University Amazonica Of Pando

Cobija, Bolivia

University Amazonica Of Pando

Cobija, Bolivia
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Galia Selaya N.,University of Florida | Zuidema P.A.,Wageningen University | Baraloto C.,Florida International University | Baraloto C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 13 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2017

Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC). We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh). Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263) accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p < 0.05). Taxa with 1-2 stems per hectare, or with fewer than 1 stem per hectare (common and rare) accounted for 35% of total AGC, more than the 22% accounted for by dominant taxa. High basal area had a greater impact on AGC than abundance in economic taxa because their populations are skewed to adult trees. Size in these taxa had a median dbh > 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp.), whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha), twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management. © 2017 by the author(s).

Baraloto C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Baraloto C.,University of Florida | Alverga P.,Federal University of Acre | Quispe S.B.,National University of Costa Rica | And 18 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2014

Contemporary conservation interventions must balance potential trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services. In tropical forests, much attention has focused on the extent to which carbon-based conservation provided by REDD+ policies can also mitigate biodiversity conservation. In the nearly one-third of tropical forests that are community owned or managed, conservation strategies must also balance the multiple uses of forest products that support local livelihoods. Although much discussion has focused on policy options, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the potential for trade-offs among different tropical forest value components. We assessed multiple components of forest value, including tree diversity, carbon stocks, and both timber and nontimber forest product resources, in forest communities across the trinational frontier of Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. We installed 69 0.5-ha vegetation plots in local communities, and we characterized 15 components of forest value for each plot. Principal components analyses revealed two major axes of forest value, the first of which defined a trade-off between diversity of woody plant communities (taxonomic and functional) versus aboveground biomass and standing timber volume. The second axis described abundance of commercial species, with strong positive loadings for density of timber and nontimber forest products, including Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and copaiba oil (Copaifera spp.). The observed trade-off between different components of forest value suggests a potential for management conflicts prioritizing biodiversity conservation versus carbon stocks in the region. We discuss the potential for integrative indices of forest value for tropical forest conservation. © 2014 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.

Baraloto C.,Florida International University | Baraloto C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Alverga P.,Federal University of Acre | Quispe S.B.,National University of Costa Rica | And 22 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

Road construction demonstrably accelerates deforestation rates in tropical forests, but its consequences for forest degradation remain less clear. We estimated a series of forest value metrics including components of biodiversity, carbon stocks, and timber and non-timber forest product resources, along the recently paved Inter-Oceanic Highway (IOH) integrating Brazil and Peru along the Bolivian border. We installed 69 vegetation plots in intact terra firme forests representative of local community holdings near and far from the IOH, and we characterized 15 components of forest value for each plot.We observed strong geographic gradients in forest value components across the region, with increases from west to east in aboveground biomass and in the abundance of timber and non-timber forest product trees and regeneration. Plots in communities in Pando, Bolivia, where the IOH remains in part unpaved, had the highest aboveground biomass, standing timber volumes and Brazil nut tree density. In contrast, communities in Madre de Dios, Peru, where settlements and unpaved portions of the IOH have existed for decades, and in Acre, Brazil, where paving of the IOH has been underway for more than a decade, were more degraded. Seven of the fifteen forest value components we measured increased with increasing distance from the IOH, although the magnitude of these effects was weak. Landscape scale remote sensing analyses showed much stronger effects of road proximity on deforestation. We suggest that remote sensing techniques including canopy spectral signatures might be calibrated to characterize multiple components of forest value, so that we can estimate landscape scale impacts of infrastructure developments on both deforestation and forest degradation in tropical regions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Perz S.,University of Florida | Chavez A.B.,National University of Costa Rica | Cossio R.,CGIAR | Hoelle J.,University of California at Santa Barbara | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Land Use Science | Year: 2015

