Abdou Moumouni University -- formerly University of Niamey from 1974-1994—is the only public university in Niger and is thus directly controlled by the Ministry of Education. Located on the right bank of the Niger River in Niamey, its students and faculty have historically been involved in protest movements in the capital. Wikipedia.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-SG | Phase: ERC-SG-SH6 | Award Amount: 893.16K | Year: 2011
Knowledge of the last 1000 years in the West African Sahel comes largely from historical sources, which say that many regions were ruled by vast polities. The aim of my archaeological project is to seize how, in fact, lhe empires of this region structured the landscape, and the movemenl of peoples, ideas, and things, with a focus on the period AD 1200-1850. Is empire really a useful term? I will confront historical evidence with archaeological data from one area at the intersection of several polities: the dallols in Niger. This area is rich in remains, said to result from population movements and processes of religious and political change, but these remains have been only briefly described so far. As this region is a key area of migrations and cross-influences, it is the ideal laboratory for exploring the materialisation of contacts and boundaries, through a mapping of material culture distributions. My project will approach these sites holistically, carrying out archaeological regional survey and prospection. Excavation will indicate chronology and cultural affiliation. At lhe same time, I will take an interdisciplinary approach, using anthropological and oral-historical enquiries to obtain background information to test hypotheses generated by the archaeological data. Enquiries will assess how material culture can show group belonging and population shifts, and examine the role of individuals called technical specialists. This will help solve the current impasse in our understanding of vast empires which, though they are historically known, remain poorly understood. My project will not just improve our knowledge of an almost-unknown part of the world, but thanks to its geographical location, interdisciplinary nature and strong thematic framework, open up avenues of thinking about the relalion between archaeological and historical data, the mediation of relations through artefacts, and the archaeology of empires, all widely-relevant research issues
Hamidou F.,International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics ICRISAT |
Hamidou F.,University Abdou Moumouni |
Halilou O.,International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics ICRISAT |
Vadez V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2013
In semi-arid regions, particularly in the Sahel, water and high-temperature stress are serious constraints for groundnut production. Understanding of combined effects of heat and drought on physiological traits, yield and its attributes is of special significance for improving groundnut productivity. Two hundred and sixty-eight groundnut genotypes were evaluated in four trials under both intermittent drought and fully irrigated conditions, two of the trial being exposed to moderate temperature, while the two other trials were exposed to high temperature. The objectives were to analyse the component of the genetic variance and their interactions with water treatment, year and environment (temperature) for agronomic characteristics, to select genotypes with high pod yield under hot- and moderate-temperature conditions, or both, and to identify traits conferring heat and/or drought tolerance. Strong effects of water treatment (Trt), genotype (G) and genotype-by-treatment (GxTrt) interaction were observed for pod yield (Py), haulm yield (Hy) and harvest index (HI). The pod yield decrease caused by drought stress was 72% at high temperature and 55% at moderate temperature. Pod yield under well-watered (WW) conditions did not decrease under high-temperature conditions. Haulm yield decrease caused by water stress (WS) was 34% at high temperature and 42% under moderate temperature. Haulm yield tended to increase under high temperature, especially in one season. A significant year effect and genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) effect were also observed for the three traits under WW and WS treatments. The GGE biplots confirmed these large interactions and indicated that high yielding genotypes under moderate temperature were different to those at high temperature. However, several genotypes with relatively high yield across years and temperature environments could be identified under both WW and WS conditions. Correlation analysis between pod weight and traits measured during plant growth showed that the partition rate, that is, the proportion of dry matter partitioned into pods, was contributing in heat and drought tolerance and could be a reliable selection criterion for groundnut breeding programme. Groundnut sensitivity to high-temperature stress was in part related to the sensitivity of reproduction. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Abdoul-Azize S.,University of Burgundy |
Abdoul-Azize S.,University Abdou Moumouni |
Selvakumar S.,University of Burgundy |
Sadou H.,University Abdou Moumouni |
And 2 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2014
