Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Nilai, Malaysia

Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia is a public university in Malaysia with a main campus in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. Formerly known as Kolej Universiti Islam Malaysia which was established in 1998, USIM has eight faculties with 25 undergraduate programmes in economy, law, syariah, language, da'wah, management, Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, counseling, communication, medicine, science and information technology, dentistry and accounting. Wikipedia.

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Fuggetta G.,University of Leicester | Noh N.A.,University of Leicester | Noh N.A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2013

Altered neural oscillations and their abnormal synchronization are crucial factors in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. There is increasing evidence that the perturbation with an abnormal increase of spontaneous thalamocortical neural oscillations lead to a phenomenon termed Thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) which underlies the symptomatology of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, tinnitus, major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neurophysiological tool that has been shown to both induce a modulation of neural oscillations and alleviate a wide range of human neuropsychiatric pathologies. However, little is known about the precise electrophysiological mechanisms behind the therapeutic effect of rTMS and its potential to improve abnormal oscillations across diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we show, using combined rTMS and surface electroencephalography (EEG), a short lasting frequency-dependent rTMS after-effect on thalamocortical rhythmic interplay of low-frequency oscillations in healthy humans at rest. In particular, high-frequency rTMS (10. Hz) induces a transient synchronised activity for delta (δ) and theta (θ) rhythms thus mimicking the pathological TCD-like oscillations. In contrast, rTMS 1 and 5. Hz have the opposite outcome of de-synchronising low-frequency brain rhythms. These results lead to a new neurophysiological insight of basic mechanisms underlying neurological and psychiatric disorders and a probable electrophysiological mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of rTMS. Thus, we propose the use of rTMS and EEG as a platform to test possible treatments of TCD phenotypes by restoring proper neural oscillations across various neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2012.

Sundaram A.,University of Manchester | Sundaram A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Grant C.M.,University of Manchester
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2014

Eukaryotic cells typically respond to stress conditions by inhibiting global protein synthesis. The initiation phase is the main target of regulation and represents a key control point for eukaryotic gene expression. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells this is achieved by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). We have examined how the fungal pathogen Candida albicans responds to oxidative stress conditions and show that oxidants including hydrogen peroxide, the heavy metal cadmium and the thiol oxidant diamide inhibit translation initiation. The inhibition in response to hydrogen peroxide and cadmium largely depends on phosphorylation of eIF2α since minimal inhibition is observed in a gcn2 mutant. In contrast, translation initiation is inhibited in a Gcn2-independent manner in response to diamide. Our data indicate that all three oxidants inhibit growth of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner, however, loss of GCN2 does not improve growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or cadmium. Examination of translational activity indicates that these oxidants inhibit translation at a post-initiation phase which may account for the growth inhibition in a gcn2 mutant. As well as inhibiting global translation initiation, phosphorylation of eIF2α also enhances expression of the GCN4 mRNA in yeast via a well-known translational control mechanism. We show that C. albicans GCN4 is similarly induced in response to oxidative stress conditions and Gcn4 is specifically required for hydrogen peroxide tolerance. Thus, the response of C. albicans to oxidative stress is mediated by oxidant-specific regulation of translation initiation and we discuss our findings in comparison to other eukaryotes including the yeast S. cerevisiae. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Sundaram A.,University of Manchester | Sundaram A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Grant C.M.,University of Manchester
RNA | Year: 2014

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen that responds to various environmental cues as part of its infection mechanism. We show here that the expression of C. albicans GCN4, which encodes a transcription factor that regulates morphogenetic and metabolic responses, is translationally regulated in response to amino acid starvation induced by exposure to the histidine analog 3-aminotriazole (3AT). However, in contrast to the well-known translational control mechanisms that regulate yeast GCN4 and mammalian ATF4 expression via multiple upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in their 5'-leader sequences, a single inhibitory uORF is necessary and sufficient for C. albicans GCN4 translational control. The 5'-leader sequence of GCN4 contains three uORFs, but uORF3 alone is sufficient for translational regulation. Under nonstress conditions, uORF3 inhibits GCN4 translation. Amino acid starvation conditions promote Gcn2-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2a and leaky ribosomal scanning to bypass uORF3, inducing GCN4 translation. GCN4 expression is also transcriptionally regulated, although maximal induction is observed at higher concentrations of 3AT compared with translational regulation. C. albicans GCN4 expression is therefore highly regulated by both transcriptional and translational control mechanisms. We suggest that it is particularly important that Gcn4 levels are tightly controlled since Gcn4 regulates morphogenetic changes during amino acid starvation conditions, which are important determinants of virulence in this fungus. © 2014 Jambor et al.

Ali E.S.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Ahmad S.,National University of Malaysia
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2012

Bionanocomposite hybrid polyurethane (BHPU) foams that exploit the tribute of natural fibers and nanoclay in green PU foam can lead to the new imminent in engaging the nanoclay and natural fibers. PU filled empty fruit bunch (EFB), PU filled silane treated EFB (sEFB) and PU filled organo montmorillonite (oMMT) have been prepared as control, and the hybridization has carried out for , and ratios between EFB/oMMT and sEFB/oMMT. The hybridization of these natural fibers and oMMT permit to retain the strength without compromise the stiffness of BHPU. The hybridization also improves the barrier and thermal properties of these BHPU. Microscopic studies shows that the hybridization of these natural fibers and nanoclay provide initial evidence of the possibilities on the insertion of nanoclay into the natural fibers, thus open the opportunities to exploit this behavior to another hybrid system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sambasivan M.,University of Malaysia, Kelantan | Siew-Phaik L.,Campus Management | Abidin Mohamed Z.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Leong Y.C.,University Putra Malaysia
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2013

