Chakkarat, Thailand
Chakkarat, Thailand

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Smets T.,Catholic University of Leuven | Poesen J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Bhattacharyya R.,University of Wolverhampton | Fullen M.A.,University of Wolverhampton | And 12 more authors.
Construction for a Sustainable Environment - Proceedings of the International Conference of Construction for a Sustainable Environment | Year: 2010

The objective of the work reported is to evaluate the effectiveness of selected types of biological geotextile in reducing runoff and soil lossin continental, temperate and tropical environments. Laboratory simulations used various rainfall intensities, flow shear stresses and slope gradient and field plot data were collected from seven countries. The laboratory experiments indicate that all tested biological geotextiles are effective in reducing interrill runoff (32-73% of the value for bare soil) and interrill erosion rates (5-27% of the value for bare soil). Since simulated concentrated flow discharge sometimes flows below the geotextiles, their effectiveness in reducing concentrated flow erosion is significantly less (25-153% of the value for bare soil). On field plots, where both interrill and rill erosion occur, all tested geotextiles reduced runoff depth on average to 17-63% of the control value for bare soil and in some cases, runoff depth increased compared to bare soil surfaces, which can be attributed to the impermeable and hydrophobic characteristics of some biological geotextiles. In the field, soil loss rates due to interrill and rill erosion were reduced on average to 5-20% of the value of bare soil by the biological geotextiles. For all environmental conditions, the relative reduction of both runoff and soil loss by geotextiles compared to bare soil, increased with increasing rainfall depth. Runoff depths are significantly more reduced by Buriti and Rice straw geotextiles on the longer field plots (6-10 m) compared to the short interrill laboratory plots (0.9 m). Only the Rice straw geotextiles are significantly more effective in reducing soil loss on the longer field plots compared to the short interrill laboratory plot. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


PubMed | Padjadjaran University, Chang Mai University, Monash University, National University Hospital Singapore and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of the rheumatic diseases | Year: 2016

Treating to low disease activity is routine in rheumatoid arthritis, but no comparable goal has been defined for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We sought to define and validate a Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS).A consensus definition of LLDAS was generated using Delphi and nominal group techniques. Criterion validity was determined by measuring the ability of LLDAS attainment, in a single-centre SLE cohort, to predict non-accrual of irreversible organ damage, measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI).Consensus methodology led to the following definition of LLDAS: (1) SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2K 4, with no activity in major organ systems (renal, central nervous system (CNS), cardiopulmonary, vasculitis, fever) and no haemolytic anaemia or gastrointestinal activity; (2) no new lupus disease activity compared with the previous assessment; (3) a Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment (SELENA)-SLEDAI physician global assessment (scale 0-3) 1; (4) a current prednisolone (or equivalent) dose 7.5mg daily; and (5) well tolerated standard maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs and approved biological agents. Achievement of LLDAS was determined in 191 patients followed for a mean of 3.9years. Patients who spent greater than 50% of their observed time in LLDAS had significantly reduced organ damage accrual compared with patients who spent less than 50% of their time in LLDAS (p=0.0007) and were significantly less likely to have an increase in SDI of 1 (relative risk 0.47, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.79, p=0.005).A definition of LLDAS has been generated, and preliminary validation demonstrates its attainment to be associated with improved outcomes in SLE.


Smets T.,Catholic University of Leuven | Poesen J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Bhattacharyya R.,University of Wolverhampton | Fullen M.A.,University of Wolverhampton | And 13 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2011

Preliminary investigations suggest biological geotextiles could be an effective and inexpensive soil conservation method, with enormous global potential. However, limited quantitative data are available on the erosion-reducing effects of biological geotextiles. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of biological geotextiles in reducing runoff and soil loss under controlled laboratory conditions and under field conditions reflecting continental, temperate and tropical environments. In laboratory experiments, interrill runoff, interrill erosion and concentrated flow erosion were simulated using various rainfall intensities, flow shear stresses and slope gradients. Field plot data on the effects of biological geotextiles on sheet and rill erosion were collected in several countries (UK, Hungary, Lithuania, South Africa, Brazil, China and Thailand) under natural rainfall. Overall, based on the field plot data, the tested biological geotextiles reduce runoff depth and soil loss rates on average by 46 per cent and 79 per cent, respectively, compared to the values for bare soil. For the field and laboratory data of all tested geotextiles combined, no significant difference in relative runoff depth between field measurements and interrill laboratory experiments is observed. However, relative soil loss rate for the concentrated flow laboratory experiments are significantly higher compared to the interrill laboratory experiments and the field plot measurements. Although this study points to some shortcomings of conducting laboratory experiments to represent true field conditions, it can be concluded that the range and the mean relative runoff depth and soil loss rate as observed with the field measurements is similar to those as observed with the interrill laboratory experiments. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Krasilnikov M.,German Electron Synchrotron | Stephan F.,German Electron Synchrotron | Asova G.,German Electron Synchrotron | Grabosch H.-J.,German Electron Synchrotron | And 29 more authors.
FEL 2013: Proceedings of the 35th International Free-Electron Laser Conference | Year: 2013

The Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ), develops high brightness electron sources for modern free electron lasers. A continuous experimental optimization of the L-band photo injector for such FEL facilities like FLASH and the European XFEL has been performed for a wide range of electron bunch charges - from 20 pC to 2 nC - yielding very small emittance values for all charge levels. Experience and results of the experimental optimization will be presented in comparison with beam dynamics simulations. The influence of various parameters onto the photo injector performance will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 CC-BY-3.0 and by the respective authors.


Ngamniyom A.,Srinakharinwirot University | Manaboon M.,Chang Mai University | Panyarachun B.,Srinakharinwirot University | Showpittapornchai U.,Srinakharinwirot University
International Journal of Zoological Research | Year: 2014

Haplopelma lividum and H. longipes (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) are tarantulas that are distributed throughout Southeast Asia and are important carnivorous predators in ecological systems. The present study aimed to examine the phylogenetic relationships between Mygalomorph spiders using 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. The molecular results supported the placement of both species within a common theraphosid taxon. However, when considering relationships between Haplopelma spp. and related genera, H. schmidti, H. lividum and H. longipes were not monophyletic, suggesting that molecular data are incongruent with phylogenies based on morphological characteristics. These results provide molecular data to help elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between theraphosid tarantulas. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.

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