Recent compelling evidences from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids. Understanding the mechanisms underlying oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. A number of studies have suggested that lingual CD36, a glycoprotein, highly expressed by circumvallate papillae of the tongue, is implicated in the perception of dietary fat taste. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important signaling molecules for many aspects of cellular functions. It has been shown that these receptors, particularly GPR120, are also involved in lipid taste perception. We have shown that dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), in CD36-positive taste bud cells (TBC), induce increases in free intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, by recruiting Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool via inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production, followed by Ca2+ influx via opening of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels. GPR120 is also coupled to increases in [Ca2+]i by dietary fatty acids. We observed that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a sensor of Ca2+ depletion in the ER, mediated fatty acid-induced Ca2+ signaling and spontaneous preference for fat in the mouse. In this review article, we discuss the recent advances and unresolved roles of CD36 and GPR120 in lipid taste signaling in taste bud cells. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009.2.1.3.2 | Award Amount: 4.53M | Year: 2010
UNDESERT aims at combatting desertification and land degradation in order to mitigate their impacts on ecosystem services, and following on human livelihoods. The West African region is central for understanding desertification and degradation processes, which are already severe and widespread as a consequence of climate change and human impact. An improved understanding of the effects of desertification and degradation processes is obtained on a local to regional scale by integrating remote sensing information with sound field data on biodiversity and soil as well as socioeconomic and climate data. On this basis decision support models and tools will be developed and introduced to natural resource managers. UNDESERT also includes two very practical aspects, 1) restoration through tree plantations, which will be certified for CO2 marketing as the first restoration site in West Africa, 2) ecosystem management based on scientific data and best practices developed in close collaboration between scientists and local communities. As a demand driven project, UNDESERT activities will be implemented by employing 17 young PhD students, who will receive training to enhance future capacities to manage risks and uncertainties in the frame of future demographic and climatic changes. The scientific results will be used to combat desertification and degradation directly and will be transferred to international programs in order to contribute to the implementation of relevant international strategies, initiatives and commitments of the EU and African countries.
Hamani Daouda M.,Federal University of Espirito Santo |
Hamani Daouda M.,University Abdou Moumouni |
Rodrigues M.E.,Federal University of Espirito Santo |
Houndjo M.J.S.,Federal University of Espirito Santo |
Houndjo M.J.S.,Institute Of Mathematiques Et Of Science Physiques Imsp
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012
We consider f(T) gravity for a Weitzenbock's spherically symmetric and static spacetime, where the metric is projected in the tangent space to the manifold, for a set of non-diagonal tetrads. The matter content is coupled through the energy-momentum tensor of an anisotropic fluid, generating various classes of new black hole and wormhole solutions. One of these classes is that of cold black holes. We also perform the reconstruction scheme of the algebraic function f(T) for two cases where the radial pressure is proportional to f(T) and its first derivative. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Mueller J.G.,Tufts University |
Assanou I.H.B.,University Abdou Moumouni |
Dan Guimbo I.,University Abdou Moumouni |
Almedom A.M.,Tufts University
Conservation Biology | Year: 2010
There is a pressing need to find both locally and globally relevant tools to measure and compare biodiversity patterns. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is important to biodiversity monitoring, but has a contested role in preliminary biodiversity assessments. We examined rapid participatory rural appraisal (rPRA) (a tool commonly used for local needs assessments) as an alternative to surveys of vascular plants conducted by people with local knowledge. We used rPRA to determine the local-knowledge consensus on the average richness, diversity, and height of local grasses and trees in three habitats surrounding Boumba, Niger, bordering Park-W. We then conducted our own vascular plant surveys to collect information on plant richness, abundance, and structure. Using a qualitative ranking, we compared TEK-based assessments of diversity patterns with our survey-based assessments. The TEK-based assessments matched survey-based assessments on measures of height and density for grasses and trees and tree richness. The two assessments correlated poorly on herb richness and Simpson's D value for both trees and grasses. Plant life form and gender of the participant affected the way diversity patterns were described, which highlights the usefulness of TEK in explaining local realities and indicates limitations of using TEK as a large-scale assessment tool. Our results demonstrate that rPRA can serve to combine local-knowledge inquiry with scientific study at a cost lower than vascular plant surveys and demonstrates a useful blunt tool for preliminary biodiversity assessment. © 2009 Society for Conservation Biology.
