Universiti Malaysia Sabah or UMS is the ninth Malaysian public university located in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia and was established on November 24, 1994. His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong proclaimed the establishment of UMS under Section 6 of the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971. Wikipedia.
Janaun J.,University of British Columbia |
Janaun J.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah |
Ellis N.,University of British Columbia
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010
The present global economy downturn affects every corner of the world including the vehicular fuel industry. This paper highlights some of the perspectives for the biodiesel industry to thrive as an alternative fuel, while discussing benefits and limitations of biodiesel. This includes the improvement of the conversion technology to achieve a sustainable process at cheaper cost, environmentally benign and cleaner emissions, diversification of products derived from glycerol, and policy and government incentives. More specifically, an overview is given on making the production process more economical by developing high conversion and low cost catalysts from renewable sources, and utilizing waste oil as feedstock. Further emphasis is given on the need for public education and awareness for the use and benefits of biodiesel, while promoting policies that will not only endorse the industry, but also promote effective land management. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wahidin S.,University of Kuala Lumpur |
Idris A.,University of Technology Malaysia |
Shaleh S.R.M.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013
Illumination factors such as length of photoperiod and intensity can affect growth of microalgae and lipid content. In order to optimize microalgal growth in mass culture system and lipid content, the effects of light intensity and photoperiod cycle on the growth of the marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. were studied in batch culture. Nannochloropsis sp. was grown aseptically for 9days at three different light intensities (50, 100 and 200μmolm-2s-1) and three different photoperiod cycles (24:0, 18:06 and 12:12h light:dark) at 23°C cultivation temperature. Under the light intensity of 100μmolm-2s-1 and photoperiod of 18h light: 6h dark cycle, Nannochloropsis sp. was found to grow favorably with a maximum cell concentration of 6.5×107cellsmL-1, which corresponds to the growth rate of 0.339d-1 after 8day cultivation and the lipid content was found to be 31.3%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Suki N.M.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2013
Purpose: This study aims to examine the effects of environmental knowledge, healthy food and healthy way of life of on young consumer ecological behaviour. The influence of control variables (i.e. gender and age) on young consumers' ecological behaviour is also investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a hierarchical regressions for data analysis across a sample of 200 young respondents that practising ecological behaviour such as recycling, buying green products, etc. Their participation is purely voluntary. Findings: Empirical analysis via hierarchical regressions confirmed that a healthy way of life and environmental knowledge jointly influenced young consumer ecological behaviour. Demographic profiles such as gender and age showed contradictory results. Research limitations/implications: Respondents were randomly drawn from the students in a public higher learning institution in the Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia that practising ecological behaviour such as recycling, buying green products, etc. Thus, may not represent the entire population of Malaysia. Practical implications: This research should contribute significantly to manufacturers, retailers and marketers in boosting young consumer ecological behaviour and environmental knowledge by promoting positive perceptions towards organic products and quality for increased green product market sustainability and acceptance which is helpful for better market segmentation, targeting and positioning of green products that are not harmful to the environment and could promote consumer demands. Originality: The results of this study offer a new forward motion to the findings of prior studies on young consumer ecological behaviour, which is not much covered in the literature in Malaysia context by examining the effects of environmental knowledge, healthy food and healthy way of life on young consumer ecological behaviour, within the Malaysian context. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Liew W.Y.H.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Wear | Year: 2010
