Universities of Giessen

Gießen, Germany

Universities of Giessen

Gießen, Germany

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Ishizaki T.,University of Fukui | Mizuno S.,Kanazawa Medical University | Sakai A.,Matsumoto University | Matsukawa S.,University of Fukui | And 8 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Yaks have adapted to high altitude and they do not develop hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Although we previously identified the important role of augmented nitric oxide synthase activity in the yak pulmonary circulatory system, evidence of the direct involvement of Rho-kinase as a basal vascular tone regulator is lacking. Four domesticated male pure-bred yaks and four bulls that were born and raised at an altitude of 3000 m in the Tien-Shan mountains were studied at an altitude of 3,100 m. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was measured before and after fasudil (60 mg in 20 mL of saline) was intravenously administered using a Swan-Ganz catheter at a rate of 3.3 mL/min for 30 min. Fasudil decreased mPAP in bulls from 67.8 ± 14.9 to 32.3 ± 5.3 mmHg (P < 0.05) after 15 min and the level was maintained for 30 min, but it merely blunted mPAP in yaks from 28.2 ± 4.5 to 25.1 ± 11.1 and 23.2 ± 2.7 mmHg after 5 and 30 min, respectively. These findings comprise the first evidence of a modest role of Rho-kinase in the maintenance of pulmonary artery pressure in the yak. © 2015 Takeshi Ishizaki et al.


Tuder R.M.,Aurora University | Archer S.L.,Queen's University | Dorfmuller P.,University Paris - Sud | Erzurum S.C.,Cleveland Clinic | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Knowledge of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to accelerate. However, fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying pathological changes in pulmonary arteries and veins in the different forms of this syndrome. Although PH primarily affects the arteries, venous disease is increasingly recognized as an important entity. Moreover, prognosis in PH is determined largely by the status of the right ventricle, rather than the levels of pulmonary artery pressures. It is increasingly clear that although vasospasm plays a role, PH is an obstructive lung panvasculopathy. Disordered metabolism and mitochondrial structure, inflammation, and dysregulation of growth factors lead to a proliferative, apoptosis-resistant state. These abnormalities may be acquired, genetically mediated as a result of mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 or activin-like kinase-1, or epigenetically inherited (as a result of epigenetic silencing of genes such as superoxide dismutase-2). There is a pressing need to better understand how the pathobiology leads to severe disease in some patients versus mild PH in others. Recent recognition of a potential role of acquired abnormalities of mitochondrial metabolism in the right ventricular myocytes and pulmonary vascular cells suggests new therapeutic approaches, diagnostic modalities, and biomarkers. Finally, dissection of the role of pulmonary inflammation in the initiation and promotion of PH has revealed a complex yet fascinating interplay with pulmonary vascular remodeling, promising to lead to novel therapeutics and diagnostics. Emerging concepts are also relevant to the pathobiology of PH, including a role for bone marrow and circulating progenitor cells and microribonucleic acids. Continued interest in the interface of the genetic basis of PH and cellular and molecular pathogenetic links should further expand our understanding of the disease. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Mikulski Z.,Universities of Giessen | Zaslona Z.,Universities of Giessen | Cakarova L.,Universities of Giessen | Hartmann P.,Universities of Giessen | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2010

Serotonin (5-HT), known as neuromodulator, regulates immune responses and inflammatory cascades. The expression and function of 5-HT receptors on alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the major fraction of pulmonary immune cells, remain elusive. Therefore, we determined the expression of 5-HT type 2 receptors and investigated the effects evoked by stimulation with 5-HT in AM compared with alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed expression of the receptors 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B in AEC and of 5-HT2C in AM. In AM, 5-HT (10-5 M) induced a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that was initiated by release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and depended on extracellular Ca2+ in a sustained phase. This 5-HT-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was not observed in AM treated with the 5-HT2C-selective inhibitor RS-102221 and in AM derived from 5-HT 2C-deficient mice. AM stimulated with 5-HT (10-5 M) showed increased expression of CCL2 (MCP-1) mRNA as assayed by qPCR at 4 h and augmented production of CCL2 protein as determined by dot-blot assay and ELISA at 24 h. Notably, in 5-HT2C-deficient AM, CCL2 production was not induced by 5-HT treatment. Moreover, transcriptional responses to 5-HT exposure assayed by microarray experiments were only observed in AM from wild-type animals and not in AM derived from 5-HT2C-deficient mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate the presence of functional 5-HT2C receptors on AM and suggest a role of 5-HT as novel modulator of AM function. These effects are exclusively driven by the 5-HT2C receptor, thereby providing the potential for selective intervention. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.