The land science literature has consistently documented the importance of infrastructure for land use. Less attention has gone to land use around national borders receiving trans-boundary infrastructure upgrades for cross-border integration. We take up the case of the Inter-Oceanic Highway, a trans-boundary road being paved in the tri-national ‘MAP’ frontier of the southwestern Amazon. We draw on a tri-national survey of households in rural communities across the MAP frontier to evaluate the effects of access connectivity on land use. At the time of fieldwork, paving was complete in Acre/Brazil, underway in Madre de Dios/Peru, and planned in Pando/Bolivia. This permits a tri-national comparative analysis. The results confirm different effects of access connectivity on land use by paving status; further, they also document cross-border processes stemming from trans-boundary infrastructure that affect land use. The findings call for more attention to the impacts of regional integration initiatives on landscapes. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Perz S.G.,University of Florida | Cabrera L.,University Amazonica Of Pando | Carvalho L.A.,Federal University of Acre | Castillo J.,National University of Costa Rica | And 9 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2012

Initiatives for global economic integration increasingly prioritize new infrastructure in relatively remote regions. Such regions have relatively intact ecosystems and provide valuable ecosystem services, which has stimulated debates over the wisdom of new infrastructure. Most prior research on infrastructure impacts highlights economic benefits, ecological damage, or social conflicts. We suggest a more integrative approach to regional integration by appropriating the concepts of connectivity from transport geography and social-ecological resilience from systems ecology. Connectivity offers a means of observing the degree of integration between locations, and social-ecological resilience provides a framework to simultaneously consider multiple consequences of regional integration. Together, they offer a spatial analysis of resilience that considers multiple dimensions of infrastructure impacts. Our study case is the southwestern Amazon, a highly biodiverse region which is experiencing integration via paving of the Inter-Oceanic Highway. Specifically, we focus on the "MAP" region, a tri-national frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet and which differs in the extent of highway paving. We draw on a tri-national survey of more than 100 resource-dependent rural communities across the MAP frontier and employ indicators for multiple dimensions of connectivity and social-ecological resilience. We pursue a comparative analysis among regions and subregions with differing degrees of community connectivity to markets in order to evaluate their social-ecological resilience. The findings indicate that connectivity and resilience have a multifaceted relationship, such that greater community connectivity corresponds to greater resilience in some respects but not others. We conclude by noting how our findings integrate those from heretofore largely disparate literatures on infrastructure. The integration of transport geography with resilience thought thus stands to advance the study of infrastructure impacts. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Perz S.G.,University of Florida | Qiu Y.,University of Florida | Xia Y.,University of Florida | Southworth J.,University of Florida | And 9 more authors.
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013

Economic globalization manifests in landscapes through regional integration initiatives involving trans-boundary infrastructure. While the relationships of roads, accessibility and land cover are well-understood, they have rarely been considered across borders in national frontier regions. We therefore pursue an analysis of infrastructure connectivity and land cover change in the tri-national frontier of the southwestern Amazon where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, and where the Inter-Oceanic Highway has recently been paved. We integrate satellite, survey, climate and other data for a sample of rural communities that differ in terms of highway paving across the tri-national frontier. We employ a suite of explanatory variables tied to road paving and other factors that vary both across and within the three sides of the frontier in order to model their importance for deforestation. A multivariate analysis of non-forest land cover during 2005-2010 confirms the importance of paving status and travel times, as well as land tenure and other factors. These findings indicate that integration affects land cover, but does not eliminate the effects of other factors that vary across the frontier, which bears implications for the study of globalization, trans-boundary infrastructure, environmental governance and land cover change. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Perz S.G.,University of Florida | Leite F.L.,University of Florida | Griffin L.N.,University of Florida | Hoelle J.,University of California at Santa Barbara | And 4 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Infrastructure has long been a priority in development policy, but there is debate over infrastructure impacts. Whereas economic studies show reductions in poverty, social research has documented growing income inequality. We suggest that a focus on livelihoods permits a bridge between the two literatures by highlighting decisions by households that may capture economic benefits but also yield social inequalities. We therefore take up two questions. First is whether new infrastructure allows households to diversify their livelihoods, where diversity begets resilience and thus affords livelihood sustainability. Second is whether households with more diverse livelihoods exhibit greater increases in livelihood diversity, which would widen livelihood inequalities. We take up the case of the Inter-Oceanic Highway, a trans-boundary infrastructure project in the southwestern Amazon. Findings from a rural household survey for the first question show a strong effect of accessibility on increasing livelihood diversity in areas receiving infrastructure upgrades, an indication that infrastructure fosters household resilience. However, results regarding the second question indicate that households with more diversified livelihoods also exhibit larger increments in diversity, which implies growing livelihood inequality. There remains a need to account for inequalities in livelihood diversity, since less diversified households benefit less from new infrastructure and remain more exposed to risks to their livelihoods. © 2015 by the authors.