This paper evaluates the performance of TiAlN/AlCrN nano-multilayer coated, TiAlN single-layer coated and uncoated carbide tools in low-speed milling of STAVAX (modified 420 stainless steel) under flood and mist lubrication. Scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis system and Raman spectroscopy were used to examine the tool wear and determine the type of oxide formed on the tool surface during machining. In machining STAVAX with a hardness of 40 HRC, the coated tools were subjected to delamination, attrition and abrasive wear throughout the duration of testing. During machining STAVAX with a hardness of 55 HRC, three distinct stages of tool wear occurred, (i) initial wear by delamination, attrition and abrasion, followed by (ii) cracking at the substrate and (iii) the formation of individual surface fracture at the cracks which would then enlarge and coalesce to form a large fracture surface. The TiAlN/AlCrN coated tool exhibited higher resistance against delamination and abrasive wear than the TiAlN coated tool. The cracking resistance and hardness of the coating, and oxidation of the coating during machining appeared to have significant influences on the resistance of the tool against these wear mechanisms. A longer cutting distance was required to cause TiAlN/AlCrN coated tool to crack and fracture. This was due to the substrate receiving greater protection against cracking and fracture as a result of the coating being removed at a slower pace by abrasion and delamination. The likeliness of the uncoated tool to chip, crack and fracture, and the severity of abrasion increased with an increase in the hardness of the workpiece. Small quantity of mineral oil sprayed in mist form was effective in reducing the severity of delamination and abrasive wear, and delaying the occurrence of cracking, fracture and chipping. The influence of the ductility of the workpiece, tool wear and the lubricants on the surface finish are also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.30M | Year: 2013
Anthropogenic disturbance and land-use change in the tropics is leading to irrevocable changes in biodiversity and substantial shifts in ecosystem biogeochemistry. Yet, we still have a poor understanding of how human-driven changes in biodiversity feed back to alter biogeochemical processes. This knowledge gap substantially restricts our ability to model and predict the response of tropical ecosystems to current and future environmental change. There are a number of critical challenges to our understanding of how changes in biodiversity may alter ecosystem processes in the tropics; namely: (i) how the high taxonomic diversity of the tropics is linked to ecosystem functioning, (ii) how changes in the interactions among trophic levels and taxonomic groups following disturbance impacts upon functional diversity and biogeochemistry, and (iii) how plot-level measurements can be used to scale to whole landscapes. We have formed a consortium to address these critical challenges to launch a large-scale, replicated, and fully integrated study that brings together a multi-disciplinary team with the skills and expertise to study the necessary taxonomic and trophic groups, different biogeochemical processes, and the complex interactions amongst them. To understand and quantify the effects of land-use change on the activity of focal biodiversity groups and how this impacts biogeochemistry, we will: (i) analyse pre-existing data on distributions of focal biodiversity groups; (ii) sample the landscape-scale treatments at the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project site (treatments include forest degradation, fragmentation, oil palm conversion) and key auxiliary sites (Maliau Basin - old growth on infertile soils, Lambir Hills - old growth on fertile soils, Sabah Biodiversity Experiment - rehabilitated forest, INFAPRO-FACE - rehabilitated forest); and (iii) implement new experiments that manipulate key components of biodiversity and pathways of belowground carbon flux. The manipulations will focus on trees and lianas, mycorrhizal fungi, termites and ants, because these organisms are the likely agents of change for biogeochemical cycling in human-modified tropical forests. We will use a combination of cutting-edge techniques to test how these target groups of organisms interact each other to affect biogeochemical cycling. We will additionally collate and analyse archived data on other taxa, including vertebrates of conservation concern. The key unifying concept is the recognition that so-called functional traits play a key role in linking taxonomic diversity to ecosystem function. We will focus on identifying key functional traits associated with plants, and how they vary in abundance along the disturbance gradient at SAFE. In particular, we propose that leaf functional traits (e.g. physical and chemical recalcitrance, nitrogen content, etc.) play a pivotal role in determining key ecosystem processes and also strongly influence atmospheric composition. Critically, cutting-edge airborne remote sensing techniques suggest it is possible to map leaf functional traits, chemistry and physiology at landscape-scales, and so we will use these novel airborne methods to quantify landscape-scale patterns of forest degradation, canopy structure, biogeochemical cycling and tree distributions. Process-based mathematical models will then be linked to the remote sensing imagery and ground-based measurements of functional diversity and biogeochemical cycling to upscale our findings over disturbance gradients.