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Madrid, Spain

De Benito Llopis L.,Vissum Madrid | Drake P.,Vissum Madrid | Caadas P.,Vissum Madrid | Caadas P.,European University at Madrid | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Ophthalmology

Purpose: To study the effects of laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) with mitomycin C (MMC) on the keratocyte population. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized, interventional, comparative case series. Methods: Fifty-six eyes treated at Vissum Santa Hortensia, Madrid, Spain, were included in the study. We compared 28 eyes treated with LASEK with intraoperative 0.02% MMC versus 28 non-treated eyes. Keratocyte density was measured 3 months after the surgery in the anterior, mid, and posterior stroma and was compared with the corresponding layers in the control eyes. The anterior layer in the LASEK group was compared with 2 layers in the control group: the most anterior stromal layer and the 80 μm-deep layer, because that was the mean ablation depth performed in eyes that underwent LASEK. Results: We found a statistically significantly lower keratocyte population in the most anterior stromal layer after LASEK with MMC compared with both the most anterior stromal layer and the 80 μm-deep layer in controls. On the contrary, the treated group showed a significantly higher keratocyte density in both the mid stroma and the deep stroma. The comparison between the average densities through the entire cornea showed a significantly higher keratocyte population in the LASEK with MMC group. Conclusions: LASEK with MMC seems to cause a decrease in the anterior stromal cells 3 months after the surgery compared with nonoperated corneas. There seems to be a compensating proliferation of keratocytes in the deeper corneal layers, suggesting that the ability of keratocytes to repopulate the cornea is maintained after the surgical procedure. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Jimenez-Ruiz A.,University Alcal | Alzate J.F.,University of Antioquia | MacLeod E.T.,University of Edinburgh | Luder C.G.K.,University of Gottingen | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities. © 2010 Jiménez-Ruiz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Escortell-Mayor E.,Gerencia Atencian Primaria Area 3 | Rico-Blazquez M.,Direccian General de Atencian Primaria de Madrid | Riesgo-Fuertes R.,Gerencia Atencian Primaria Area 1 | Asuensolo-Del Barco A.,University Alcal | And 6 more authors.
BMC Public Health

Background. High blood pressure (HBP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). European hypertension and cardiology societies as well as expert committees on CVD prevention recommend stratifying cardiovascular risk using the SCORE method, the modification of lifestyles to prevent CVD, and achieving good control over risk factors. The EDUCORE (Education and Coronary Risk Evaluation) project aims to determine whether the use of a cardiovascular risk visual learning method - the EDUCORE method - is more effective than normal clinical practice in improving the control of blood pressure within one year in patients with poorly controlled hypertension but no background of CVD;. Methods/Design. This work describes a protocol for a clinical trial, randomised by clusters and involving 22 primary healthcare clinics, to test the effectiveness of the EDUCORE method. The number of patients required was 736, all between 40 and 65 years of age (n = 368 in the EDUCORE and control groups), all of whom had been diagnosed with HBP at least one year ago, and all of whom had poorly controlled hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140 mmHg and/or diastolic 90 mmHg). All personnel taking part were explained the trial and trained in its methodology. The EDUCORE method contemplates the visualisation of low risk SCORE scores using images embodying different stages of a high risk action, plus the receipt of a pamphlet explaining how to better maintain cardiac health. The main outcome variable was the control of blood pressure; secondary outcome variables included the SCORE score, therapeutic compliance, quality of life, and total cholesterol level. All outcome variables were measured at the beginning of the experimental period and again at 6 and 12 months. Information on sex, age, educational level, physical activity, body mass index, consumption of medications, change of treatment and blood analysis results was also recorded;. Discussion. The EDUCORE method could provide a simple, inexpensive means of improving blood pressure control, and perhaps other health problems, in the primary healthcare setting;. Trial registration: The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01155973 [http://ClinicalTrials.gov]. © 2010 Rodríguez-Salceda et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Garcia E.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Delgado C.,University Alcal | Gonzalez I.,University Alcal | Almagro J.R.,University Alcal | Catedra F.,University Alcal
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest)

New techniques for the analysis and design of large antennas systems which contain small-details geometries are presented. The specific purpose of this communication is the efficient analysis of parabolic reflector built with meshes of wires. The first technique considered is based on the combination of the Characteristic Basis Function Method (CBFM) and the Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA), which avoids the need of computing and storing all the terms of the reduced coupling matrix. The second technique is a domain decomposition approach. The geometry is compartmentalized into regions called windows, and we consider that only the current elements contained inside the same window are fully coupled. We compute then the interactions between different windows iteratively by applying ray-tracing. The third technique combines MLFMA-CBFM algorithm with the Impedance Boundary Condition. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Jimnez J.L.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran | Jimnez J.L.,CIBER ISCIII | Clemente M.I.,CIBER ISCIII | Clemente M.I.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran | And 15 more authors.

Background: HIV infection of the CNS is the principle cause of HIV-associated dementia in adults and encephalopathy in children. Gene therapy techniques such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) possess great potential in drug development, but first they must overcome the key obstacle of reaching the interior of the affected cells. A successful delivery vector for anti-HIV drugs that is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) could provide a way of addressing this issue. Non-viral vectors such as dendrimers offer a means for effectively delivering and transfecting siRNA to the target cells. Objective: To evaluate the application of gene therapy for reducing HIV replication in human astrocytes. Methods: We used the 2G-NN16 amino-terminated carbosilane dendrimer as a method for delivering siRNA to HIV-infected human astrocytes. We tested the cytotoxicity in human astrocytoma cells caused by 2G-NN16 and dendriplexes formed with siRNA (siRNA/2G-NN16) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase assays. The ability to transfect human astrocytes with siRNA/2G-NN16 dendriplexes was tested by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. To assess the potential capability of siRNA/2G-NN16 dendriplexes for crossing the BBB, we used an in vitro transcytosis assay with bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells. HIV-1 inhibition assays using 2G-NN16 and siRNA/2G-NN16 dendriplexes were determined by quantification of the viral load from culture supernatants of the astrocytes. Results: A gradual time-controlled degradation of the 2G-NN16 dendrimer and liberation of its siRNA cargo between 12 and 24 hours was observed via gel electrophoresis. There was no cytotoxicity in HIVinfected or non-infected human astrocytoma cells when treated with up to 24 mg/mLof 2G-NN16 dendrimer or siRNA/2G-NN16 dendriplexes, and siRNA/2G-NN16 dendriplexes were seen to successfully transfect human astrocytes even after crossing an in vitro BBB model. More interestingly, transfected siRNA was observed to exert a biologic effect, as dendriplexes were shown to down-regulate the housekeeping gene GAPDH and to reduce replication of HIV-1 strains X4-HIV NL4-3 and R5-HIV BaL in human astrocytes. Conclusions: The 2G-NN16 dendrimer successfully delivers and transfects siRNA to HIV-infected human astrocytes and achieves gene silencing without causing cytotoxicity. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source

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