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Hinaut A.,Center dElaboration des Mateacute | Lekhal K.,Center dElaboration des Mateacute | Lekhal K.,Universiteacute | Aivazian G.,Center dElaboration des Mateacute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Molecular adsorption studies on atomically clean, well-defined surfaces of bulk insulators are still very scarce and have been restricted to a small number of molecules. In this study, the adsorption of 2,3,6,7,10,11- hexamethoxytriphenylene (HMTP) on KBr(001) was investigated by atomic force microscopy in noncontact mode (NC-AFM) under ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature from submonolayer to multilayer coverage. This molecule is the first member of a new family of molecules, designed and synthesized for adsorption studies on alkali halide surfaces. They were built around a flat aromatic triphenylene core equipped with peripheral polar groups to enhance the interaction of the molecule with the surface in order to limit molecular diffusion at room temperature. Constant-frequency-shift NC-AFM imaging established the following adsorption sequence: The molecules decorate the KBr steps before forming two-molecular-layerthick islands with a distorted hexagonal arrangement. At higher coverage, a second generation of much taller islands with the structure of the bulk HMTP crystal appears as a consequence of a dewetting transition, driven by the deformation energy accumulated in the first-generation islands during growth. High-resolution images obtained on top of these islands show submolecular contrast. These results will be useful in optimizing the next generation of molecules of this new family. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Drin G.,Universiteacute
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Lipids are unevenly distributed within and between cell membranes, thus defining organelle identity. Such distribution relies on local metabolic branches and mechanisms that move lipids. These processes are regulated by feedback mechanisms that decipher topographical ormation in organelle membranes and then regulate lipid levels or flows. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the major lipid source, transcriptional regulators and enzymes sense changes in membrane features to modulate lipid production. At the Golgi apparatus, lipid-synthesizing, lipid-flippase, and lipid-Transport proteins (LTPs) collaborate to control lipid balance and distribution within the membrane to guarantee remodeling processes crucial for vesicular trafficking. Open questions exist regarding LTPs, which are thought to be lipid sensors that regulate lipid synthesis or carriers that transfer lipids between organelles across long distances or in contact sites. A novel model is that LTPs, by exchanging two different lipids, exploit one lipid gradient between two distinct membranes to build a second lipid gradient. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Richman S.E.,University of Wyoming | Richman S.E.,Universiteacute | Lovvorn J.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology | Year: 2011

For small aquatic endotherms, heat loss while floating on water can be a dominant energy cost, and requires accurate estimation in energetics models for different species. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) in air and on water for a small diving bird, the Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and compared these results to published data for other diving birds of diverse taxa and sizes. For 8 Cassin's auklets (~165 g), the lower critical temperature was higher on water (21°C) than in air (16°C). Lowest values of RMR (W kg-1) averaged 19% higher on water (12.14±3.14 SD) than in air (10.22±1.43). At lower temperatures, RMR averaged 25% higher on water than in air, increasing with similar slope. RMR was higher on water than in air for alcids, cormorants, and small penguins but not for diving ducks, which appear exceptionally resistant to heat loss in water. Changes in RMR (W) with body mass either in air or on water were mostly linear over the 5- to 20-fold body mass ranges of alcids, diving ducks, and penguins, while cormorants showed no relationship of RMR with mass. The often large energetic effects of time spent floating on water can differ substantially among major taxa of diving birds, so that relevant estimates are critical to understanding their patterns of daily energy use. © 2011 by the University of Chicago.

He P.,CAS Institute of Computing Technology | He P.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Guan H.,CAS Institute of Computing Technology | Mathy L.,University of Liege | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks | Year: 2013

Packet classification has been studied extensively in the past decade. While many efficient algorithms have been proposed, the lack of deterministic performance has hindered the adoption and deployment of these algorithms: The expensive and power-hungry TCAM is still the de facto standard solution for packet classification. In this work, in contrast to proposing yet another new packet classification algorithm, we present the first steps to understand this unpredictability in performance for the existing algorithms. We focus on decision-tree based algorithms in this paper. In order to achieve the predictability, we firstly revisit the classical and many state-of-art packet classification algorithms. Through a detailed analysis, we conclude that two features of ruleset usually dominate the performance results: 1) the uniformity of the range distribution in different dimensions of the rules; 2) the existence and the number of "orthogonal structure" and wildcard rules in the ruleset. We conduct experiments to show the correctness of these observations, and discribe some potential applications for those results. Our work provides some insight to make the packet classification algorithms a credible alternative to the TCAM-only solutions. Copyright © 2013 by the IEEE.

Gonome H.,Tohoku University | Baneshi M.,Tohoku University | Vaillon R.,Universiteacute | Okajima J.,Tohoku University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thermal Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This study describes nanoparticle pigmented coatings used in controlling the radiative properties of surfaces exposed to sunlight. The effect of particle dispersed state to reflectance of the coating is discussed. As the dispersed particles, TiO 2 and Fe 2O 3 are used. From Raman spectral intensity measurements made on the coating, the dispersed state of particles was investigated. The spectral reflectance of the coating was measured by spectroscopy. The reflectivity of the coating is analyzed theoretically. In this calculation, the dispersed state is assumed to be monodispersed and homogeneous. Comparison between experimental and numerical results shows that the difference between the measured and calculated reflectance increases as the volume fraction increases. The maximum absolute error of reflectance is about 10% when the volume fraction is 0.05. In contrast, the maximum absolute error of reflectance is about 3% when the volume fraction is 0.01. The control of dispersed state affects the radiative properties of pigmented coatings. © 2012 by JSME.

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