Bretz A.C.,University of Marburg | Gittler M.P.,University of Marburg | Charles J.P.,University of Marburg | Gremke N.,University of Marburg | And 9 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2016

TP63, a member of the p53 gene family gene, encodes the ΔNp63 protein and is one of the most frequently amplified genes in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck (HNSCC) and lungs (LUSC). Using an epiallelic series of siRNAs with intrinsically different knockdown abilities, we show that the complete loss of ΔNp63 strongly impaired cell proliferation, whereas partial ΔNp63 depletion rendered cells hypersensitive to cisplatin accompanied by an accumulation of DNA damage. Expression profiling revealed wide-spread transcriptional regulation of DNA repair genes and in particular Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway components such as FANCD2 and RAD18-known to be crucial for the repair of cisplatin-induced interstrand crosslinks. In SCC patients ΔNp63 levels significantly correlate with FANCD2 and RAD18 expression confirming ΔNp63 as a key activator of the FA pathway in vivo. Mechanistically, ΔNp63 bound an upstream enhancer of FANCD2 inactive in primary keratinocytes but aberrantly activated by ΔNp63 in SCC. Consistently, depletion of FANCD2 sensitized to cisplatin similar to depletion of ΔNp63. Together, our results demonstrate that ΔNp63 directly activates the FA pathway in SCC and limits the efficacy of cisplatin treatment. Targeting ΔNp63 therefore would not only inhibit SCC proliferation but also sensitize tumors to chemotherapy. © 2016 The Author(s).


Klinke A.,University of Cologne | Moller A.,University of Hamburg | Pekarova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Ravekes T.,University of Cologne | And 15 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by adverse remodeling of pulmonary arteries. Although the origin of the disease and its underlying pathophysiology remain incompletely understood, inflammation has been identified as a central mediator of disease progression. Oxidative inflammatory conditions support the formation of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives, which exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the role of 10-nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) in modulating the pathophysiology of PAH in mice. Mice were kept for 28 days under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and OA-NO2 was infused subcutaneously. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVPsys) was determined, and right ventricular and lung tissue was analyzed. The effect of OA-NO2 on cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and macrophages was also investigated. Changes in RVPsys revealed increased pulmonary hypertension in mice on hypoxia, which was significantly decreased by OA-NO2 administration. Right ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis were also attenuated by OA-NO2 treatment. The infiltration of macrophages and the generation of reactive oxygen species were elevated in lung tissue of mice on hypoxia and were diminished by OA-NO2 treatment. Moreover, OA-NO2 decreased superoxide production of activated macrophages and PASMCs in vitro. Vascular structural remodeling was also limited by OA-NO2. In support of these findings, proliferation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in cultured PASMCs was less pronounced on application of OA-NO2. Our results show that the oleic acid nitroalkene derivative OA-NO2 attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. Thus, OA-NO 2 represents a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAH. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.


Shi H.-X.,Wenzhou Medical College | Lin C.,Wenzhou Medical College | Lin B.-B.,Wenzhou Medical College | Wang Z.-G.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Hypertrophic scars (HTS) and keloids are challenging problems. Their pathogenesis results from an overproduction of fibroblasts and excessive deposition of collagen. Studies suggest a possible anti-scarring effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) during wound healing, but the precise mechanisms of bFGF are still unclear. In view of this, we investigated the therapeutic effects of bFGF on HTS animal model as well as human scar fibroblasts (HSF) model. We show that bFGF promoted wound healing and reduced the area of flattened non-pathological scars in rat skin wounds and HTS in the rabbit ear. We provide evidence of a new therapeutic strategy: bFGF administration for the treatment of HTS. The scar elevation index (SEI) and epidermal thickness index (ETI) was also significantly reduced. Histological reveal that bFGF exhibited significant amelioration of the collagen tissue. bFGF regulated extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and degradation via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-β1) expression. In addition, bFGF reduced scarring and promoted wound healing by inhibiting TGFβ1/SMAD-dependent pathway. The levels of fibronectin (FN), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) collagen I, and collagen III were evidently decreased, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and apoptosis cells were markedly increased. These results suggest that bFGF possesses favorable therapeutic effects on hypertrophic scars in vitro and in vivo, which may be an effective cure for human hypertrophic scars. © 2013 Shi et al.