Perz S.G.,University of Florida | Rosero M.,University of Florida | Leite F.L.,University of Florida | Araujo Carvalho L.,Federal University of Acre | And 2 more authors.
Human Ecology | Year: 2013

The Inter-Oceanic Highway is among the first wave of large infrastructure projects under the auspices of the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America, which proposes regional integration as a means of economic development. Such projects have reignited debates over infrastructure impacts, which in many ways center on the ramifications for natural resource management. We pursue an analysis of the implications of highway paving for local livelihoods by focusing on the effects of market connectivity on livelihood diversity. Given that infrastructure brings shocks to affected regions, we argue that livelihood diversity is usefully interpreted in terms of household resilience to such shocks. We draw on rural household surveys from the tri-national frontier where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon, where the Inter-Oceanic Highway has recently been paved. The findings show that households more connected to markets in terms of travel time and road paving have less diverse livelihoods. This confirms concerns about regional integration and rural household vulnerability. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Castroviejo-Fisher S.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,American Museum of Natural History | Moravec J.,National Museum | Aparicio J.,Museo Nacional de Historia Natural | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

We collected two specimens of the genus Hyalinobatrachium during fieldwork expeditions to the Departamento Pando-the northernmost region of Bolivia situated in the south-western Amazonian basin, within the zone of tall evergreen lowland rainforest. The specimens are deposited in the Colección Boliviana de Fauna, La Paz (CBF 6453) and in the National Museum, Prague (NMP6V 74059). Because species identification within Hyalinobatrachium based only on morphological characters is in many cases problematic (Kok & Castroviejo-Fisher 2008; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2009), we took advantage of published sequences of Hyalinobatrachium to identify our samples. Our results show that each specimen belongs to a different species (H. mondolfii and H. munozorum), none of them previously known to occur in Bolivia. The taxonomic implications of our discovery are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 - Magnolia Press.

Duchelle A.E.,University of Florida | Duchelle A.E.,Center for International Forestry Research | Cronkleton P.,Center for International Forestry Research | Kainer K.A.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2011

Increased devolution of forest ownership and management rights to local control has the potential to promote both conservation and livelihood development in remote tropical regions. Such shifts in property rights, however, can generate conflicts, particularly when combined with rapidly increasing values of forest resources. We explored the phenomenon of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) theft in communities in Western Amazonia. Through interviews with 189 Brazil nut collectors in 12 communities in Bolivia and Brazil and participation in the 2006 and 2007 harvests, we quantified relative income derived from Brazil nuts, reported nut thefts, and nut collection and management practices. We found a much greater incidence of reported Brazil nut thefts in Pando, Bolivia than in the adjacent state of Acre, Brazil. Our analyses suggest that three factors may have affected nut thefts in the forest: (1) contrasts in the timing and process of formally recognizing property rights, (2) different historic settlement patterns, and (3) varying degrees of economic dependence on Brazil nuts. Threat of theft influenced Brazil nut harvest regimes, with potentially long-term implications for forest-based livelihoods, and management and conservation of Brazil nut-rich forests in Western Amazonia. © 2011 by the author(s).

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