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Ronquist F.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Klopfstein S.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | Vilhelmsen L.,Universitetsparken 15 | Schulmeister S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 2 more authors.
Systematic Biology | Year: 2012

Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4 - 20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95 interval: 291 - 347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.] © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Buenaventura E.,National University of Colombia | Pape T.,Universitetsparken 15
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The New World and largely Neotropical genus Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is revised with a key to all species. Peckia is considered a senior synonym of Guanoxipha Lehrer, 2012, n. syn. and of Sarcodexia Townsend, 1892, n. syn., the first one under Squamatodes Curran and the latter maintained as a valid subgenus, which here is redefined giving the new generic combinations Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830), n. comb. and P. (S.) notata (Lopes, 1935), n. comb.; and the new subgeneric affiliations P. (S.) aequata (Wulp, 1895), P. (S.) chirotheca (Hall, 1933), P. (S.) dominicana (Lopes, 1982), P. (S.) florencioi (Prado & Fonseca, 1932), P. (S.) roppai (Lopes & Tibana, 1982) and P. (S.) tridentata (Hall, 1937). Peckia virgo (Pape, 1994) is transferred from subgenus Euboettcheria Townsend, 1927 to subgenus Squamatodes Curran, 1927. Sarcophaga adolenda Lopes, 1935 is transferred from its current position in Peckia to the genus Retrocitomyia Lopes, 1982, n. comb. A total of 67 species are recognized and grouped in the subgenera Euboettcheria, Pattonella Enderlein, 1928, Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (sensu stricto), Sarcodexia and Squamatodes. Nine new species are described, viz., Peckia (Euboettcheria) santamariae n. sp. (Colombia), Peckia (Euboettcheria) cacao n. sp. (Costa Rica), Peckia (Euboettcheria) calixtoi n. sp. (Puerto Rico), Peckia (Euboettcheria) hernandosi n. sp. (Ecuador), Peckia (Pattonella) kladosoides n. sp. (Colombia), Peckia (Peckia) cocopex n. sp. (Costa Rica: Cocos Island), Peckia (Peckia) sarmientoi n. sp. (Ecuador), Peckia (Peckia) rosalbae n. sp. (Colombia) and Peckia (Sarcodexia) cocos n. sp. (Costa Rica: Cocos Island). The following new synonymies are proposed as junior synonyms under their respective species: under Peckia (Euboettcheria) tridentata (Hall, 1937) is Euboettcheria alvarengai Lopes & Tibana, 1982, n. syn.; under Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830) is Paraphrissopoda hugolopesiana Lehrer, 2006, n. syn.; under Peckia (Peckia) pexata (Wulp, 1895) are Sarcophaga concinnata Williston, 1896, n. syn., Sarcophaga otiosa Williston, 1896, n. syn. and Paraphrissopoda catiae Lehrer, 2006, n. syn.; under Peckia (Peckia) rubella (Wiedemann, 1830) is Sarcophaga capitata Aldrich, 1916, n. syn. and under Peckia (Squamatodes) trivittata (Curran, 1927) is Squamatodes stahli Dodge, 1966, n. syn. Lectotypes are designated for Sarcophaga aequata Wulp, 1895, Sarcophaga concinnata Williston, 1896, Sarcophaga otiosa Williston, 1896 and Sarcophaga volucris Wulp, 1895. Paraphrissopoda alvesia Lehrer, 2006 is deemed an unavailable name as no depository was given for the putative type material. © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Thompson F.C.,Smithsonian Institution | Pape T.,Universitetsparken 15
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

Flies make up more than 10% of the planetary biota and our well-being depends on how we manage our coexistence with flies. Storing and accessing relevant knowledge about flies is intimately connected with using correct names, and Systema Dipterorum provides a single authoritative classification for flies developed by consensus among contributors. The 160,000 species of flies currently known are distributed among 160 recent families and some 12,000 genera, which with their synonyms encompass a total of more than a quarter of a million names. These names and their associated classification are shared with relevant global solutions. Sherborn appears to have done remarkably well indexing Diptera names with an overall error rate estimated to be close to 1%. © F. C. Thompson & T. Pape. Source

Turrisi G.F.,University of Catania | Jennings J.T.,University of Adelaide | Vilhelmsen L.,Universitetsparken 15
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2014

The results of the first phylogenetic investigation of members of the Aulacidae of the world are presented. The main objective was to test the monophyly of the currently recognised genera. In total, 79 morphological characters were scored for a substantial sample of the extant aulacid fauna, including 72 species, as well as 12 outgroup taxa belonging to Evaniidae, Gasteruptiidae, Megalyridae, Trigonalidae, Braconidae and Stephanidae. All zoogeographic regions were represented. The dataset was analysed under different conditions (ordered, unordered, equal and implied weighting). The results under different weighting conditions are not fully congruent andmanyrelationships remain unresolved. However, the analyses demonstrate that the current generic classification of the Aulacidae is not a natural one. There is support for a very large, monophyletic clade which includes all Pristaulacus Kieffer spp. + Panaulix Benoit spp. This suggests a wider generic concept for Pristaulacus, which is redefined and rediagnosed here. As a consequence, Panaulix becomes a junior synonym of Pristaulacus (syn. nov.), and the two described species of Panaulix are transferred to Pristaulacus: Pristaulacus rex (Benoit, 1984), comb. nov., and Pristaulacus irenae (Madl, 1990), comb. nov. The genus Aulacus Jurine was consistently paraphyletic and is not valid as currently defined. Furthermore, we failed to retrieve a consistent topology among the different clades of Aulacus. A satisfactory reclassification of Aulacus, however, requires a much more comprehensive taxon sample and/or additional character data. © CSIRO 2009. Source

The larval trunk morphology including chaetotaxy, locomotory structures, and trunk musculature of Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania, Eriocrania cicatricella, and Acanthopteroctetes unifascia is described using conventional light, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The ground plan morphology of the lepidopteran larva and neolepidopteran caterpillar is discussed in light of the life history succession from free soil dwelling organism to endophagous and finally to a primarily free living, angiosperm associated organism. I suggest that the larval morphology is argued to be strongly influenced by the shift in number of surfaces present in the larval environment. Especially the environment of the endophagous species, where the upper surface of the leaf mine is linked to the presence of dorsal locomotory structures such as the retractable calli and dorsal friction patches is proposed to have had a significant impact on the morphology and locomotory mechnism of the lepidopteran caterpillar. The chaetotaxy of the lepidopteran ground plan is found to be simple, consisting only of primary and secondary tactile setae and segmental proprioceptors. The presumption of Gerasimov ([1935] Zool Anz 112:177-194) that MXD1 of the prothorax is a shifted mesothoracic MD setae is supported. I suggest that the serial arrangement of the proprioceptors MD1, present on all trunk segments except the prothorax, and a trisetous MV group on all the thoracic segments is part of the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The absence of apodeme structures associated with trunk musculature in the nonglossatans suggests that this is an autapomorphic character of the Lepidoptera and it is further found to have been influential in the evolution of the typical caterpillar trunk. The attachments of the thoracic muscles directly to the trunk integument, suggest that the apodemal structures ancestral to the Amphiesmenoptera have been reduced in the Lepidoptera. Within the non-Neolepidoptera, the lifehistory shift may have resulted in reduction of the dorsal locomotory structures, such as calli. The abdominal musculature and structural similarities further suggest that the ventral calli are structural predecessors to the crotchet bearing proleg of the "typical caterpillar." © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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