | Cantley J.T.,Bucknell University | Frawley E.S.,Bucknell University | Butler A.R.,Bucknell University | And 2 more authors.
PhytoKeys | Year: 2016

A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of S. dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. © Christopher T. Martine et al.

Sass C.,University of California at Berkeley | Specht C.D.,University of California at Berkeley | Specht C.D.,University and Jepson Herbaria
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

We developed a phylogeny of the core Bromelioideae including Aechmea and related genera, with the specific goals of investigating the monophyly of Aechmea and its allied genera, redefining monophyletic lineages for taxonomic revision, and investigating the biogeographic history of the group. Chloroplast, nuclear ribosomal, and low copy nuclear DNA sequences from 150 species within the Bromelioideae were used to develop the phylogeny. Phylogenies constructed with the combined four gene dataset provided sufficient resolution for investigating evolutionary relationships among species. Many genera are nested within Aechmea, or are rendered para- or polyphyletic by inclusion of Aechmea species. Several genera and subgenera of Aechmea with species in disjunct geographic locations are found to be polyphyletic, divided into separate clades that reflect geographic distribution rather than morphological similarity. This suggests that certain morphological characteristics thought to be indicative of common ancestry have instead evolved multiple times in parallel (i.e. ecological conservatism), possibly indicative of local adaptations to an epiphytic habit across the range of the Bromelioideae. These apparently homoplastic morphological characters used to assign species to genera or subgenera may be useful taxonomically when geography is also taken into account. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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