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Pujol A.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Pujol A.,Universites Of Provence Et Of La Mediterranee | Crost E.H.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Simon G.,French Atomic Energy Commission | And 4 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2011

Ruminococcin C (RumC) is a trypsin-dependent bacteriocin produced by Ruminococcus gnavus E1, a gram-positive strict anaerobic strain isolated from human feces. It consists of at least three similar peptides active against Clostridium perfringens. In this article, a 15-kb region from R. gnavus E1 chromosome, containing the biosynthetic gene cluster of RumC was characterized. It harbored 17 open reading frames (called rum c genes) with predicted functions in bacteriocin biosynthesis and post-translational modification, signal transduction regulation, and immunity. An unusual feature of the locus is the presence of five genes encoding highly homologous, but nonidentical RumC precursors. The transcription levels of the rum c genes were quantified. The rumC genes were found to be highly expressed in vivo, when R. gnavus E1 colonized the digestive tract of mono-contaminated rats, whereas the amount of corresponding transcripts was below detection level when it grew in liquid culture medium. Moreover, the rumC-like genes were disseminated among 10 strains (R. gnavus or related species) previously isolated from human fecal samples and selected for their capability to produce a trypsin-dependant anti-C. perfringens compound. All harbored at least a rumC1-like copy, four exhibited rumC1-5 genes identical to those of strain E1. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Lepoivre C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lepoivre C.,Aix - Marseille University | Bergon A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bergon A.,Aix - Marseille University | And 9 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Background: Deciphering gene regulatory networks by in silico approaches is a crucial step in the study of the molecular perturbations that occur in diseases. The development of regulatory maps is a tedious process requiring the comprehensive integration of various evidences scattered over biological databases. Thus, the research community would greatly benefit from having a unified database storing known and predicted molecular interactions. Furthermore, given the intrinsic complexity of the data, the development of new tools offering integrated and meaningful visualizations of molecular interactions is necessary to help users drawing new hypotheses without being overwhelmed by the density of the subsequent graph.Results: We extend the previously developed TranscriptomeBrowser database with a set of tables containing 1,594,978 human and mouse molecular interactions. The database includes: (i) predicted regulatory interactions (computed by scanning vertebrate alignments with a set of 1,213 position weight matrices), (ii) potential regulatory interactions inferred from systematic analysis of ChIP-seq experiments, (iii) regulatory interactions curated from the literature, (iv) predicted post-transcriptional regulation by micro-RNA, (v) protein kinase-substrate interactions and (vi) physical protein-protein interactions. In order to easily retrieve and efficiently analyze these interactions, we developed In-teractomeBrowser, a graph-based knowledge browser that comes as a plug-in for Transcriptome-Browser. The first objective of InteractomeBrowser is to provide a user-friendly tool to get new insight into any gene list by providing a context-specific display of putative regulatory and physical interactions. To achieve this, InteractomeBrowser relies on a "cell compartments-based layout" that makes use of a subset of the Gene Ontology to map gene products onto relevant cell compartments. This layout is particularly powerful for visual integration of heterogeneous biological information and is a productive avenue in generating new hypotheses. The second objective of InteractomeBrowser is to fill the gap between interaction databases and dynamic modeling. It is thus compatible with the network analysis software Cytoscape and with the Gene Interaction Network simulation software (GINsim). We provide examples underlying the benefits of this visualization tool for large gene set analysis related to thymocyte differentiation.Conclusions: The InteractomeBrowser plugin is a powerful tool to get quick access to a knowledge database that includes both predicted and validated molecular interactions. InteractomeBrowser is available through the TranscriptomeBrowser framework and can be found at: http://tagc.univ-mrs.fr/tbrowser/. Our database is updated on a regular basis. © 2012 Lepoivre et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Grossi V.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cravo-Laureau C.,University of Pau and Pays de lAdour | Rontani J.-F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cros M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Hirschler-Rea A.,Universites Of Provence Et Of La Mediterranee
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2011

