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Nilai, Malaysia

Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia is a public university in Malaysia with a main campus in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. Formerly known as Kolej Universiti Islam Malaysia which was established in 1998, USIM has eight faculties with 25 undergraduate programmes in economy, law, syariah, language, da'wah, management, Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, counseling, communication, medicine, science and information technology, dentistry and accounting. Wikipedia.

Azila Noh N.,University of Leicester | Azila Noh N.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Fuggetta G.,University of Leicester
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2012

Electroencephalography (EEG) can directly monitor the temporal progression of cortical changes induced by repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and facilitate the understanding of cortical and subcortical influences in the genesis of oscillations. In this combined rTMS/EEG study, we aimed to investigate changes in oscillatory activity after high-frequency (∼11 Hz) rTMS relative to the number of applied pulses. Twenty intermittent trains of 20 or 60 rTMS pulses were delivered over the human primary motor cortex at rest and tuned to individual mu frequency. The regional and interregional oscillatory neural activity after stimulation were evaluated using event-related power (ERPow) and event-related coherence (ERCoh) transformations. The most prominent changes for ERPow were observed in the theta band (4-7 Hz), as an increase in ERPow up to 20 s following 60 rTMS pulses, whereas ERPow increases were smaller in mu (10-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz). ERCoh revealed that rTMS 60 modulated the connectivity in the theta band for up to 20 s. The topography of mu and theta changes were not identical; mu was more focal and theta was more global. Our data suggested the presence of independent cortical theta and mu generators with different reactivity to rTMS but could not rule out possible thalamocortical contributions in generating theta and mu over the motor network. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sundaram A.,University of Manchester | Sundaram A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Grant C.M.,University of Manchester
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2014

Eukaryotic cells typically respond to stress conditions by inhibiting global protein synthesis. The initiation phase is the main target of regulation and represents a key control point for eukaryotic gene expression. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells this is achieved by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). We have examined how the fungal pathogen Candida albicans responds to oxidative stress conditions and show that oxidants including hydrogen peroxide, the heavy metal cadmium and the thiol oxidant diamide inhibit translation initiation. The inhibition in response to hydrogen peroxide and cadmium largely depends on phosphorylation of eIF2α since minimal inhibition is observed in a gcn2 mutant. In contrast, translation initiation is inhibited in a Gcn2-independent manner in response to diamide. Our data indicate that all three oxidants inhibit growth of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner, however, loss of GCN2 does not improve growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or cadmium. Examination of translational activity indicates that these oxidants inhibit translation at a post-initiation phase which may account for the growth inhibition in a gcn2 mutant. As well as inhibiting global translation initiation, phosphorylation of eIF2α also enhances expression of the GCN4 mRNA in yeast via a well-known translational control mechanism. We show that C. albicans GCN4 is similarly induced in response to oxidative stress conditions and Gcn4 is specifically required for hydrogen peroxide tolerance. Thus, the response of C. albicans to oxidative stress is mediated by oxidant-specific regulation of translation initiation and we discuss our findings in comparison to other eukaryotes including the yeast S. cerevisiae. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Ali E.S.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Ahmad S.,National University of Malaysia
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2012

Bionanocomposite hybrid polyurethane (BHPU) foams that exploit the tribute of natural fibers and nanoclay in green PU foam can lead to the new imminent in engaging the nanoclay and natural fibers. PU filled empty fruit bunch (EFB), PU filled silane treated EFB (sEFB) and PU filled organo montmorillonite (oMMT) have been prepared as control, and the hybridization has carried out for , and ratios between EFB/oMMT and sEFB/oMMT. The hybridization of these natural fibers and oMMT permit to retain the strength without compromise the stiffness of BHPU. The hybridization also improves the barrier and thermal properties of these BHPU. Microscopic studies shows that the hybridization of these natural fibers and nanoclay provide initial evidence of the possibilities on the insertion of nanoclay into the natural fibers, thus open the opportunities to exploit this behavior to another hybrid system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The Strait of Malacca is considerably bordered by Malaysia and Indonesia while the Strait of Singapore is jointly shared by Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. Together, both Straits serve not only as two of the most important sea lines of communication in the world, but are important economic lifelines for the coastal population especially in the fisheries and tourism industries. The historical, environmental and socio-economic values of the Straits have resulted in some of the areas within the Straits have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, RAMSAR Sites and a UNESCO Geopark. Nevertheless, with the increasing shipping traffic in the future, it is feared that the marine environment of the Straits of Malacca and Singapore might be damaged. Focusing on issues pertaining to vessel-source of marine pollution, this article discusses the question on whether or not the Straits of Malacca and Singapore may potentially fit to be designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area. This article concludes by discussing the possible legal and political consequences that may arise out of such a designation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sundaram A.,University of Manchester | Sundaram A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Grant C.M.,University of Manchester
RNA | Year: 2014

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen that responds to various environmental cues as part of its infection mechanism. We show here that the expression of C. albicans GCN4, which encodes a transcription factor that regulates morphogenetic and metabolic responses, is translationally regulated in response to amino acid starvation induced by exposure to the histidine analog 3-aminotriazole (3AT). However, in contrast to the well-known translational control mechanisms that regulate yeast GCN4 and mammalian ATF4 expression via multiple upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in their 5'-leader sequences, a single inhibitory uORF is necessary and sufficient for C. albicans GCN4 translational control. The 5'-leader sequence of GCN4 contains three uORFs, but uORF3 alone is sufficient for translational regulation. Under nonstress conditions, uORF3 inhibits GCN4 translation. Amino acid starvation conditions promote Gcn2-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2a and leaky ribosomal scanning to bypass uORF3, inducing GCN4 translation. GCN4 expression is also transcriptionally regulated, although maximal induction is observed at higher concentrations of 3AT compared with translational regulation. C. albicans GCN4 expression is therefore highly regulated by both transcriptional and translational control mechanisms. We suggest that it is particularly important that Gcn4 levels are tightly controlled since Gcn4 regulates morphogenetic changes during amino acid starvation conditions, which are important determinants of virulence in this fungus. © 2014 Jambor et al.

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