Guimbo I.D.,University Abdou Moumouni |
Muller J.,Tufts University |
Larwanou M.,University Abdou Moumouni
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2011
Ethnobotanical studies often underestimate or misrepresent impacts of age and gender on individual ethnobotanical knowledge. This paper compares two common methodologies, participant observation and key-informant interviews, to examine the variation of ethnobotanical knowledge across age and gender in three communities in rural southwest Niger. We compared lists of plants mentioned in interviews as food, fodder, construction and medicine, to lists compiled from observations of daily activities. Compared to men, women reported more edible plants, different medicinal plants, and less detailed information on construction plants. Interview data indicated ethnobotanical knowledge increased with age. However, in observations youth ate a greater diversity of food plants and identified and ranked fodder species more quickly than adults. This paper supports previous research on age and gender effects on ethnobotanical knowledge and critiques common research methods and assumptions. We advocate for mixed-method approaches to gather more nuanced understandings of ethnobotanical knowledge.
Larwanou M.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry |
Saadou M.,University Abdou Moumouni
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2011
A study was conducted in 15 village territories of 3 regions in Niger. Among these sites, 4 were control and 11 had interventions comprising of farmer-managed tree natural regeneration (FMNR), water harvesting techniques (WHT) and windbreaks. The objective of the study was to determine the state of tree vegetation in terms of species diversity and harvestable volume and evaluate the environmental trend in the sites. An inventory of the vegetation was carried out during the rainy season using radial transects from the village centre, outwards, in addition to surveys with local communities.The results showed that tree diversity is enhanced in sites with interventions, and soil rehabilitation techniques and farmer-managed tree natural regeneration favor the rehabilitation and development of trees. The number of resprouts/seedlings varied with site, soil type and intervention. The number of harvestable trees depended on factors like caring, monitoring of cutting, types of intervention and ecological zone.Harvestable volume is a function of high regeneration rate, number of harvestable individual trees and site. Vegetation is improving in all the sites and local communities using tree products for their various needs. This study contributed to setting up a reference database for these sites. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Harouna M.,University Abdou Moumouni |
Philp R.P.,University of Oklahoma
Journal of Petroleum Geology | Year: 2012
Potential source rocks from wells in the Termit Basin, eastern Republic of Niger, have been analysed using standard organic geochemical techniques. Samples included organic-rich shales of Oligocene, Eocene, Paleocene, Maastrichtian, Campanian and Santonian ages. TOC contents of up to 20.26%, Rock Eval S 2 values of up to 55.35 mg HC/g rock and HI values of up to 562 mg HC/g TOC suggest that most of the samples analysed have significant oil-generating potential. Kerogen is predominantly Types II, III and II-III. Biomarker distributions were determined for selected samples. Gas chromatograms are characterized by a predominance of C 17- C 21 and C 27- C 29 n-alkanes. Hopane distributions are characterized by 22S/(22S+22R) ratios for C 32 homohopanes ranging from 0.31 to 0.59. Gammacerane was present in Maastrichtian-Campanian and Santonian samples. Sterane distributions are dominated by C 29 steranes which are higher than C 27 and C 28 homologues. Biomarker characteristics were combined with other geochemical parameters to interpret the oil-generating potential of the samples, their probable depositional environments and their thermal maturity. Results indicate that the samples were in general deposited in marine to lacustrine environments and contain varying amounts of higher plant or bacterial organic matter. Thermal maturity varies from immature to the main oil generation phase. The results of this study will contribute to an improved understanding of the origin of the hydrocarbons which have been discovered in Niger, Chad and other rift basins in the Central African Rift System. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Petroleum Geology © 2012 Scientific Press Ltd.
Mohamed A.B.,University Abdou Moumouni
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2011
Analyses of Sahel regional and country-specific rainfall and temperature time series derived from a fixed subset of stations show the well-documented large-scale decreasing trend in rainfall that occurred between 1970 and 2000 and also, an increasing trend in summertime maximum and wintertime minimum temperatures. The evolution of summertime mean maximum temperature is almost opposite to that of rainfall, and a significant correlation is observed between the evolution of this quantity and millet yields, in comparison with correlation with summertime rainfall. It appears that quantifying future vulnerability of the Sahel zone to climate change is rather difficult because climate models have not in general shown yet a satisfactory reproduction of the observed climate variability of this area. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.