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Vaktskjold A.,Universitetet for Miljo og Biovitenskap | Talykova L.V.,Kirovsk Research Laboratory of Occupational Health | Nieboer E.,McMaster University
International Journal of Environmental Health Research | Year: 2014

The effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents in pregnancy on foetal growth are still unclear. Our aim was to study whether live newborns to women employed in paid jobs with frequent exposure had a different risk of being born with low birth weight (LBW), compared to those of women in jobs without such exposure. The study population was all singleton newborns delivered in the industrial township of Mončegorsk (N = 26,415). Information about occupation and characteristics of the mothers and babies was obtained from the local population-based birth register, and registered job function was used to classify exposure. We observed an elevated risk of LBW among live, singleton newborns in the exposed group (adjusted odds ratio: 1.68 [95% CI: 1.18-2.41]), which predominantly consisted of painters. The adjusted odds of LBW in the exposed group were also higher among term-born neonates. In addition, a lower mean birth weight was observed among the exposed. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Vaktskjold A.,Universitetet for Miljo og Biovitenskap | Talykova L.V.,Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health | Nieboer E.,McMaster University | Nieboer E.,University of Tromso
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2011

Background: The foetal effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents in pregnancy are still unclear. Our aim was to study the risk of non-chromosomal congenital anomalies at birth in a well-defined population of singletons born to women employed as painters and spoolers in early pregnancy, compared to women in non-hazardous occupations.Method: The study population for this prospective cohort study was singleton newborns delivered to working mothers in the industrial community of Mončegorsk in the period 1973-2005. Occupational information and characteristics of the women and their newborns was obtained from the local population-based birth register.Results: The 597 women employed as painters, painter-plasterers or spoolers had 712 singleton births, whereof 31 (4.4%) were perinatally diagnosed with 37 malformations. Among the 10 561 newborns in the group classified as non-exposed, 397 (3.9%) had one or more malformations. The overall prevalence in the exposed group was 520/10 000 births [95% confidence limits (CL): 476, 564], and 436/10 000 births (95% CL: 396, 476) in the unexposed. Adjusted for young maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, maternal congenital malformation and year of birth, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.24 (95% CL: 0.85, 1.82); for multiple anomalies it was 1.54 (95% CL: 0.66, 3.59).The largest organ-system specific difference in prevalence between the two groups was observed for malformations of the circulatory system: 112/10 000 (95% CL: 35, 190) in the exposed group, and 42/10 000 (95% CL: 29, 54) in the unexposed, with an adjusted OR of 2.03 (95% CL: 0.85, 4.84). The adjusted ORs for malformations of the genital organs and musculoskeletal system were 2.24 (95% CI: 0.95, 5.31) and 1.12 (95% CI: (0.62, 2.02), respectively.Conclusion: There appeared to be a higher risk of malformations of the circulatory system and genital organs at birth among newborns to women in occupations with organic solvent exposure during early pregnancy (predominantly employed as painters). However, the findings were not statistically conclusive. Considering that these two categories of malformations are not readily diagnosed perinatally, the difference in prevalence between the exposed and unexposed may have been underestimated. © 2011 Vaktskjold et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hagvar S.,Universitetet for Miljo og Biovitenskap | Tveite B.,Norsk Institutt for Skog Og Landskap
Blyttia | Year: 2011

In Østmarka nature reserve near Oslo, ten small, suppressed spruce trees were studied with respect to age, height and vitality. Being only 56-380 cm high, their age varied between 39 and 99 years. Seven of them were between 77 and 99 years. Ring width means varied between 0.13 and 0.45 mm. The main growth-limiting factor is assumed to be light. The main part of the trees had only a small amount of needles. If sufficiently healthy, such suppressed trees may react with increased growth if released from competition from overstory trees, either naturally (windfall, insects etc.) or by cutting. Our ten trees were, however, probably not healthy enough to react in this way.

In the last edition of the Norwegian national flora, «Lid's Flora» (Elven in Lid & Lid 2005), several genera have been extensively split as has been usual in the Eastern European tradition. This author holds the opinion that it is impossible to separate the two genera Eleogiton and lsolepis (Cyperaceae). Even if the Nordic species are clearly separated by many characters, the morphological variation in African species is so extensive that no well-defined separating characters between the genera remain.

Lye K.A.,Universitetet for Miljo og Biovitenskap
Blyttia | Year: 2012

In 2011 many Botrychium populations in Sjodalen valley in the Jotunheimen mountains (Oppland county E Nonway) occured in high numbers and Botrychium simplex was found in a new locality at 1020 m. The size of the Botrychium populations were counted in three selected localities. One population of S. simplex consisted of 660 individuals (but many were very small), and the total number for the valley was 700. The total number of 6. lunaria plants was 363, and the single population of 6. multifidum comprised 171 individual plants. One population of S. boreale had 38 large plants and a few individuals also occurred close to the two other selected localities. Only B. lanceolatum occurred in very small numbers. The reason for the high numbers of most populations in 2011 is believed to be the unusual weather in June-July with high rainfall and no long dry spells.

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