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Kamëz, Albania

Rapti D.,Universiteti Bujqesor | Rehbein S.,Merial GmbH
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

Blood samples from 260 dogs over 1 year of age from eight districts of the western part of Albania (20 to 50 dogs per district) were collected in 1995 and 1996 and tested for circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen using the PetChek® HTWM PF (IDEXX) ELISA test kit. Overall seroprevalence of D. immitis infection among these dogs was 13.5% (95% confidence interval=9.3-17.6%), ranging from 5% to 30% between the districts of origin of the dogs. There was no difference for the seroprevalence of heartworm infection between the sexes and age classes or between pure and mixed breed dogs; however, D. immitis seroprevalence was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in dogs presenting cardiopulmonary signs (83.3%) compared to clinically inconspicuous dogs (10.1%). © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Knaus M.,Merial GmbH | Shukullari E.,Universiteti Bujqesor | Rapti D.,Universiteti Bujqesor | Rehbein S.,Merial GmbH
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Capillaria aerophila is a globally distributed parasite of the respiratory system of carnivores and can be considered the second most common lungworm after Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in domestic cats in the northern hemisphere. To evaluate the efficacy of Broadline® (Merial), a combination of fipronil 8.3 % w/v, (S)-methoprene 10 % w/v, eprinomectin 0.4 % w/v and praziquantel 8.3 % w/v against C. aerophila, a controlled study with 20 naturally infected cats was conducted. Following blocking by body weight, cats were allocated randomly to two groups of ten animals each: control (untreated) or treated once with Broadline® according to the label instructions. For evaluation of efficacy, faeces were examined for capillarid egg shedding prior to and weekly for 3 weeks after treatment, when the cats were necropsied for C. aerophila recovery. Following single topical administration of Broadline®, faecal capillarid egg counts were significantly reduced by 93.5 to 99.1 % (p < 0.01) compared to the controls. Cats treated harboured significantly fewer C. aerophila lungworms compared to the untreated controls (efficacy 82.4 %, p = 0.016). Results of this study demonstrate that Capillaria lungworm burdens can be markedly reduced and that faecal egg shedding can be substantially lowered or eliminated following a single treatment with Broadline®. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Hamel D.,Merial GmbH | Hamel D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Shukullari E.,Universiteti Bujqesor | Rapti D.,Universiteti Bujqesor | And 4 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

Knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for Albania, a country located in the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. Recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52 % for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in Albania. To provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between March 2010 and April 2011 in Tirana, Albania, were screened by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and serological methods for the presence of arthropod-borne infections, as well as Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Eight different pathogens, namely Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, and Mycoplasma haemocanis, were detected by direct methods with prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 9 %. Seroprevalence for Babesia spp., L. infantum, Anaplasma spp., and E. canis were 6.6, 5.1, 24.1, and 20.8 %, respectively. Dogs >1 year of age were positive for vector-borne infections significantly more often than younger dogs (p = 0.003). More than half (51.7 %) of the dogs were seroreactive to T. gondii and 18.3 % to N. caninum. This is the first report on the detection of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis, and M. haemocanis by PCR as well as the serological confirmation of exposure of dogs to N. caninum and T. gondii in Albania. The spectrum of pathogens and the seroprevalences for N. caninum and T. gondii in client-owned dogs from Tirana, Albania, are comparable to that reported in other countries in the Mediterranean Basin. The prevalence rates of vector-borne pathogens are at the lower range of that reported in studies from this geographical region. This is probably due to increased awareness of the owners of pet dogs, including better husbandry conditions and ectoparasiticidal treatment, thus limiting exposure of dogs to vectors. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Xhaxhiu D.,Klinika Veterinare | Kusi I.,Klinika Veterinare | Kusi I.,Universiteti Bujqesor | Rapti D.,Universiteti Bujqesor | And 7 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p<0.001) fewer gastrointestinal parasite species concurrently (mean 2.65±1.25 species per animal) than the 48 older animals (mean 3.77±1.45 species per animal). Dogs >6 months of age harboured significantly (p<0.05) more D. caninum, T. hydatigena, A. caninum, U. stenocephala and T. vulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p<0.001) more T. canis than the older ones. There was no difference in the male and female dogs' counts of individual intestinal helminth species apart from T. hydatigena in dogs >6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination, there was no indication for lungworm infection; however, two adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were found in the right ventricle of one dog. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Knaus M.,Merial GmbH | Kusi I.,Klinika Veterinare | Kusi I.,Universiteti Bujqesor | Rapti D.,Universiteti Bujqesor | And 4 more authors.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2011

Following the recovery of first-stage nematode larvae indicative of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in the faeces of free-roaming cats from the greater Tirana area, examination of 18 cats at necropsy revealed nine of them harbouring adult A. abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in the lungs (prevalence, 50%; range, 1-11). In addition to A. abstrusus, Eucoleus aerophilus (16.7%; 1-9) was isolated from the lungs, and Toxocara cati (83.3%; 2-33), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (44.4%; 1-20), Dipylidium caninum (83.3%; 1-164), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (11.1%; 1-3) and one specimen of an acanthocephalan (5.5%) were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, oocysts of Cystoisospora felis and C. rivolta were found in the rectal faeces of 5.6% and 11.1% of the cats, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of endoparasite infection in free-roaming cats in Tirana can be considered to be high. The occurrence of A. abstrusus, which may cause respiratory distress in cats, is reported for the first time in Albania. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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