Integration of various theories is essential to completely understand and explain strategic alliances in a supply chain. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework by integrating the features of transaction cost theory, resource-based theory, contingency theory, social exchange theory, and Kelley's personal relationship theory and test the framework through empirical research. The present study addresses the impact of strategic alliance motives, environment, asset specificity, perception of opportunistic behavior, interdependence between supply chain partners, and relational capital on strategic alliance outcomes. Besides, the study has also tested the role of relational capital as a central mediating construct. A sample of 2156 companies representing different industries in manufacturing in Malaysia was selected for the distribution of questionnaire. We tested the structural model using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on the results, we conclude the following significant relationships: (1) strategic alliance motives and perception of opportunistic behavior on interdependence and relational capital, (2) interdependence on relational capital, (3) environment on strategic alliance motives, (4) relational capital on strategic alliance outcomes, and (4) the mediating role of relational capital. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on strategic alliances and can help managers identify factors that influence the success of strategic alliances and provide a proper direction to develop robust and effective collaborative relationships between supply chain partners. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The Strait of Malacca is considerably bordered by Malaysia and Indonesia while the Strait of Singapore is jointly shared by Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. Together, both Straits serve not only as two of the most important sea lines of communication in the world, but are important economic lifelines for the coastal population especially in the fisheries and tourism industries. The historical, environmental and socio-economic values of the Straits have resulted in some of the areas within the Straits have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, RAMSAR Sites and a UNESCO Geopark. Nevertheless, with the increasing shipping traffic in the future, it is feared that the marine environment of the Straits of Malacca and Singapore might be damaged. Focusing on issues pertaining to vessel-source of marine pollution, this article discusses the question on whether or not the Straits of Malacca and Singapore may potentially fit to be designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area. This article concludes by discussing the possible legal and political consequences that may arise out of such a designation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ngah C.W.Z.C.W.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Yahya M.A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The microwave digestion method was developed and verified for the determination of arsenic in shrimp paste samples. Experimental design for five factors (HNO3 and H2O2 volumes, sample weight, microwave power and digestion time) were used for the optimisation of sample digestion. For this purpose, two level half factorial design, which involves 16 experiments, was adopted. The concentration of arsenic was analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Design Expert® 7.0 software was used to interpret all data obtained. The combination of 2 mL HNO3 and 1 mL H2O2 volumes, 0.1 g sample weight, 1400 W power and 5 min digestion time was found to be the optimum parameters required to digest the shrimp paste samples. Tests with spiked samples presented good recoveries with relative standard deviations between 0.32% and 5.35%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Azila Noh N.,University of Leicester | Azila Noh N.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Fuggetta G.,University of Leicester
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2012

Electroencephalography (EEG) can directly monitor the temporal progression of cortical changes induced by repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and facilitate the understanding of cortical and subcortical influences in the genesis of oscillations. In this combined rTMS/EEG study, we aimed to investigate changes in oscillatory activity after high-frequency (∼11 Hz) rTMS relative to the number of applied pulses. Twenty intermittent trains of 20 or 60 rTMS pulses were delivered over the human primary motor cortex at rest and tuned to individual mu frequency. The regional and interregional oscillatory neural activity after stimulation were evaluated using event-related power (ERPow) and event-related coherence (ERCoh) transformations. The most prominent changes for ERPow were observed in the theta band (4-7 Hz), as an increase in ERPow up to 20 s following 60 rTMS pulses, whereas ERPow increases were smaller in mu (10-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz). ERCoh revealed that rTMS 60 modulated the connectivity in the theta band for up to 20 s. The topography of mu and theta changes were not identical; mu was more focal and theta was more global. Our data suggested the presence of independent cortical theta and mu generators with different reactivity to rTMS but could not rule out possible thalamocortical contributions in generating theta and mu over the motor network. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Khiar A.S.A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Arof A.K.,University of Malaya
Ionics | Year: 2010

A proton-conducting polymer electrolyte based on starch and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) has been prepared through solution casting method. Ionic conductivity for the system was conducted over a wide range of frequency between 50 Hz and 1 MHz and at temperatures between 303 K and 373 K. Impedance analysis shows that sample with 25 wt.% NH4NO3 has a smaller bulk resistance (Rb) compared to that of the pure sample. The amount of NH4NO3 was found to influence the proton conduction; the highest obtainable room temperature conductivity was 2.83 × 10-5 S cm-1, while at 100 °C, the conductivity in found to be 2.09 × 10-4 S cm-1. The dielectric analysis demonstrates a non-Debye behavior. Transport parameters of the samples were calculated using the Rice and Roth model and thus shows that the increase in conductivity is due to the increase in the number of mobile ions. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Yahya M.A.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia | Al-Qodah Z.,Taibah University | Ngah C.W.Z.,Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Abstract A review on the preparation of the activated carbon from agricultural waste material is presented. The physical properties such as proximate and ultimate analysis of agricultural waste material were reviewed. The chemical compositions such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin contents were also discussed. The effects of various parameters on the preparation such as carbonization and activation temperature, time, types of activating agents and impregnation ratio were reviewed. Various physical and chemical processes for the activation of the agricultural residues and their effects on the textural properties such as surface area and pore volume were discussed. The low cost, renewable and relatively less expensive of the agricultural waste were found to be efficiently being converted into wealth. The uses of activated carbon derived from agricultural residues in many fields were evidently proven in the review. The reaction kinetic modeling on the pyrolysis and activation of agricultural wastes were also reviewed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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