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Varadi L.,University of Sunderland | Gray M.,University of Sunderland | Groundwater P.W.,University of Sunderland | Groundwater P.W.,University of Sydney | And 6 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

Several novel fluorogenic N-aminoacylnaphthyridine substrates were synthesized in good yield and tested for their ability to detect pathogenic bacteria in agar-based cell culture. Simple 2-N-(β-alanyl)amino-5,7- dialkylnaphthyridine substrates were selectively hydrolysed by β-alanylaminopeptidase expressing bacteria, but were subject to diffusion in the agar medium. Diffusion was reduced in the 2-N-(β-alanyl)amino-7- alkylnaphthyridine substrates with longer alkyl chains, but inhibition of growth was increased. 2-N-(β-Alanyl)amino-7-octylnaphthyridine inhibited the growth of all species tested, except for strains resistant to colistin/polymyxin, providing a rationale for the development of substrates for the selective detection of drug resistant species in clinical samples. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.


Chaipichit N.,Khon Kaen University | Krska J.,Universities of Greenwich and Kent at Medway | Pratipanawatr T.,Khon Kaen University | Uchaipichat V.,Khon Kaen University | Jarernsiripornkul N.,Khon Kaen University
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To explore how Thai patients assess symptoms as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Methods: Out-patients at two hospitals in Thailand previously reporting suspected ADRs to statins were purposively selected to cover factors relevant to the accuracy of ADR reports. Semi-structured interviews explored the mechanisms participants used to work out whether their symptoms were related to their statin. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and independently thematically analyzed by two researchers. Results: One hundred interviews were suitable for analysis; 52 were male, age range was 36 to 77 years (mean∈±∈S.D.: 59.83∈±∈9.14) and most (92) were taking other medicines in addition to statins. Patient assessment of symptoms as ADRs fell into two major themes: medicine-related factors and external factors. Timing relationships were mentioned most frequently (74), followed by information received (55), seeing similar symptoms in others (7) and diagnosis through blood tests (4). Use of multiple medicines, consideration of the medicine versus diseases, symptoms occurring with more than one medicine or relieved through treatment reduced confidence in ADR attribution. Many participants proposed alternative explanations for symptoms, including old age. Lack of information and knowledge were obstacles to the assessment process. Conclusions: Patients assessed possible ADRs most often by considering timing relationships. While they also used medicine information, Thai patients received inadequate information to help them assess their symptoms. Patients expressed uncertainty and difficulties in deciding attribution when concomitant medicines and diseases were involved. The findings could support the development of a patient-friendly systematic tool for identifying and assessing possible ADRs. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Basey A.J.,University of Liverpool | Basey A.J.,Liverpool John Moores University | Krska J.,Universities of Greenwich and Kent at Medway | Kennedy T.D.,University of Liverpool | Mackridge A.J.,Liverpool John Moores University
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Background: Implementing venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment guidance on admission to hospital has proved difficult worldwide. In 2010, VTE risk assessment in English hospitals was linked to financial sanctions. This study investigated possible barriers and facilitators for VTE risk assessment in medical patients and evaluated the impact of local and national initiatives. Setting: Acute Medical Unit in one English National Health Service university teaching hospital. Methods: This was a mixed methods study; National Research Ethics Service approval was granted. Data were collected over four 1-week periods; November 2009 (1), January 2010 (2), April 2010 (3) and April 2011 (4). Case notes for all medical patients admitted during these periods were reviewed. Thirty-six staff were observed admitting 71 of these patients; 24 observed staff participated in a structured interview. Results: 876 case notes were reviewed. In total, 82.1% of patients had one or more VTE risk factors and 25.3% one or more bleeding risks. VTE risk assessment rose from a baseline of 6.9-19.6%, following local initiatives, and to 98.7% following financially sanctioned government targets. A similar increase in appropriate prescribing of prophylaxis was seen, but inappropriate prescribing also rose. No staff observed in period 1 conducted VTE risk assessment, risk-assessment forms were largely ignored or discarded during period 2; and electronic recording systems available during period 3 were not accessed. Few patients were asked any VTE-related questions in periods 1, 2 or 3. Interviewees' actual knowledge of VTE risk was not related to perceived knowledge level. Eight of the 24 staff interviewed were aware of national policies or guidance: none had seen them. Principal barriers identified to risk assessment were: involvement of multiple staff in individual admissions; interruptions; lack of policy awareness; time pressure and complexity of tools. Conclusions: National financial sanctions appear effective in implementing guidance, where other local measures have failed.


Basey A.J.,University of Liverpool | Basey A.J.,Liverpool John Moores University | Krska J.,Universities of Greenwich and Kent at Medway | Kennedy T.D.,University of Liverpool | Mackridge A.J.,Liverpool John Moores University
BMJ Quality and Safety | Year: 2014

Background Medication errors are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and adversely affect clinical outcomes. Prescribing errors constitute one type of medication error and occur particularly on admission to hospital; little is known about how they arise. Aim This study investigated how doctors obtain the information necessary to prescribe on admission to hospital, and the number and potential impact of any errors. Setting English teaching hospital-acute medical unit. Methods Ethics approval was granted. Data were collected over four 1-week periods; November 2009, January 2010, April 2010 and April 2011. The patient admission process was directly observed, field notes were recorded using a standard form. Doctors participated in a structured interview; case notes of all patients admitted during study periods were reviewed. Results There were differences between perceived practice stated in interviews and actual practice observed. All 19 doctors interviewed indicated that they would sometimes or always use more than one source of information for a medication history; a single source was used in 31/68 observed cases. 7/12 doctors both observed and interviewed indicated that they would confirm medication with patients; observations showed they did so for only 2/12 patients. In 66/68 cases, the patient/carer was able to discuss medication, 14 were asked no medication-related questions. Of 688 medication charts reviewed, 318 (46.2%) had errors. A total of 851 errors were identified; 737/851 (86.6%) involved omission of a medicine; 94/737 (12.8%) of these were potentially significant. Conclusions Although doctors know the importance of obtaining an accurate medication history and checking prescriptions with patients, they often fail to put this into practice, resulting in prescribing errors.


Mattos dos Santos P.,Queens University of Belfast | Hall A.J.,Universities of Greenwich and Kent at Medway | Manesiotis P.,Queens University of Belfast
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) targeting tegafur, an anti-cancer 5-fluorouracil pro-drug, have been prepared by stoichiometric imprinting using 2,6-bis(acrylamido)pyridine (BAAPy) as the functional monomer. Solution association between tegafur and BAAPy was studied by 1H NMR titration, which confirmed the formation of 1:1 complexes with an affinity constant of 574 ± 15 M-1 in CDCl3. Evaluation of the synthesised materials by HPLC and equilibrium rebinding experiments revealed high selectivity of the imprinted polymer for the pro-drug vs. 5-fluorouracil and other competing analytes, with maximum imprinting factors of 25.3 and a binding capacity of 45.1 μmol g-1. The synthesised imprinted polymer was employed in solid-phase extraction of the pro-drug using an optimised protocol that included a simple wash with the porogen used in the preparation of the material. Tegafur recoveries of up to 96% were achieved from aqueous samples and 92% from urine samples spiked with the template and three competing analytes. The results demonstrate the potential of the prepared polymers in the pre-concentration of tegafur from biological samples, which could be an invaluable tool in the monitoring of patient compliance and drug uptake and excretion. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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