Kovacevic I.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Muller M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Kojonazarov B.,Universities of Giessen | Ehrke A.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 7 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

Rationale: Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in cardiovascular disease and characterized by reduced production of nitric oxide (NO). The F-BAR protein NO synthase traffic inducer (NOSTRIN) is an interaction partner of endothelial NO synthase and modulates its supcellular localization, but the role of NOSTRIN in pathophysiology in vivo is unclear. Objective: We analyzed the consequences of deleting the NOSTRIN gene in endothelial cells on NO production and cardiovascular function in vivo using NOSTRIN knockout mice. Methods and Results: The levels of NO and cGMP were significantly reduced in mice with endothelial cell-specific deletion of the NOSTRIN gene resulting in diastolic heart dysfunction. In addition, systemic blood pressure was increased, and myograph measurements indicated an impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation of isolated aortic rings and resistance arteries. We found that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor suptype M3 (M3R) interacted directly with NOSTRIN, and the latter was necessary for correct localization of the M3R at the plasma membrane in murine aorta. In the absence of NOSTRIN, the acetylcholine-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ in primary endothelial cells was abolished. Moreover, the activating phosphorylation and Golgi translocation of endothelial NO synthase in response to the M3R agonist carbachol were diminished. Conclusions: NOSTRIN is crucial for the localization and function of the M3R and NO production. The loss of NOSTRIN in mice leads to endothelial dysfunction, increased blood pressure, and diastolic heart failure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Kummer W.,Universities of Giessen | Krasteva-Christ G.,Universities of Giessen
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Acetylcholine, a major regulator of airway function, is not solely produced by neurons but also by a variety of non-neurons cells including various airway epithelial cells utilizing a molecular machinery of acetylcholine synthesis and release that differs from that of neurons. While canonical neuronal cholinergic signaling pathways, for example, nerve driven bronchoconstriction, are still valid, new pathways of cholinergic communication have emerged which center around innate immunity. These include cholinergic luminal signaling via the airway lining fluid to reach receptors at the apical side of epithelial cells and on macrophages patrolling on the surface, and preneuronal cholinergic signaling where sensory neurons are the target of ACh released from a recently identified chemosensory cell that monitors the airway lining fluid for the presence of potentially hazardous compounds utilizing the classical taste transduction cascade. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Oruqaj G.,Justus Liebig University | Karnati S.,Justus Liebig University | Vijayan V.,Justus Liebig University | Kotarkonda L.K.,Justus Liebig University | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease, and its pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Peroxisomes are known to be important in ROS and proinflammatory lipid degradation, and their deficiency induces liver fibrosis. However, altered peroxisome functions in IPF pathogenesis have never been investigated. By comparing peroxisome-related protein and gene expression in lung tissue and isolated lung fibroblasts between human control and IPF patients, we found that IPF lungs exhibited a significant down-regulation of peroxisomal biogenesis and metabolism (e.g., PEX13p and acyl-CoA oxidase 1). Moreover, in vivo the bleomycin-induced down-regulation of peroxisomes was abrogated in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor II knockout mice indicating a role for TGF-β signaling in the regulation of peroxisomes. Furthermore, in vitro treatment of IPF fibroblasts with the profibrotic factors TGF-β1 or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was found to down-regulate peroxisomes via the AP-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms by which reduced peroxisomal functions contribute to enhanced fibrosis were further studied. Direct down-regulation of PEX13 by RNAi induced the activation of Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling accompanied by increased ROS production and resulted in the release of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TGF-β) and excessive production of collagen I and III. In contrast, treatment of fibroblasts with ciprofibrate or WY14643, PPAR-α activators, led to peroxisome proliferation and reduced the TGF-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation and collagen protein in IPF cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that compromised peroxisome activity might play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of IPF and fibrosis progression, possibly by exacerbating pulmonary inflammation and intensifying the fibrotic response in the patients. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


Mizuno S.,Kanazawa Medical University | Ishizaki T.,Kanazawa Medical University | Toga H.,Kanazawa Medical University | Sakai A.,Matsumoto University | And 6 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Hypoxia-induced and high altitude pulmonary hypertension are a major problem in the mountain areas of the world. The asymmetric methylarginines (ADMA) inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by competing with L-arginine, and high levels of plasma ADMA predict adverse outcomes in pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the regulation of the ADMA-NO pathway in animals adapted to high altitudes. We measured the plasma ADMA concentration, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH) protein expression, and DDAH activities in the lungs from yaks. Although the yaks are hypoxemic, cardiac function and pulmonary arterial pressures are almost normal, and we found decreased DDAH expression and activity in association with reduced plasma ADMA concentrations. The eNOS expression was significantly higher in yaks. These results indicate that augmented endogenous NO activity in yaks through the ADMA-DDAH pathway and eNOS upregulation account for the low pulmonary vascular tone observed in high altitude adapted yaks. © 2015 Shiro Mizuno et al.

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