Two alkene-degrading sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula (Desulfatiferula olefinivorans strain LM2801T and Desulfatiferula sp. strain BE2801) were investigated for their 1-alkene metabolism. Their total cellular fatty acids were predominantly C-even when they were grown on C-even 1-alkene (1-hexadecene), whereas a mixture of fatty acids with C-odd or C-even carbon chains predominated when cells were grown on C-odd 1-alkene (1-pentadecene). This is consistent with the fatty acid composition of other sulphate-reducing strains previously reported to grow on n-alkenes. Linear and 3-OH-fatty acids appear to be the main fatty acids produced by the two Desulfatiferula strains. The analysis of their neutral lipids led to identifying several n-alkanols and n-ketones with the same number of carbon atoms as the alkene growth substrate and with functionality located between C-1 and C-5. Growth of strains LM2801T and BE2801 on (per) deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of their anaerobic transformation to corresponding 1-alkanols, n-ketones and linear (3-OH-) fatty acids. These results demonstrate that Desulfatiferula strains oxidize a 1-alkene by oxidation of the double bond at C-1, but also at C-2 to C-5 (after eventual isomerization of the double bond) yielding the corresponding C-2 to C-5 n-ketones (via the corresponding n-alkanols). The formation of specific 3-OH-fatty acids by elongation of shorter chain fatty acids was also demonstrated. Based on our observations, pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula are proposed. They indicate that n-ketones can constitute new metabolites of the biodegradation of n-alkenes in anaerobic environments. © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Source


Aguilera M.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences of Marseilles | Aguilera M.,University of Granada | Rakotoarivonina H.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences of Marseilles | Rakotoarivonina H.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | And 6 more authors.
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2012

Differential gene expression analysis was performed in monoxenic mice colonized with Ruminococcus gnavus strain E1, a major endogenous member of the gut microbiota. RNA arbitrarily primed-PCR fingerprinting assays allowed to specifically detect the invivo expression of the aga1 gene, which was further confirmed by RT-PCR. The aga1 gene encoded a protein of 744 residues with calculated molecular mass of 85,207Da. Aga1 exhibited significant similarity with previously characterized α-Galactosidases of the GH 36 family. Purified recombinant protein demonstrated high catalytic activity (104±7Umg -1) and efficient p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside hydrolysis [k cat/K m=35.115±8.82s -1mM -1 at 55°C and k cat/K m=17.48±4.25s -1mM -1 at 37°C]. © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Source


Mnif S.,University of Sfax | Chamkha M.,University of Sfax | Labat M.,Universites Of Provence Et Of La Mediterranee | Sayadi S.,University of Sfax
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011

Aims: To study the bacterial diversity associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation potentiality and biosurfactant production of Tunisian oilfields bacteria. Methods and Results: Eight Tunisian hydrocarbonoclastic oilfields bacteria have been isolated and selected for further characterization studies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three thermophilic strains belonged to the genera Geobacillus, Bacillus and Brevibacillus, and that five mesophilic strains belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Lysinibacillus, Achromobacter and Halomonas. The bacterial strains were cultivated on crude oil as sole carbon and energy sources, in the presence of different NaCl concentrations (1, 5 and 10%, w/v), and at 37 or 55°C. The hydrocarbon biodegradation potential of each strain was quantified by GC-MS. Strain C450R, phylogenetically related to the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed the maximum crude oil degradation potentiality. During the growth of strain C450R on crude oil (2%, v/v), the emulsifying activity (E24) and glycoside content increased and reached values of 77 and 1.33gl -1, respectively. In addition, the surface tension (ST) decreased from 68 to 35.1mNm -1, suggesting the production of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Crude biosurfactant had been partially purified and characterized. It showed interest stability against temperature and salinity increasing and important emulsifying activity against oils and hydrocarbons. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the presence of diverse aerobic bacteria in Tunisian oilfields including mesophilic, thermophilic and halotolerant strains with interesting aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation potentiality, mainly for the most biosurfactant produced strains. Significance and Impact of the Study: It may be suggested that the bacterial isolates are suitable candidates for practical field application for effective in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

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