Tanner C.J.,Trinity College Dublin |
Salali G.D.,UniversiteMontpellier |
Jackson A.L.,Trinity College Dublin
Biology Letters | Year: 2011
Dominance hierarchies pervade animal societies. Within a static social environment, in which group size and composition are unchanged, an individual's hierarchy rank results from intrinsic (e.g. body size) and extrinsic (e.g. previous experiences) factors. Little is known, however, about how dominance relationships are formed and maintained when group size and composition are dynamic. Using a fusion-fission protocol, we fused groups of previously isolated shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) into larger groups, and then restored groups to their original size and composition. Pre-fusion hierarchies formed independently of individuals' sizes, and were maintained within a static group via winner/loser effects. Post-fusion hierarchies differed from pre-fusion ones; losing fights during fusion led to a decline in an individual's rank between pre- and post-fusion conditions, while spending time being aggressive during fusion led to an improvement in rank. In post-fusion tanks, larger individuals achieved better ranks than smaller individuals. In conclusion, dominance hierarchies in crabs represent a complex combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, in which experiences from previous groups can carry over to affect current competitive interactions. © 2011 The Royal Society.
Sridang P.,Prince of Songkla University |
Wanichapichart P.,Prince of Songkla University |
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010
The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the filterability of suspended/soluble organic and suspended inorganic matter in a condition without and with chemical conditioning on membrane fouling using cake filtration model. The experiments were conducted with different feed water concentrations under a given TMP (0.2 to 0.5 bar). The fouling potential was examined and described in terms of resistance coefficient (α·W) and specific resistance (α). The results showed an increase of α·W and α within the concentration of wastewater samples tested. The soluble fractions in wastewater induced fouling and its mechanism was due both to the interaction of soluble organic components and also some of the particular colloids in MLSS, causing irreversible fouling, followed by thin film formation on membrane surfaces with low porosity, dense structure and also internal fouling. This phenomenon promoted the values of α·W and α from final treated wastewater 5-20 times higher than in bentonite suspension and on reservoir surface water. Higher pressure than 0.2 bar induced greater hydraulic resistance values than lower applied pressure. The pore size of the porous membrane did not show any difference in the values of α·W and α obtained, but they mostly depended on the water composition tested. The hydraulic resistance values appeared largely to minimise when using chemical conditioning because of cake forming as a dynamic membrane that reduced the irreversible fouling phenomena giving a constant filtration rate. © IWA Publishing 2010.
Diop I.,STMicroelectronics |
Diop I.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP |
Carbone M.,UniversiteMontpellier |
Ordas S.,UniversiteMontpellier |
And 4 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016
If the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is a figure of merit commonly used in many areas to gauge the quality of analogue measurements, its use in the context of Side-Channel Attacks (SCA) remains very difficult because the nature and characteristics of the signals are not a priori known. Consequently, the SNR is rarely used in this latter area to gauge the quality of measurements or of experimental protocols followed to acquire them. It is however used to quantify the amount of leakage in a set of traces regardless of the quality of the measures. This is a surprisingly lack despite the key role of measurements and experiments in this field. In this context, this paper introduces a fast and accurate method for estimating the SNR. Then, simple and accurate techniques are derived. They allow to process some daily tasks the evaluators have to perform in a pragmatic and efficient manner. Among them one can find the analysis of the electrical activity of Integrated Circuit (IC) or the identification of the frequencies carrying some information or leakages. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
Colomban P.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Slodczyk A.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Slodczyk A.,UniversiteMontpellier |
Lamago D.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2010
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering, neutron diffraction as well as in situ and ex situ Raman studies were performed on the proton conducting (Ba/Sr)Zr 1-xLnxO3-δ dense ceramics. The results confirm the homogeneous distribution of the bulk protonic species, their variable content as a function of Ln content and sample processing as well as successive re-orientation local motion between 400 and 600°C. The analysis of the elastic incoherent structure factor suggests the complex motion of proton between different sites and with different length jumps. The proton dynamics are accompanied by the presence of structural phase transitions near 350/450 and 550°C as well as by the changes of conductivity activation energy. © 2010 The Physical Society of Japan.